verb context

  1. totalizing
  2. reprinting
  3. mediating
  4. slaveholding
  5. privileging
  6. absenting
  7. misreading
  8. desiring
  9. seafaring
  10. fetishizing
  11. locks
  12. Underlying
  13. Corresponding
  14. shearing
  15. narrating
  16. aestheticizing
  17. naturalizing
  18. gendering
  19. obscures
  20. obviate
  21. silencing
  22. repudiate
  23. foregrounding
  24. unmasking
  25. philosophizing
  26. ascribing
  27. exclaims
  28. individualizing
  29. kindled
  30. putrefying
  31. plundering
  32. spacing
  33. actuating
  34. pacifying
  35. overweening
  36. palpitating
  37. Unveiled
  38. critiquing
  39. contaminating
  40. repudiating
  41. aligning
  42. associating
  43. Cited
  44. supposing
  45. evinced
  46. humanizing
  47. implicate
  48. intimate
  49. enslaving
  50. suturing
  51. historicized
  52. Echoing
  53. defamiliarizing
  54. constituting
  55. formulates
  56. regenerate
  57. authoring
  58. isolates
  59. impedes
  60. travelling
  61. entombed
  62. obfuscate
  63. annihilating
  64. legitimating
  65. universalizing
  66. reifying
  67. summarizing
  68. punning
  69. conceptualizing
  70. adventuring
  71. spectating
  72. actualizing
  73. disavowing
  74. Laboring
  75. foreclosing
  76. rage
  77. subduing
  78. Revitalized
  79. rending
  80. massacring
  81. secede
  82. backfires
  83. othing
  84. localizing
  85. Discussing
  86. diffusing
  87. Underscoring
  88. Raising
  89. mollifying
  90. liberalizing
  91. embedding
  92. accentuating
  93. fleeced
  94. transact
  95. procure
  96. recollecting
  97. reasserting
  98. professes
  99. reasserts
  100. pervading
  101. sympathizing
  102. authenticating
  103. gravitating
  104. edifying
  105. negated
  106. birthing
  107. consigns
  108. engendering
  109. situating
  110. multiplying
  111. unfeeling
  112. centralizing
  113. enervating
  114. preexisting
  115. positing
  116. problematizing
  117. Linking
  118. Masks
  119. delineating
  120. whitening
  121. inverting
  122. reclaims
  123. Quoting
  124. absent
  125. summarize
  126. transports
  127. legitimizing
  128. interiorizing
  129. parroting
  130. Reward
  131. broadens
  132. labouring
  133. troping
  134. lisping
  135. purging
  136. referencing
  137. valorizing
  138. vindicating
  139. conflating
  140. subtilizing
  141. molting
  142. democratizing
  143. hastening
  144. effecting
  145. corroborating
  146. masculinizing
  147. ting
  148. disengage
  149. objectifying
  150. instilling
  151. internalizing
  152. designifying
  153. surmounting
  154. revolting
  155. uncompromising
  156. purport
  157. unpretending
  158. spurns
  159. neutralizes
  160. economizing
  161. rationalizing
  162. essentializing
  163. moping
  164. Aims
  165. ventriloquizing
  166. smouldering
  167. normalizing
  168. interfusing
  169. permeating
  170. freethinking
  171. fleecing
  172. exemplifying
  173. domesticating
  174. trifling
  175. term
  176. chastening
  177. subordinates
  178. Reprinted
  179. resorts
  180. individuating
  181. subtitled
  182. effacing
  183. nullify
  184. fermenting
  185. exorcising
  186. dissipates
  187. threshing
  188. reenacting
  189. disparaged
  190. reinscribing
  191. thematizing
  192. predating
  193. dubs
  194. furbishing
  195. attitudinizing
  196. noncommunicating
  197. yoking
  198. diddling
  199. rebuking
  200. Lure
  201. regressing
  202. delegate
  203. refitting
  204. unrevealing
  205. pontificating
  206. occluding
  207. reprivatizing
  208. bannersannouncing
  209. displeasing
  210. predominating
  211. divesting
  212. spatializing
  213. gentrifying
  214. sanctions
  215. scalping
  216. repatriating
  217. disarranging
  218. interpenetrating
  219. isnothing
  220. ballasting
  221. awaking
  222. vacillate
  223. misgiving
  224. oversimplifying
  225. Jutting
  226. conning
  227. swerving
  228. civilising
  229. reunifying
  230. outcirculating
  231. apostrophizing
  232. reanimating
  233. misrecognizing
  234. contradicting
  235. hyperbolizing
  236. recontextualizing
  237. noncolonizing
  238. rechartering
  239. gasped
  240. blighting
  241. overhunting
  242. wastes
  243. mattering
  244. caning
  245. slatting
  246. emancipating
  247. bewailing
  248. cramping
  249. Detached
  250. backsliding
  251. vitiating
  252. poeticizing
  253. attenuating
  254. de-emphasized
  255. unmaking
  256. disbursed
  257. Probing
  258. rambled
  259. bounds
  260. Alarmed
  261. smiting
  262. Remaining
  263. monopolize
  264. effusing
  265. abhorring
  266. natching
  267. deplores
  268. sizing
  269. tarring
  270. quiring
  271. toacorresponding
  272. eeling
  273. bylinking
  274. leafleting
  275. militarizing
  276. contravening
  277. charting
  278. decorporealizing
  279. ciphering
  280. inclosing
  281. mythmaking
  282. unwrapping
  283. bettering
  284. recrossing
  285. Ruined
  286. wresting
  287. denationalized
  288. slanting
  289. rebelling
  290. thumbs
  291. insomething
  292. choreographing
  293. furthers
  294. reflowering
  295. commodifying
  296. twinning
  297. lampooning
  298. pirating
  299. cauterizing
  300. nativizing
  301. corporealizing
  302. breakfasting
  303. bifurcating
  304. unroofing
  305. misnaming
  306. impugning
  307. loot
  308. thepublishing
  309. congealing
  310. comforting
  311. curating
  312. interlacing
  313. elucidating
  314. stoking
  315. alarms
  316. ofreading
  317. upspringing
  318. unoffending
  319. vaporing
  320. unburdening
  321. distrusting
  322. chance
  323. enchaining
  324. dispelling
  325. meditating
  326. preoccupying
  327. redacting
  328. paralleling
  329. subjugating
  330. harkening
  331. thedebilitating
  332. felling
  333. cooping
  334. Place
  335. Capitalizing
  336. reembedding
  337. insulting
  338. filibustering
  339. Observing
  340. ferreting
  341. empathizing
  342. impending
  343. whittling
  344. huddling
  345. scantling
  346. unwriting
  347. compliment
  348. inwinning
  349. localized
  350. thestarting
  351. merchandizing
  352. reappearing
  353. liberalized
  354. camouflaging
  355. reenvisioning
  356. reformulated
  357. fusses
  358. homesteading
  359. sojourning
  360. ining
  361. spies
  362. lapping
  363. frequenting
  364. initialed
  365. typesetting
  366. caving
  367. interbreeding
  368. unrewarding
  369. frittering
  370. commending
  371. feminizing
  372. flourishing
  373. depersonalizing
  374. undying
  375. adducing
  376. entailing
  377. encumbered
  378. idealizing
  379. playgoing
  380. upbraiding
  381. refuted
  382. reconstituting
  383. anthologizing
  384. devaluing
  385. Troubled
  386. mislaid
  387. disparage
  388. galvanizing
  389. formalizes
  390. commends
  391. unsaying
  392. abstracting
  393. abounds
  394. undergirded
  395. meliorating
  396. misinterpret
  397. denoting
  398. disrobing
  399. vivisecting
  400. lecturing
  401. evades
  402. allegorizing
  403. enfeebling
  404. selfing
  405. prefiguring
  406. unavailing
  407. arrogating
  408. mythologizing
  409. remaking
  410. racializing
  411. adumbrating
  412. bog
  413. exclaiming
  414. nonconforming
  415. dehistoricizing
  416. appending
  417. indicting
  418. beholding
  419. impelled
  420. undiscerning
  421. cower
  422. imploring
  423. irks
  424. interanimating
  425. reenchanting
  426. unknowing
  427. juxtapose
  428. despairs
  429. harmonizing
  430. substantiating
  431. endeavouring
  432. discerns
  433. anachronizing
  434. regrouping
  435. shuddering
  436. consolidates
  437. deviated
  438. Substituting
  439. persisting
  440. nestling
  441. disposes
  442. incensed
  443. circumvents
  444. Shaken
  445. subsuming
  446. ascertaining
  447. inhering
  448. aspiring
  449. consolidated
  450. erring
  451. rings
  452. nerving
  453. imperializing
  454. consent
  455. ntering
  456. interrogating
  457. transgressing
  458. flogging
  459. parceling
  460. bequeathing
  461. loafing
  462. disproving
  463. indwelling
  464. emigrate
  465. displeases
  466. construing
  467. abounding
  468. foreshadowing
  469. interconnect
  470. transcendentalizing
  471. detonating
  472. deforming
  473. reframing
  474. burnt
  475. consented
  476. subsiding
  477. manifesting
  478. discomposing
  479. mumbling
  480. halts
  481. propagating
  482. pitying
  483. intimating
  484. jesting
  485. supervening
  486. prefacing
  487. slaving
  488. Revising
  489. transacted
  490. squeaking
  491. disenchanting
  492. populating
  493. activating
  494. excepting
  495. begetting
  496. unremitting
  497. pathologizing
  498. Defining
  499. nning
  500. redescribing
  501. taxonomizing
  502. neighbouring
  503. weds
  504. coalescing
  505. repossess
  506. unmasks
  507. exonerating
  508. proscribed
  509. noninstrumentalizing
  510. underlining
  511. unceasing
  512. obeying
  513. circumventing
  514. estranging
  515. ning
  516. blackmailing
  517. miming
  518. penning
  519. exalting
  520. mortifying
  521. handshaking
  522. normalize
  523. infringed
  524. twinned
  525. countervailing
  526. contextualizing
  527. begot
  528. apportioning
  529. distilling
  530. toddling
  531. adjudicating
  532. rewarding
  533. literalizing
  534. allaying
  535. inhaling
  536. Formed
  537. impelling
  538. noncirculating
  539. gibing
  540. steeping
  541. remapping
  542. consummating
  543. contemning
  544. arbitrating
  545. restructures
  546. ridicules
  547. unravelling
  548. resurrects
  549. preempting
  550. misdirecting
  551. tormenting
  552. purifying
  553. evidencing
  554. panelling
  555. conjecturing
  556. entrenching
  557. ransoming
  558. mangling
  559. loathes
  560. disgorge
  561. harrying
  562. apprehending
  563. contriving
  564. unforseeing
  565. scribling
  566. glean
  567. disassemble
  568. dissociating
  569. werling
  570. despoiling
  571. deduces
  572. urbanizing
  573. retouching
  574. bookending
  575. dupes
  576. detotalizing
  577. moulding
  578. unexacting
  579. censured
  580. dumpling
  581. foreseeing
  582. animalizing
  583. trooping
  584. unencompassing
  585. hypostatizing
  586. Reversing
  587. discountenancing
  588. truthtelling
  589. superceded
  590. bifurcate
  591. romanticizing
  592. changeling
  593. mouldering
  594. sedimenting
  595. sublimating
  596. underpin
  597. refraining
  598. Reinforcing
  599. flyting
  600. queering
  601. unreflecting
  602. fying
  603. disparting
  604. Departing
  605. dulling
  606. shuttling
  607. realign
  608. chucking
  609. historicizing
  610. interpolating
  611. garrisoning
  612. Surveying
  613. inflecting
  614. misguided
  615. monumentalizing
  616. dramdrinking
  617. exhort
  618. propagandizing
  619. uncomprehending
  620. tires
  621. Recalls
  622. slavetrading
  623. retrojecting
  624. insures
  625. resurfacing
  626. overstepping
  627. absolving
  628. append
  629. unsexing
  630. sbanishing
  631. vitiate
  632. temporalizing
  633. wandring
  634. enjoined
  635. resuturing
  636. soldiering
  637. brainwashing
  638. prostituting
  639. encrypting
  640. ideologizing
  641. sanctifying
  642. languishes
  643. advertizing
  644. heterosexualizing
  645. wrenched
  646. recede
  647. revoking
  648. reveling
  649. abjecting
  650. buttressing
  651. unfitting
  652. presage
  653. fragmenting
  654. pivoting
  655. slighting
  656. remunerating
  657. inquiring
  658. tonguing
  659. Lives
  660. chusing
  661. kenning
  662. rollicking
  663. uncoupling
  664. pardoning
  665. fortifying
  666. vivifying
  667. pinning
  668. pleasuring
  669. paraphrasing
  670. Insisting
  671. emasculate
  672. soliloquizing
  673. quartering
  674. amalgamating
  675. gelling
  676. rematerializing
  677. bewitched
  678. expunge
  679. entraining
  680. blundering
  681. correlating
  682. dawns
  683. tingling
  684. industrializing
  685. capitulating
  686. brutalizing
  687. uncaring
  688. superintending
  689. desponding
  690. reenlivening
  691. marshalling
  692. particularizing
  693. refuting
  694. deducing
  695. redound
  696. gush
  697. crowd
  698. standardize
  699. coining
  700. flaring
  701. waddling
  702. Bolstered
  703. couched
  704. lancing
  705. elapsed
  706. derealizing
  707. overpower
  708. systematizing
  709. fantasizing
  710. holidaying
  711. bumming
  712. quipping
  713. impoverishing
  714. monopolizing
  715. whitewashing
  716. peers
  717. overvaluing
  718. quieting
  719. excise
  720. disembodying
  721. group
  722. fecundating
  723. adorning
  724. occuring
  725. unaffecting
  726. mute
  727. totter
  728. approximating
  729. nosing
  730. allayed
  731. oming
  732. warded
  733. classing
  734. paves
  735. interpentrating
  736. repainting
  737. pockets
  738. valuating
  739. reterritorializing
  740. inveighing
  741. unweaving
  742. disordering
  743. transgendering
  744. Removed
  745. dooming
  746. antiquating
  747. unresponding
  748. levelling
  749. appeased
  750. forbearing
  751. evened
  752. appraising
  753. unchaining
  754. seagoing
  755. typifying
  756. commanding
  757. outranks
  758. spirting
  759. disembedding
  760. censored
  761. honouring
  762. ensnaring
  763. institutionalizing
  764. standardizing
  765. veiling
  766. modulating
  767. pettefogging
  768. revenanting
  769. esteeming
  770. incapacitating
  771. hypothesizing
  772. augmenting
  773. exhorting
  774. antedating
  775. gnaw
  776. Offsetting
  777. analogizing
  778. definining
  779. diversifying
  780. bracketing
  781. homogenising
  782. exacerbates
  783. splintering
  784. ploughing
  785. coveted
  786. presupposing
  787. needling
  788. crystallizing
  789. fondling
  790. footnoting
  791. unbuttoning
  792. subjectifying
  793. suckling
  794. cozening
  795. repining
  796. avowing
  797. restyled
  798. regularizing
  799. tromping
  800. averred
  801. prophesying
  802. sequentializing
  803. ingrafting
  804. amaze
  805. Err
  806. excreting
  807. antitotalizing
  808. fastening
  809. accede
  810. collating
  811. protests
  812. dimissing
  813. supercede
  814. filters
  815. triumphing
  816. gnashing
  817. enraging
  818. recapitulating
  819. evincing
  820. saturate
  821. serializing
  822. versioning
  823. cumbering
  824. dissembling
  825. misjudging
  826. respeaking
  827. scraps
  828. deprecating
  829. precluding
  830. contenting
  831. inculcating
  832. reckoning
  833. deveiling
  834. misrepresents
  835. imparting
  836. undiscriminating
  837. cudgeling
  838. envying
  839. averring
  840. disconnecting
  841. declawing
  842. pillorying
  843. presaging
  844. unaccommodating
  845. versifying
  846. unfurling
  847. gibbering
  848. simpering
  849. proffering
  850. decentering
  851. circumscribing
  852. transmuting
  853. gridding
  854. Reveals
  855. transmogrifying
  856. interpellating
  857. preceeding
  858. demoralising
  859. refering
  860. neutralizing
  861. untrusting
  862. rummageing
  863. deviating
  864. recalibrating
  865. amused
  866. procreating
  867. ogles
  868. glut
  869. conjoining
  870. stylizing
  871. recognising
  872. fauning
  873. snubbing
  874. decentring
  875. inmixing
  876. secreting
  877. implements
  878. requisitioning
  879. creak
  880. vandalizing
  881. deterritorializing
  882. deadening
  883. affixing
  884. depoliticizing
  885. theosophizing
  886. spiritualizing
  887. impugn
  888. aping
  889. drivelling
  890. unhesitating
  891. pluralizing
  892. reapplying
  893. unmeaning
  894. rankling
  895. inspiriting
  896. blockading
  897. aggravates
  898. replaying
  899. unlocks
  900. Rolled
  901. lacing
  902. undemanding
  903. scything
  904. horseriding
  905. idle
  906. dialoguing
  907. personifying
  908. lulling
  909. quarrelling
  910. tinting
  911. trumping
  912. plaything
  913. modelling
  914. obtruding
  915. pockmarked
  916. hounding
  917. manifest
  918. Elaborating
  919. dinning
  920. stymieing
  921. dislodging
  922. perverting
  923. enunciating
  924. popularizing
  925. companioning
  926. spout
  927. betokening
  928. crippling
  929. hoodwinking
  930. chaffing
  931. minting
  932. disqualifying
  933. refashioning
  934. fuelling
  935. untiring
  936. stonecutting
  937. censoring
  938. oppressing
  939. sexing
  940. buffeting
  941. wellbeing
  942. delighting
  943. detests
  944. undeserving
  945. bleaching
  946. envisaging
  947. hurrying
  948. overloading
  949. detaching
  950. cribbing
  951. unloving
  952. childrearing
  953. narrativizing
  954. coursed
  955. disjoining
  956. Revised
  957. repersonalizing
  958. blundered
  959. re-enacting
  960. triangulating
  961. Reproduced
  962. Summarizing
  963. conscripting
  964. retracting
  965. Projecting
  966. disclaiming
  967. othering
  968. mitigating
  969. pioneer
  970. infantilizing
  971. propounding
  972. croak
  973. Recovering
  974. perching
  975. quadrupling
  976. Equipped
  977. disbelieving
  978. ebbing
  979. slavestealing
  980. exuding
  981. defiling
  982. prepossessing
  983. recoiling
  984. driveling
  985. entangling
  986. terming
  987. recombining
  988. acclaiming
  989. persecuting
  990. deluding
  991. smudging
  992. reprove
  993. blackening
  994. reintegrating
  995. misgoverning
  996. subliming
  997. dismember
  998. extirpating
  999. gagging
  1000. kindling
  1001. lovemaking
  1002. Compelled
  1003. reviling
  1004. sensitizing
  1005. disarticulating
  1006. clamouring
  1007. sweetening
  1008. baiting
  1009. reconciles
  1010. coddled
  1011. desolating
  1012. colouring
  1013. emoting
  1014. nullifying
  1015. sallying
  1016. String

totalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
cultural imperative) in viewing such prospects was a thrilling release from bodily limitations through the eye in what Alan Wallach, drawing on Michel Foucault's equation between vision and power, calls the "panoptic sublime": an experience of the "sudden access of power" offered by landscape views that were at once totalizing and "telescopic," that "aspired to control every element within the visual field" ("Making a Picture" 83-84). Kirkland's "bake[d]" body and "aching eye," however, prevent the consumption of this spectacle of power from taking place. As Crary shows, the discovery of the physiological and contingent nature of vision both disrupted older modes of

view rejects the implied gendered structure of such displacement. *[End Page 72]* Looking on Italy's body, on the incarnations of art, and on women's bodies are culturally equivalent acts, and Kirkland responds by becoming conscious of her own positioning and even of the technology--the spyglass--of gazing. Resisting the overt construct that the totalizing gaze creates, Kirkland rejects being, in Lauren Berlant's words, "reconstituted as a _collective_ subject" (24) in the presence of a nationally meaningful icon. The limits of her ability or desire to participate in elite acts of supervision--efforts Crary implicitly defines as male--seem marked by gender.

position similar to that of the possible buyer of the news sheet. We have no overview or supervision here but are instead placed in the position of the consumer of news; both political history and the marketplace define this view of Italy. This painting resists even as it comments on the tourist gaze; like Kirkland, Heade seems temporarily to reject the totalizing vista for a visual structure that replicates modern, republican ways of looking. Nevertheless, although painted in support of the _risorgimento,Roman Newsboys_ presents an ambiguous image of the republican press; the news in


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
such precarious balance that Carwin's possible affiliation with subversives had no bearing at all on his destructive power as originator of voices" (28). The possibility that Brown's portrait of Carwin was offering an analysis of significant modes of political cultures is categorically dismissed. 11 In totalizing accounts of conspiratorial discourse, sociological particularities are irrelevant, even taboo. *[End Page 7]* 2... . as Structural Analysis


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
How, then, do we read the _Opal_ if not as a realistic portrayal of asylum life or as an authentic voice of the mad? In a small pool of critical writing on literature produced within asylums, most commentators have adopted a neo-Foucauldian line that such literary production should be read in terms of its relation to the totalizing power of the institutional authorities. They disagree, however, on whether such writing can ever meaningfully resist institutional surveillance, or whether its sponsorship by the authorities always undermines its subversive potential. 5 The rubric of subversion and containment can certainly help us understand the power dynamics within the


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 496-508
South of the American Renaissance
Thomas M. Allen
---------------
of confederation. Abolitionism has pretty well obliterated them all from the compact" (_Simms Reader_ 66). Simms's perception of a form of cultural and political violence in this way of defining regional difference as a problem to be solved was consonant with his sense of region itself as an overly totalizing category. His contrasting way of thinking of the nation as a loose agglomeration of diverse *[End Page 499]* states, which he frequently referred to as "the Confederacy," informed his views not only about Southern identity but about regional identity in general. Not only was New England not


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
reconfigurations by the railroad and agricultural overproduction eventually make these ranchers obsolete.12 Industrial capital absorbs and manipulates these individual farmers in the same way that it absorbs agricultural regions. Thus Henderson notes, "The ultimate totalizing gesture of capital...is its absorption of the human body. Capital, we see, moves through every conceivable spatial scale: the global, the regional, the local, the individual ranch, and bodies, which by the end of the novel start dropping like flies" (142).


ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
as authoritative but rather as desperate, an act of escapism driven by [End Page 141] horror and nausea. Rather than signaling a return to the narrator's state of detached omniscience, that is, the allegory unmasks this detachment as simply another version of flight. With his frantic totalizing gesture, in fact, the narrator acquires a distinct resemblance here to one of the novel's most risible interpreters, Sir Leicester Dedlock, who uses his "rapid logic" to turn almost any event into a sign that "'the floodgates of society are burst open, and the waters have--a--obliterated the


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
Yet the accounts of the sublime offered by Burke and many subsequent writers retreat into a mental abstraction that never has to take account of the image in its desire to subordinate it to logical and syntactical systems. Burke's sublime, rather than freeing the subject, transports the subject from a partial position to a totalizing position. But while Addison hastened to subordinate his mediated image to the requirements of cultural training, the mediation he evoked could look in a different direction towards situatedness rather than subordination. In Simians, Cyborgs and Women, Donna Haraway returns to


ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
This is not a form of nationalism that can readily be comprehended within the usual definitions of the term; as with Shane, the "genuine wild Irishman," it has produced a conflicted national subject that cannot easily be absorbed into a totalizing national stereotype because it insists that the Irish have not yet been allowed to fulfill their potential as free citizens. The key to O'Brien's perspective is the term "social advancement," the promise of progress towards a civilized nation rather than a return to a pre-colonial one, and that priority produces, as well as justifies, his discomfort with


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
gender, and sexuality. I want to suggest, nevertheless, that an insufficiently expansive model of Victorian middle-class identity continues to impair critical elaborations of national character--what is sometimes alternatively conceptualized as Englishness or Britishness. For reasons relating at least partly to the totalizing tendencies of Foucault's model of the rise of disciplinary subjectivity, Victorianist scholars influenced by Foucault, I believe, have only superficially addressed the idiosyncrasies of British/English--as opposed to Western or even Continental--subject formation.

dominant epistemological [End Page 167] changes, while dismissing the vehement middle-class campaign that opposed, crippled, and partially abrogated the Public Health Act of 1848? The answer to this and other comparable questions indicates the degree to which Poovey's assumptions are based on the same totalizing theoretical paradigm from which she claims emphatically to break. VII. Afterword: The Contemporaneity of Victorian National Character -------------------------------------------------------------------

'Sociological' Traditions." 81. Poovey, Making a Social Body, 4. Athough she does not directly name Foucault as the object of her critique, Poovey situates her thesis in contrast to "New Historicist representations of modern power as a totalizing force" in which "the distinctively modern form of power/knowledge subsumes potential opposition by proliferating ever more differentiated versions of itself." Poovey acknowledges this influence in some of her earlier work, but proceeds to argue that "no theoretical position that credits modernity with


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
Edward Said argues in Orientalism (1978) and Culture and Imperialism (1993) that "European writing on Africa, India, parts of the Far East, Australia and the Caribbean" is part of a "general European effort to rule distant lands and peoples." 4 He charges that there exists a totalizing Orientalist or Africanist way of looking at the world which is, in essence, a "Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority." 5 Said's basic equation of Africanist and Orientalist discourse is problematic. 6 Orientalist scholarship is based on the substantial research of sophisticated scholars,


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
career. 18 Implicit in Brown's late work is an extensive critique of the novel he himself had helped bring to life: the novel of the autonomous individual, the story told through one voice, one psychology, and bound by the requirements of chronology, unity, and a totalizing conclusion. While Brown's critique of the politics of the American novel emerges out of a commitment to a "literary federalism" (to use William C. Dowling's useful term) that we might not easily recognize today as radical, it does resonate with contemporary critique of the liberal subject and of the role of

history, and moral stricture. But the definition of the novelist as editor/curator is more than posture: the early novel often earnestly seeks out a mode of presentation in which the novelist governs the events and source material as adjudicator and compiler. The Coquette in these terms does not present a totalizing understanding of the facts; that is the work of the sermons and conduct manuals that had by this time long mined the story, silencing Whitman and letting the facts speak for themselves. But neither is it simply the autobiography of Eliza Wharton, the would-be heroine of her own tale

It is toward a consideration of precisely these questions that Brown will devote himself in his final years, defining the periodical as the space in which unstable texts, fragments, and anonymous diatribes can be made stable, ordered, and organized without the totalizing narratives and central consciousness of the conventional novel. Ultimately Jane Talbot works to show how the rigid judge who practices "strict government" (J, 223) is as vulnerable to bad reading as the woman Mrs. Fielder accuses Jane of being--defined by "an inattention to any thing but feeling: a proneness to romantic


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
enough to account for the empirical spoils of the age of exploration, Enlightenment scientists such as Linnaeus, Buffon, and Blumenbach used their authority as naturalists to underwrite their claims as anthropologists: like specimens of flora and fauna extracted from foreign locales and reorganized according to one of many totalizing classificatory systems, the wondrous tales of exotic men and women offered naturalists ample evidence of the need for a correspondent taxonomy for discerning and managing (and, by extension, symbolically civilizing) human variance. While there were certainly rudimentary theories of racial difference dating back to Hippocrates and


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
produce images of contradiction, ambivalence, and disorder, and utopian ideology, which imposes its own narrative coherence on those figures. To Marin's mind, utopian narratives typically generate a schism between their figurative elements and their discursive or totalizing elements: the latter impose an illusive façade of order and resolution on the disruptive and inconclusive play of the former. Stated schematically, Marin's analysis of utopian literary production poses a heterogeneous system of textual registers: between its present-day ideologies (the historical environment of


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
(Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1989), 103-12, 198-210. 17. Sacvan Bercovitch's theory of consensualism argues that American texts most overtly antagonistic to the political and social worlds around them are inexorably reinscribed within the totalizing and essentially conservative processes of cultural production in the American case. Hence, from the Puritan jeremiad, to revolutionary discourse, to Romantic natural religion, to the American Way, any frontal critique within American cultural texts repeats the circular and self-justifying logic of "no escape from ideology"


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
appear to be based in. 25 The success of claims such as Liu's, and also Caserio's, rests on their ability to juxtapose and maintain a differential between concepts such as allegory and narrative; the force of de Man's argument, rather, is in his ability to bring them together. Allegory in de Man, Gashé reminds us, represents the subversion of the "totalizing potential" of texts "in an endless process of narrative." 26 The remainder of my account explores the relation, in this context, between one apparent pole (allegory) and the other (narrative) in the understanding of the term "allegory" through critical references to flight or repression. As de Man's

exception into a maelstrom of temporalization" and consequently that texts themselves represent the "temporal process of detotalizing operations." 35 Time is, and should be acknowledged as, a key factor in understanding the deconstructive conception of text, because the rupturing of time is what prevents concepts from closing in on themselves, from totalizing. Acknowledging the centrality of time in the deconstructive action of language makes it possible to suggest in this context that (de *[End Page 1039]* Manian) deconstruction and (Althusserian) materialism, language and history,


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 89-115
William Cowper and the "Taste of Critic Appetite"
Priscilla Gilman
---------------
But it is important to note the trick here, the way "the few" have carefully been smuggled into the company of the "one" Cowper *[End Page 102]* himself, seemingly alone after having banished the "all." "Perfect" indifference (to use the usual and importantly totalizing modifier), Cowper is forced to concede, may be too stringent a doctrine to permit him the sociability in which he delights, or the discrimination of audiences he desires to effect. A Miltonic "fit audience though few" allows for the expression of ambition, but


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 151-169
Walking on Flowers: the Kantian Aesthetics Of _Hard Times_
Christina Lupton
---------------
This idea of an agreement between reason and feeling seems excluded by Dickens's strict nineteenth-century division of fact and fancy. This is not because _Hard Times_ makes such a successful case for fancy. On the contrary, one need only point out the ironically totalizing terms of Dickens's most pedagogical novel, to see that his case for imagination is made in a highly factual way. Precisely because _Hard Times_ seals the value of fancy within a system of rational critique, it seems to thwart the very quality of aesthetic experience that it sets out to promote. Terry Eagleton represents


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1043-1065
Governing Economic Man: Joanna Baillie's Theatre of Utility
Julie Murray
---------------
ruler's art is like the shepherd's who cares for each individual sheep in his flock." BLOCKQUOTE Bearing in mind liberalism's coordination of individualizing and totalizing forms of power, I suggest, allows us to draw into focus Baillie's particular achievement: outstripping Smith, she reconciles his dusty stoic philosophy to the new demands of economic man. If the movement in _Wealth_ is notoriously individualizing, with the priority of economic self-interest and the subsequent extension of

un-Smithean. Exploiting the "sympathetick curiosity of our nature," Baillie's text deftly coordinates the individualizing force of desire with the totalizing impulse of its orientation towards Smithean sociability, and effects, in so doing, the moral regulation of the individual subject. "What human creature is there," she asks, "who can behold a being like himself under the violent agitation of those passions which all have, in some degree, experienced, without feeling himself

with liberalism's development of an art of government. Neither should the apparent stage failure of _De Monfort_ detract from what I suggest is an achievement of much greater consequence. Coordinating the individualizing force of interest-_cum_-curiosity with the totalizing gesture of Smithean sociability, Baillie's work--under the rubric of liberal governance--newly inflects that age-old term: romantic freedom. ---------------------------------------------------------------------


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
reconstituted. The Malay steals off with more than the host's peace of mind; he has taken over a number of the latter's characteristics. Before, it was the host's house that was pure and inviolable; now it is the guest's body that has to be treated as sacrosanct. Before it was the host who had the totalizing view—as witness his position of surveying all from above. But now it is the Malay who "bolts the whole." We recall Levinas's insight that the subject is taken by the other, is "hostage" to the other. Certainly, the scene suggests that the host has indeed been delivered over to the guest


reprinting



_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 248-275
Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright
Martin T. Buinicki
---------------
fear that international copyright would harm American industries had always been and continued to be the primary source of opposition to the law: "Opponents of copyright believed that a law would give to a handful of powerful eastern firms with large resources and European contacts an effective monopoly on the reprinting of foreign books" (Eaton 109). The rise in prices, the feared inaccessibility of texts, and the perceptions of monopoly power all combined to make international copyright an immensely unpopular law for the majority of tradesmen.

9. See Allen's _The Solitary Singer_ 60-66. 10. Ironically, _Franklin Evans_ appeared immediately following Park Benjamin'spirated reprinting of Dickens's _American Notes_(Greenspan 46). Yet as Whitman himself made clear in his journalism, American authors were left with few publishing choices in the unregulated literary landscape.


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
self-styled "radical reformer" from Alabama, who was agitating for the construction of a new asylum in his state, ran regular excerpts from the _Opal_ in his paper to give evidence that afflicted minds could be healed (Stiff n. pag.). Occasionally, though, the journal was seen to fail the test of rationality. Some editors delighted in reprinting the more disordered pieces; one made sniping jokes about a rival by comparing his "deranged judgment, deficient information, and vague nomenclature" to "the _Opal_, which is published...in the lunatic asylum" ("Fair"). These jibes, though, only reinforce the idea that the _Opal_ served as a barometer of the asylum's


_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 719-727
Escaping from the Pirates: History, Literary Criticism, and American Copyright
Laura J. Murray
---------------
articulation and transnational in scope" (1)—this is evoked particularly vividly in her chapter on Charles Dickens's exasperation with an American geography, people, and press he could not organize into center and periphery—and she examines "the rhetorical origins and interpretive consequences of the material practices of reprinting" (7). The overall claim is that the period during which American publishers, with no international copyright agreements to hamper them, produced thousands of unauthorized reprints of British books was not so much a period of piracy, bad judgment, or incomplete development as a period during which Americans _chose_ to

interconnection between debates over centralized authority in slavery policy—noting the strain, for example, between abolitionists' desire for the center to exercise control by abolishing slavery and their fear of central control as embodied in the Fugitive Slave Law—and the discourse of reprinting, associated with the Jacksonian values of decentralization and hemmed-in federal powers but ultimately abjured in favor of a national copyright law. This might seem a far-fetched analogy, and indeed if copyright and slavery are both discourses of property they have little else in common in the abstract, but McGill shows that the analogy was

of a national copyright law. This might seem a far-fetched analogy, and indeed if copyright and slavery are both discourses of property they have little else in common in the abstract, but McGill shows that the analogy was visible to commentators in the period weighing various dimensions of the states' rights dilemma. Practices of reprinting as well as the rhetoric about its benefits and dangers were factors in slavery's defense and abolition. McGill also argues that Poe used regional unevenness in distribution to his advantage as a writer—an argument that goes against the usual assumption that his range of publication venues was a sign of a harmfully

material as evidence "to show how changes in the conditions of publication make themselves felt at the level of literary form" (3). Sometimes the history and criticism work perfectly together. For example, McGill's reading of Dickens's _American Notes for General Circulation_ (1842) as a commentary on reprinting and even on American banking would be precarious were it based only on a pun, but she has the evidence of a dropped epigraph and responses by American reprinters that ground her intricate reading of the responses with a satisfying solidity. Nonetheless, when she claims that the book's "episodic structure, the surprisingly long passages interpolated from other


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
own peccadilloes, Poe parodies tactics widely employed in the American periodical trade: the submission and knowing publication of plagiarized material; the inflation of circulation figures; the exaggeration (or arbitrary suspension) of premiums to contributors; the unremunerated reprinting of literary works; the "scalping, brow-beating and otherwise using-up the herd of poor-devil authors" (781); and the indiscriminate puffing of bathetic works such as the narrator's own "The Oil-of-Bob."17 By shrewd maneuvering, Thingum Bob at last merges four periodicals to create "one magnificent


mediating



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
those in Eureka is Eureka's status as a cosmology, a genre that brings with it a connectedness authorized by a higher order of abstraction than the sites at which other authors have theorized the one-and-the-many problem (solely as a philosophical, erotic, political, or theological difficulty). Another mediating factor is that, as Poe's last major work, Eureka is a product of maturation and thus releases Poe from positions that he may hold as a Southerner but may see as surpassed by a point of view not constricted by locality.


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
is so pronounced in his work: since his ambitions were genuinely revolutionary, the tensions generated within those ambitions by interiorization were more acutely felt and responded to with striking rhetorical creativity. Only by understanding Garrison at the tense crossroads of his day--mediating, as most antebellum social reformers did, between structural and interior analyses of power and inequality--can we understand apparent contradictions within the writings of a reformer who was at once anti-institutional and the center of a national network of *[End Page 33]* abolition institutions; antinationalist and the primary advocate for


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
Great Transparency and Too Confusing Obscurity. A reading of _Federalist_ No. 10 stressing its communicative arguments, then, will see the constitutional system as less a functionalist machine for mediating conflicts between interests than a reactive cultural project that doesn't want to be seen as such; not simply a mechanism but more fundamentally a puzzle in the form of a system; in other words, a crafted program of counterenlightenment that we might call a "third-order" conspiracy


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
the novel's narrative voice, tone, and positioning.17 Sedgwick's narrator strives neither for objectivity nor transparency of representation; she makes clear from the earliest chapters set in America that the reader will not be allowed direct access to the historic past. Rather, throughout the first volume of the novel, the narrator acts as a mediating presence, continually interrupting the movement of the story with news from the "present." For instance, at several moments the narrator pauses to draw comparisons between "the girls of today" and her heroine, Hope. At one point, realizing that Hope has yet to be "formally presented" to her readers, the narrator begins to


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
expels the slim evidence of situatedness that held brief sway in an important earlier work, Addison's Pleasures of the Imagination. Without claiming the Whig essayist for the merits of the perversions of fantasy, we may still see how Addison's definition foregrounds the mediating qualities of the image that Burke totally subsumes into the sublime, and even contains proleptic traces of the epidermic surface. "The pleasures of the imagination," says Addison, "are not so gross as those of the sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding." 52 For Addison the image is to be distinguished from physical pleasures


ELH 66.4 (1999) 863-883
Walter Scott and Anti-Gallican Minstrelsy
Richard Cronin
---------------
given way to pathos, the chivalric obligation to uphold the honor of the family name has been modified into the obligation of politeness. Scott invented his minstrel as the source of a deliberately anachronistic language, a mediating language that has "caught somewhat of the refinement of modern poetry, without losing the simplicity of the original models." 15 The texture of the poem becomes a palimpsest, inviting its reader to reconstruct its history. It can include a celebrated passage of picturesque


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1033-1051
Alive in the Grave: Walter Pater's Renaissance
Jeffrey Wallen
---------------
insight that "To burn always with this hard, gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstacy, is success in life" (R, 188-89). Readings also argues that the history of the university in the nineteenth century "is that of modernity's encounter with culture, where culture is positioned as the mediating resynthesis of knowledges, returning us to the primordial unity and immediacy of a lost origin." 15 [End Page 1038] In what ways then does the "Renaissance" function for Pater as an originary moment of cultural unification, and as a means for conceiving culture as that which will provide a


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
and utility and attempts to establish a radically different relationship to the object-world than that offered by the commodity form. On the other hand, it is not simply pleasure for pleasure's sake. Its erotics of consumption are fully premised on a relationship among producers liberated from the mediating moment of exchange value. Its pleasures are simultaneously contingent, conditional, thoroughly historical, local, complex, and everyday. It is a hedonism which not only contains the preconditions for the pleasures it provides a brief taste of, but simultaneously serves as a baleful marker of how far


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
spoken--that the speaker be physically present to his audience, not alienated from it and from his message itself, as is an inevitable consequence of printed publication. Initially the theater seemed to be, for Sheridan, an environment in which naturally spoken exchanges could take place. As I will argue, though, even theater's mediating features, particularly the expectation that the playwright publish his or her plays and, more minimally, produce finished texts of them before production, ultimately seemed to prove too much for him. These conventional expectations, so routine in his time, may have, I

rehearsals of Pizarro in an attempt to achieve a pure, spontaneous communication with playgoers. If this was indeed his aim, then Sheridan's dissatisfaction extended beyond anxieties over print, for his manner of composing Pizarro also attempts to obviate performance as a mediating agency, ideally rendering the actors mere conduits of his creative powers. 19 The circumstances surrounding the production of Pizarroserve as a kind of endgame of the complaints first articulated in the preface

299). 18. Reminiscences of Kelly, 2:308-9. 19. Sheridan's concern about actors and prompters as mediating agents dates back at least to The Critic (1779), in which the playwright, Puff, constantly worries about what the theater company has cut from his play (Works, 519, 532).


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 223-243
Industrial History, Preindustrial Literature: George Eliot's _Middlemarch_
Jessie Givner
---------------
See Eagleton's _Criticism and Ideology: A Study in Marxist Literary Theory_ (London: Verso, 1978), 120. Daniel Cottom similarly aligns the historical and political in his study of George Eliot. Suggesting an incompatibility between Eliot's figurative discourse and historical / political discourse, Cottom asserts that "social forms or institutions do not play a mediating role" in Eliot's plots, because "[h]er resolutions happen only figuratively, or in the minds and emotions of those characters who are brought to an approximation of the figural consciousness of her narrators," _Social Figures: George Eliot, Social History, and Literary Representation_ (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
"reconstructive efforts" of E. P. Thompson, David Erdman, and Carl Woodring. Acknowledging Abrams, whose work located itself between the two projects but was "rationalized and totalizied," and Marilyn Butler, lauded for furthering the historicist project, Levinson proposes her own Althusserian-inspired alternative, a way of mediating the two projects, deconstruction and reconstruction, which she names a "theory of negative allegory." This theory of allegory, we learn, is in use in a variety of similarly-inspired (Romanticist) studies ("John Barrell, James Chandler, T. J. Clark, John Goode, Kurt Heinzelman, Kenneth Johnston, Alan Liu, Jerome McGann, David


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 151-169
Walking on Flowers: the Kantian Aesthetics Of _Hard Times_
Christina Lupton
---------------
both versions of this dualism are complicated by the ideal of aesthetic judgment. *[End Page 152]* The idea of taste is critical in both the specific Kantian and the more general eighteenth-century project of mediating between reason and feeling. "Taste," writes Ernst Cassirer, "is both subjective and objective; it is subjective because it has no other basis than individual feeling and objective because this feeling is simply the result of hundreds of individual experiences." 5 While many


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 171-195
The Clerks' Tale: Liberalism, Accountability, and Mimesis in _David Copperfield_
Matthew Titolo
---------------
Critics of the _Bildungsroman_ have rightly emphasized the centrality of the hero's apprenticeship to his emergence as a responsible social agent. 23 This model of ethical education, however, whose ur-text is Johann Wolfgang Goethe's _Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship_, sets its sights too high in the social structure to register the complex mediating roles of the petit bourgeois characters in the unfolding narrative of Victorian _Bildung_. To be sure, the upper-middle class or *[End Page 182]* aristocratic hero of the early _Bildungsroman_ "tarries with the negative," dons Byronic garb, and risks the opprobrium of public scandal before saddling himself with the


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
contrast, Belinda and Clarence "assert their own true natures independently of the other economies of value to which they are subjected. . . . In order to interact freely and rationally both must exit the camera obscura of a public sphere in which women are treated as objects mediating . . . the transference of status and wealth" (185). Such entrenchment in domesticity is necessary for a happy ending, McCann argues, and is due to the fact that _Belinda_, through the representation of "fetishistic" characters like Freke, promotes a "view of public life as necessarily performative" (186).


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 875-901
Poe in Love: Pedophilia, Morbidity, and the Logic of Slavery
Peter Coviello
---------------
of the weird "mystic vapor" ("F," 319) which enshrouds the manor; and it does more than scientistically literalize the figurative linking of family and domicile in the appellation "House of Usher." Above all, Roderick's disquisition suggests the communicability of the animate and the inanimate through the mediating term of sentience. "The evidence of the sentience" ("F," 327) of the stones, according to Roderick, BLOCKQUOTE Due to that "silent yet importunate and terrible influence" which


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
inner senses and a means of legitimizing and verifying the theological argument for spiritual existence. Browne's vision of the ghost assumes the nature of what Scott describes as "revelation"--the revelation of the existence and omnipresence of things unseen and unseeable--but a revelation that requires the intervention and mediating presence of what can, after all is said and done, be seen with the bodily eye. To truly believe in the unseen means first of all to unconditionally believe in evidence of the seen. The model of spectatorship that informs Scott's construct of the ghost-seer

9. I will continue to use the term "spectator" rather than "observer" because I wish to underscore the etymological link to "specter." The connection is reinforced countless times in nineteenth-century studies on ghosts, where the popular phrase "ghost-seeing" always accentuates the mediating role of vision in encounters between the living spectators and the specters of the dead. See Suren Lalvani, _Photography, Vision, and the Production of Modern Bodies_ (Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1996), for a useful distinction between spectacle and surveillance in the nineteenth century. Lalvani rejects Michel


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
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potential, for it requires us, first, to represent to each other, in a searching and public way, the vicissitudes of signification that will beset us when we act in the social sphere and, second, to identify more precisely, if provisionally, the multiple effects of conventions, institutions, and other mediating structures. _ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- [Access article in PDF] Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: ================================================== Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy ============================================================= Molly Anne Rothenberg --------------------- Tulane University The title of the first volume of _Our Mutual Friend_, "Between the Cup and the Lip," draws attention to the gap between intention and outcome: there's many a slip, so the saying goes, 'twixt the cup and the lip.1 Dickens follows up this thematic signal with three short vignettes highlighting the role of intentionality in agency. In the first chapter, a dead body, the epitome of intentionless impotence, is ransacked by two unsavory rivermen. In the second chapter, a jaded solicitor regales a gathering of parvenus and their hangers-on with the story of an old miser's postmortem attempt to control his son and heir by fashioning a humiliating Hobson's choice in his will: marry a stranger of the father's choosing or forfeit the family fortune. When a missive about the heir, one John Harmon, interrupts this narration, we encounter yet a third approach to intentionality and agency, as the assembled company wonders whether the son's fate depends on his own will or on the father's: "Already married?" one guesses. "Declines to marry?" another guesses. "Codicil among the dust?" another guesses. "Why, no," says Mortimer; "remarkable thing, you are all wrong. The story is completer and rather more exciting than I supposed. Man's drowned!"2 Drowning, one might think, would close off the question of intentionality, just as it completes Mortimer's story. But clearly, as old man Harmon's example shows, death need not forestall the exercise of intentions. And, as it will turn out, the drowned man is not the heir John Harmon at all, but George Radfoot, a man Harmon killed in self-defense. In this way, the opening sets up questions about John Harmon's agency that will drive the rest of the plot of _Our Mutual Friend_. *[End Page 719]* These three vignettes obviously present a range of models for agency, from the abject powerlessness of the waterlogged corpse to the omnipotence of old Harmon's attempt to enforce his intentions from beyond the grave. In fact, the problem of agency permeates _Our Mutual Friend_. By using a variety of cases to foreground concerns about the scope and powers of social systems—economic, legal, and educational, as well as classist, gendered, and normative—to control and condition individuals, the novel rehearses one of the pressing issues for mid-Victorian England debates about morality and responsibility, that is, how to disentangle individual motive from social conditioning. Rather than figuring these as mutually exclusive terms, _Our Mutual Friend_ repeatedly emphasizes the impossibility of distinguishing between self- and social determination when it comes to agency. It would be difficult in this space to provide a plot summary of the novel that does adequate justice to this topic. A few examples may suffice to indicate its applicability (I have supplied a bare-bones version of the main story lines in the endnote here).3 Like old Harmon, some characters in _Our Mutual Friend_, such as the blackmailing Silas Wegg or the usurer Fascination Fledgby, not only behave transgressively but in doing so deploy both culturally sanctioned incentives and established institutional procedures to make puppets of other people. Others, like Headstone the social-climbing headmaster and Veneering the parvenu, align themselves with available social institutions to increase their own power and prestige. Still others, such as poor Betty Higden and hounded Lizzie Hexam, actively submit to the constraints of social structures and live their lives trying to find a measure of freedom within them. Still more complex forms of this implication of social conditioning with individual motive are exemplified in Charlie Hexam, whose very desire for respectability is the internalization of a social norm, and Eugene Wrayburn, whose ambiguous treatment of Lizzie can be traced to his submission to paternal injunction, class ideology, rationalized lust, and some desire to be free of all of these. Dickens complicates any understanding of agency as indexing individual motivation by focusing both on the difficulties in realizing intentions and on the social conditioning of individuals, with the ultimate effect of blurring the difference between autonomy and heteronomy. This problem of distinguishing individual motive from social conditioning, frequently noted by Victorian philosophers, finds succinct expression in J. S. Mill's _On Liberty_: *[End Page 720]* A person whose desires and impulses are his own—are the expression of his own nature, as it has been developed and modified by his own culture—is said to have a character. One whose desires and impulses are not his own, has no character, no more than a steam-engine has a character.4 Although Mill seems to acknowledge that desire and impulses may be inculcated by external forces and so rob individuals of their character, the alternative—that character is the expression of an inherent nature—compromises the distinction. Whether we understand "his own culture" to mean cultural influences or the individual's self-cultivation, desires and impulses (those most personal and idiosyncratic of all mental phenomena) turn out to be compounded of social dictate and individual predilection. If all desires and impulses are culturally fashioned, then there is finally no way to distinguish the man of natural but cultivated character from the mechanical man. As though following Mill's paradoxical figure of the cultured man, Dickens describes individuals, like Wrayburn, as complex amalgams of social patterning, unconscious motivation, and autonomy. Actions cannot be read off their determinants, be they drive, ideology, normative conditioning, or calculation of self-interest. Instead, volitionality itself, rather than signaling individual intentionality and autonomy, emerges in the novel as a function of the interaction of social conditioning and individual purposes. Not only are social determinants inculcated into individual psyches, making it impossible to distinguish idiosyncratic motivation from socially directed activity, but the inmixing of individual intentions with social determinants is further complicated by the ways that the purposes and actions of one person come in conflict with those of others.5 Actions transpire in a social sphere in which interior motivations are thoroughly entangled with external determinations, where the power of others to affect the meaning of one's actions makes it impossible to reliably link outcomes to initial purposes. When this social dimension is taken into account, it calls into question the modes for claiming agency and assigning responsibility expounded from Victorian times to our own. For if actions cannot be traced securely back to their determinants, and if those determinants are a mix of inner and outer forces, then consequentialist moralizing loses its suasive power, and assigning responsibility on the basis of intention or outcome becomes an extremely vexed matter. For example, when John Harmon wins Bella, and Headstone loses Lizzie, the comparison does not redound to *[End Page 721]* Harmon's moral credit, for while each man seeks to change the woman he loves, Harmon gains his goal through deceit and manipulation while Headstone forthrightly (if frighteningly) confesses himself to Lizzie.6 A brief survey shows that characters who suffer very different fates in the novel often undertake quite similar approaches to exercising power and seeking their self-interest.7 In short, _Our Mutual Friend_ explores the conditions under which agency occurs in a social arena (as might be obvious from its title), and we are likely to miss this dimension if we interpret the novel as pitting good characters against bad in situations that showcase the rewards of virtue. This claim likely would come as a surprise to many politically-minded critics who fault this and other Dickens novels for offering sentimentalized versions of poetic justice to solve thorny social problems.8 In their estimation Dickens is too apt to figure resolutions to structural social problems as a function of individual narratives that reward virtue and punish vice; in their view, he is in thrall to Victorian ideology that renders unthinkable the analysis of systemic determinants of social ills. I cannot deny the force of these arguments—after all, the minimal social changes the novel represents take place at the level of the individual, having no effect on share-selling or Poor Laws. Still, I think that these scholars fail to appreciate the degree to which Dickens's diegetic practice calls into question the assessment of both individual and political agency on consequentialist or idealist grounds. Although the plot may seem to conform to conservative Victorian pieties about cultivating individual morality to remedy social problems, as we will see, other patterns in the text pointedly dissect this approach to both volitional and political agency. The novel helps us see that theorizing agency not only must take into account the complex relationship between individuals and their social conditioning but also must address the twin issues of whether outcomes can be reliably indexed to intentions and how to assess the efficacy of actions undertaken for political ends. In other words, this novel raises precisely those issues most relevant to political as well as individual agency. In what follows, I argue that _Our Mutual Friend_ exposes these issues so effectively as to impel us to recognize an alternative—that is, to reconceive agency as a _social_ or _transindividual_ phenomenon. To the extent that many literary scholars and theorists of agency rely on concepts inherited from Victorian discourse, they tend to rehearse the same polarities and contradictions attending standard philosophical accounts of agency, leading them to structure their arguments primarily in terms of Victorian antitheses—whether the subject is *[End Page 722]* free or determined, essential or constructed, unencumbered or situated, reflective or embodied, positional or psychological.9 By contrast, other contemporary theorists note that these antitheses themselves suggest that the opposition between individual autonomy and social determination fails to provide a sufficient basis for an adequate theory of the role of agency in social transformation.10 In this essay I am concerned primarily with two influential contemporary theories which purport to offer an approach to politically relevant agency that does not depend upon individual intentions, proposing instead that political agency should be understood as nonindividualized and nonintentionalized. The first, performative theory made popular by Judith Butler, underwrites significant work in gender and queer theory as well as some postcolonial theory. The second, a dominant strain of French cultural theory originated and exemplified by Pierre Bourdieu and Michel de Certeau, grounds much contemporary cultural study. I assess the logic of each of these theories' analysis of and reliance on individual intentionality, their claims for the agent's ability to produce desired effects, and their accounts of the means by which the agents gain access to systemic weaknesses and learn methods for exploiting them. My analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these theories suggests that a proper understanding of agency requires the elucidation of a specific logic of interaction between individual intention and social determination. The final section offers my discussion of social agency: to anticipate, I understand agency in terms of a logic and a structure that emerges as an effect rather than as a cause of socially-generated meanings. My argument traces a trajectory through the novel that is set by the brief cameos of one of its most paradoxical and infrequently seen characters, Pleasant Riderhood. While many other characters in _Our Mutual Friend_ could provide illumination of the problematics of agency, as I suggest above, I choose Pleasant for this heuristic function because her agency is figured in succinct ways that speak directly to both performative and cultural studies theories. Pleasant's actions in the novel allow me to clarify social agency as an alternative to individualistic conceptions of agency and related forms of volitional political agency as well as to specify some ethico-political implications that follow from understanding agency in its social dimension. I turn now to what the performances and practices of Pleasant Riderhood can teach us about social agency. *[End Page 723]* I. Performativity's Gothic Politics ----------------------------------- Swivel-eyed Pleasant Riderhood—heartbreaker and pawnbroker—plays a paradoxical role in _Our Mutual Friend_. From one point of view, she is an insignificant character, physically on the scene only twice. Despite her relative invisibility, however, Pleasant is the only character with significant links to people in both the Harmon and Hexam plots of the novel at the time of the so-called Harmon Murder. Viewed as a kind of hinge between the two plots, Pleasant seems central to the denouements of each. By initially refusing Venus, she sets in motion his uncharacteristic excursion into criminality, which fortuitously puts him in a position to help checkmate Wegg's efforts to blackmail Boffin and seize the Harmon fortune. She also supplies John with Lizzie Hexam's whereabouts so he can clear Lizzie's reputation, making it possible for Lizzie to marry Wrayburn. In a more sinister vein, Pleasant is indirectly responsible for the Harmon Murder itself: her quasi-larcenous dealings with sailors is the means for keeping her abusive father alive and therefore in a position to attempt to murder John Harmon. Had it not been for Pleasant, "Mr. Riderhood might have found the Hole a mere grave as to any means it would yield him of getting a living" (345). From the standpoint of theorizing agency, Pleasant's contradictory functions in the novel—minor character yet crucial link; victimizer and victim; example of self-interestedness as well as of self-sacrifice—recapitulate the vagaries and contradictions of the Victorian approach to character, making it difficult to regard her relative invisibility as an index of her significance. If her value in the novel is judged not by Victorian moral standards but rather by her relevance to the problem of agency itself, then her conflicting properties within the larger economy of the novel correlate nicely to the contradictions within theories such as performativity that make claims for political agency. Consider Pleasant's rejection of Mr. Venus's marriage proposal. Venus, taxidermist and "articulator of human bones," reads aloud to Wegg her brief but emphatic refusal: "'I do not wish to regard myself, nor yet to be regarded, in that boney light'" (89, 90). Even though Pleasant first appears to the reader in this disembodied and ventriloquized way, her statement exemplifies a particularly strong account of agency, insofar as it both expresses her intention to absent herself and enacts that intention. Her written wish not to be regarded removes her from Venus's view, thus qualifying it as a performative utterance. In J. L. Austin's terms, such statements are conceived as bringing about what is said, as in a christening or a wedding vow. Performatives *[End Page 724]* allegedly instantiate a form of intentionalist agency, in that they are statements which effect their speaker's intention and as such find in their speaker's purposes the purchase and purview of their effects on others. Yet in saying that she does not wish to be regarded, nor yet regard herself "in _that_ boney light," her phrasing leaves open the possibility that she has other wishes and seeks different regarding lights: the structure of her statement is far more complicated than the simple expression of an intention realized through its utterance. If we are attentive to these other wishes and the play of "regard" in her statement, we can trace both a desire for the control promised by Austin's performative and a critique of that desire. For example, judging from her condition for accepting his offer at the end of the novel—the promise that he forgo articulating any female skeletons in the future—it seems that Pleasant does not wish Venus to anticipate using her mortal remains as material for his articulation business. Perhaps she even has a morbid fear that, seeing her in a "boney light," he already views her as nothing but bones or, worse, that he might seek to prematurely realize his skeletal vision of her. Her refusal certainly forestalls his verbal articulation of such a desire. At the same time, the self-assertiveness of the message reinforces the sense that Pleasant wishes for some sort of regard, perhaps such as is accorded to a vital woman, a regard that politely would postpone acknowledging her mortality ("nor yet to be regarded"). But the intensifier "yet" also can be read as a disavowal of her mortality, indicating that Pleasant wants no one, including herself, to see her in light of her own death. In that case, her wish to be seen in a different light might well suggest that she seeks an extraordinary regard, one that will create for her an immortal and unconditional value, in effect granting her an eternal status. Rejecting "that" boney light of Venus's profession, Pleasant opens the door to this similarly static or "boney" perspective which might exempt her from the vagaries of value, instantiated in the power others have to change their regard and reinterpret her. We can find the traces of this wish for an unchanging and unchallengeable meaning in her subtly expressed fear that she is at the mercy of other people's meaning-making activities: she suggests that the boney light cast on her by Venus's purposes would somehow force her to see herself as he sees her—"I do not wish to regard myself." Her message, which disarticulates her from Venus, thus can be read as a bid to control all eventual fluxes of interpretation, seeking to *[End Page 725]* divest Venus of any power to rearticulate, and so change the value of, either her bones or her meaning. Understood in this way, as attempting to deny the feared reality of her death, Pleasant's utterance disavows her implication in the social world of other people who can regard and interpret her. Such a disavowal is tantamount to a wish for a state beyond the living. As the one speaking as well as spoken about, regarding as well as being regarded, Pleasant projects herself into a doubled form of afterlife, both as the subject of a disembodied gaze that can see herself beyond her own death and as an object composed of lifeless but ever present postmortem remains. Pleasant seems to be saying, "I know very well that I must die, but I disavow that reality by casting myself as eternally present in the future as a spectral gaze and as a permanent fixture." Weirdly, Venus, "the Preserver of Animals and birds," is the very person to realize this wish, for he could turn her into a stuffed (rather than a boney) specimen (89). If we take into account that Venus's deep melancholy caused by her refusal suggests that a stuffed Pleasant might have the power to fix his gaze forever, then the message that asserts Pleasant's autonomy also stages both her fear of death and her compensatory fantasy of herself beyond death, as a lifeless but nonetheless fascinating figure who can control the way others see her, in effect, turning them into passive pawns.11 The condition of autonomy is power over other people's minds, for anything less, any interpretive activity on the part of others, would limit the subject's ability to realize herself as she wishes. Pleasant's refusal, then, traces a Gothic fantasy of performative agency, in which a ghostly floating intentionality, exercising supernatural agency to foreclose all outcomes but those it desires, works its will on a zombie-like viewer. This dark side of the theory of performative utterances—the proposition that performative utterances are a special kind of statement with distinctive agential properties—has been criticized by theorists who demonstrate that, _pace_ Austin, the agent's intentions do not determine either the meaning or the efficacy of the statements in question.12 As even Austin concedes (but then disavows), the performative does not work its magic until "the conventional procedures" mobilizing it are "accepted" by an audience.13 In other words, it is the audience—not the person making the utterance—that decides whether or not, and how, to apply a given convention in a given context. Despite this concession, Austin seeks to preserve some version of an immediately effective type of utterance: he distinguishes between *[End Page 726]* _illocutionary_ acts, which have an invariant effect, a "certain conventional force," so that the intended result can be read off the form of the statement, and _perlocutionary_ acts, which index variable circumstances of reception, "what we bring about or achieve by saying something" when an audience "accepts" the conventions, so that the result depends upon contingent contextual factors.14 In fact, however, this distinction cannot be maintained. As Austin himself admits, "[u]nless a certain effect is achieved, the illocutionary act will not have been happily, successfully performed," in effect stipulating that the status of an utterance as illocutionary depends upon how it is received. The temporality of this formulation—"will not have been"—gives the game away, for the judgment of the utterance's status can only be ascertained after the fact, retroactively; it cannot be read from the intentions of the speaker beforehand. Although he attempts to preserve the distinction throughout his exposition, Austin occasionally concedes (without however giving ground on his argument) that there are _always_ uncertain connections between motive and outcome, acknowledging "the ills to which all acts are heir."15 What Austin calls "illocutionary" force actually is the attribution by the receiver of his interpretation to the speaker's (imagined) intention. Although Austin evidently regards the audience's interpretation as an _effect_ of a prior cause, in fact the alleged cause (the speaker's intention) is postulated after the fact, as an effect of the interpretation. With this critique in mind, we can turn now to an influential contemporary theory of agency propounded by Butler, who relies explicitly on Austin's performative to find an account of agency that will answer to both self-determination and cultural determination, without incurring the disadvantages of voluntarism or forfeiting the possibility of a space for some measure of unconditioned agency. Her solution, which recapitulates Derridean logic, runs like this: agents undertake actions that utilize conventions or norms which stabilize meaning, but every such action necessarily departs from that norm (which after all exists nowhere but in its performances) even as it repeats or cites it, which means that every citation or iteration both stabilizes meaning by way of the norm and, in the process, gives its own particular twist to that norm in the performance of it. Out of these resources, Butler contrives an account of an allegedly effective agency which she claims is nonintentionalist. Following Friedrich Nietzsche, she says that "there is no performer prior to the performed" in her model, yet she is claiming more than nonintentionality for her theory: for her, performative agency is also *[End Page 727]* politically effective.16 As she puts it in _Gender Trouble_, "The task is not whether to repeat, but . . . to repeat, and through a radical proliferation of gender, _to displace_ the very gender norms that enable repetition itself."17 But her exposition of her theory belies both her nonintentionalist claim and her claims for political agency. In what we can recognize as an illocutionarymoment, the agent about to act first experiences the norm as _normatively effective_, that is, as an absolute constraint on interpretation, the force that guarantees the match between its use and its reception. Then, in a second perlocutionarymoment, thanks to the slippage of iterability, the agent performs the norm, reinterpreting it by appropriating it to new purposes within a new context. Finally, in a third would-beillocutionary moment, the agent produces the effect of changing or displacing the norm, not just for herself but also for her audience, again installing a new normative force constraining interpretation. Thus, Butler redescribes the contingent contextual appropriation of the norm as if it had all the intentionalist force of an illocutionary act. Butler's story, then, contains a contradiction: the newly performed reinterpretation, made possible by the failure of an utterance to control its appropriations, now, apparently magically, acquires an effective power to constrain its audience's interpretation—transforming the audience from an active maker of meaning into a passive pawn of the performer's will—even though the performer's ability to perform the norm differently in the first place is due entirely to the _inability_ of any performance to constrain its interpretation. Butler's political promise, given first in her final chapter of _Gender Trouble_, "The Politics of Parody," and then throughout her later work—that the intention to use a drag performance to subvert the sex-gender system will in fact achieve those effects—would require that the agent figure out a way to put a halt to the very mechanism of iterability which made possible the supposedly politically efficacious performance in the first place.18 What Butler repeatedly fails to recall is that the always present differences among iterations simultaneously give rise to the norm and to its possibility of being different: each iteration isnecessarily and irrevocably split by these functions. Her trick is to divide this simultaneity into discrete temporal moments, as though we could oscillate between sameness and repetition without slippage (the institution of the norm) at one moment and difference or resignification without normative reinscription (the resistance to the norm) at another.19 When it comes to certain performances, Butler forgets about the slippage, the opening for reinterpretation, that *[End Page 728]* iterability confers on _every_ repetition; evidently iterability ceases to operate in the special case of performers who intend to appropriate the norm for subversive purposes.20 For such exceptionally positioned subjects, the performative engagement with the norm is described as producing calculable effects, commensurate with the intention of the performer.21 However, once we realize that the effects of the performer's intentions can extend only as far as the performer herself, it becomes clear that neither the convention in and of itself nor the specific strategies deployed to inflect it can guarantee the fact or nature of the audience's acceptance of the performance: the interpretation of the performance cannot be predicted from the intentions initiating it.22 By the same token, because the audience imagines that its interpretation matches the initial purposes of the performer, it attributes the cause of its interpretation to (what is imagined to be) the performer's intentions, unwittingly substituting its motives for hers. Both performer and audience alike thus misrecognize the nature, location, and efficacy of intentionality. Each imagines the other to share the same contexts, purposes, and interpretations of the action; in effect, each imagines the other to be its double. The two separate entities of performer and audience dissolve into mirror images. We find here as well, then, that same recognizably Gothic fantasy, expressive of the unacknowledged and illusive will-to-power of intentionalist performative agency, which infuses Pleasant's utterance. Only by being disregarded or by becoming univocally meaningful can Pleasant escape the shifts of value that necessarily arise in a world of social meaning. Her wish for an unchanging "regard" could not be realized directly and predictably unless _either_ Venus had exactly the same interpretive framework (that is, precisely the same experiences and purposes, even the same psyche) as Pleasant does and occupied the same position in the same context as she, which would mean that Venus would be the same as Pleasant, _or_ his mind was completely possessed by hers, like Trilby's by Svengali's, which would make Venus nothing more than Pleasant's passive pawn.23 In either case, Venus _as other_ would disappear. Escaping the fatally objectifying "boney" regard of Venus would require the reciprocal outcome of objectifying him—depriving him of his alterity and independent perspective altogether. As I read Pleasant's message to Venus, it not only shows this radically individualistic side to performative agency but also its fantasmatic dimension. Understood as a parable of performative *[End Page 729]* agency, the message expresses the fantasy of an omnipotent subject who, through sheer force of will, violently realizes its desires by way of an other who is transformed, irresistibly, into a mere instrument. But to insist on the prerogatives of such a subject is to seal the destruction of the other. The reciprocal negation hidden in Pleasant's utterance—such that, in one way or the other, either she or Venus ends up being eclipsed—evokes the dream of a universe presided over by a solitary meaning-maker who could permanently stabilize and control meanings that are imagined to be exempt from social appropriation. With no possibility of negotiation or cooperation, subjects who try to preserve their private meaning-universes can only withdraw or perpetually struggle for domination, with violence a likely resort. If Pleasant's strategy of disavowal makes it seem as though her dual positions of disembodied intentionality and desired object will expand rather than expunge her agency, we have only to keep before us the specter of Pleasant the hypnotic carcass and Venus the zombie to be reminded of the violence that lies hidden in performativity's Gothic fantasy of political agency. II. The Indeterminate Politics of Everyday Practices ---------------------------------------------------- Despite Butler's emphases on resignification, it would be a fair criticism of the foregoing account to note that performative theory does not rely solely on a poststructuralist linguistic turn but also derives from twentieth-century French social scientific theories of agency and social change that focus on embodiment. These cultural theorists, well-versed in Marxism and psychoanalysis as well as poststructuralism, consider the internalization of social constraints as bodily practices to be of greater importance than the linguistic determinations of the subject.24 Using this premise, they investigate forms of nonconscious, nonintentionalized, and nonindividual agency.25 In a theoretical insight consonant with the critique of intentionalist agency we have just reviewed, they regard the individual as a "locus in which an incoherent (and often contradictory) plurality of . . . relational determinations interact" rather than as an integral site of intentional activity.26 Looking to embodied, socially-patterned repetitive behaviors, or _practices_, as the central example of a type of nonindividual agency that has political efficacy independent of individual intentions, they emphasize that these habitual actions are embodiments of an external field of social forces, installed at the subconscious level by patterns of daily life.27 In this theory of the *[End Page 730]* embodied practices or _habitus_, distinctions among unconscious habits, socially patterned behaviors, and freely willed actions disappear.28 Freedom to choose is merely the freedom to choose among behaviors to which one is already predisposed, at the level of the body, as though no other possible behaviors exist. Fortuitously, Pleasant's second scene (and first real appearance) midway into _Our Mutual Friend_ affords an opportunity to assess these claims. The chapter entitled "More Birds of Prey" offers a portrait of Pleasant that emphasizes her bodily practices. Like Mill's cultured man, this figure collapses the distinction between autonomy and automatism. When we first see Pleasant in this chapter, she has a kind of double embodiment: she is in her characteristic act of "winding herself up"—twisting her hair into a bun behind her head—as though she incorporated two people, the winder and the windee (346). Pleasant is both a self-starter, the paradigm of an autonomous individual agent, and a kind of heteronomously directed windup toy.29 In an echo of this doubleness, Dickens portrays her hair as thing-like, for instance, serving as her pocket handkerchief, and yet peculiarly sentient, somehow knowing when Pleasant is upset or excited: "The conversation had arrived at a crisis to justify Miss Pleasant's hair tumbling down. It tumbled down accordingly, and she twisted it up" (348). So Pleasant's habit of winding herself up seems to express her subservience to the willfulness of her hair, making her cranium a mere housing for an internal machine, while her hair materializes a mind outside her head. This portrait complicates the Cartesian dualism grounding the philosophy of action and Butlerian performativity, because, in this case, unthinking corporal activity (spasms, repetitive movements, imitative behavior) controls conscious mental life as much as it is controlled by it. This scene evokes one of the paradoxes in mid-Victorian theories about the utility of developing habits such as the compulsive twisting of one's hair. The principle of the conservation of energy suggested that habits would make mental energy available for new tasks, energy which otherwise would have to be directed toward the execution of old tasks. At the same time, habits themselves—the unthinking part of the mind—could easily enslave the individual to their purposes, establishing an alternative locus of volitionality in the same body.30 Furthermore, as cultural theories of embodiment propose, Pleasant's winding up actions are not simply an expression of individual volitionality; they also reproduce a social practice, a "prevalent fashion": the other women in the neighborhood are "seen flocking *[End Page 731]* from all quarters universally twisting their back-hair as they came along" (346). Here we witness the same dynamic interpenetration of autonomous motivation, social practice, and unthinking repetition evidenced in Victorian discussions about habitual behavior. Variously characterized as the seal and means of moral self-development, the stamp and engine of industrial mechanization, or the sign and drive of entrenched intemperance, habit could serve as the nodal point of Victorian debates over character formation, the integrity of the social fabric, and the effects of industrialization and consumerism on identity precisely because it indexed this interpenetration. Dickens plays on this co-implication of social mimicry, self-will, habits, and unconscious desires. Take, for example, Rogue Riderhood's abusive epithet for Pleasant, "Poll Parrot" (351). Finding her in conversation with the disguised John Harmon, he shouts "Now, Poll Parrot!" and flings his hat into her face: "Blest if I believe such a Poll Parrot as you was ever learned to speak!" growled Mr. Riderhood, stooping to pick up his hat, and making a feint at her with his head and right elbow; for he took the delicate subject of robbing seamen in extraordinary dudgeon, and was out of humour too. "What are you Poll Parroting at now? Ain't you got nothing to do but fold your arms and stand a Poll Parroting all night?" (351) Given the parrot's imitative capacities, it seems Rogue is worried that Pleasant will unthinkingly repeat something that gives his criminal activities away. He also implies that Poll Parroting is empty chatter, a wasteful habitual or customary social practice (351). Rogue uses the epithet to disparage any conversational efforts Pleasant undertakes for her own purposes, as if she is mere appendage, like a parrot on a sailor's shoulder or an animal that has somehow learned the trick of speaking.31 For him, her independent speech and action are at the same time unmeaning, unnatural, and revealing. It is, therefore, all the more maddening that he cannot control her: despite his attempts to discipline her, the effects of her actions remain unpredictable. No matter how practiced she is, nor how obedient, she may end up a "rogue" to his intentions. Speaking her own mind, repeating what others say, or following his example, she is equally likely to escape his control: from a paternal perspective, her autonomy and her automatism amount to the same thing. Pleasant thus corporalizes multiple external wills and internal impulses. Simultaneously parrot-poll, Rider-hood, sentient hair, and clockwork cranium, Pleasant's head *[End Page 732]* embodies varying motive sources.32 Her actions bespeak autonomous choice, unconscious motivation, internalized social practices, mere mimicry, and subjection to discipline. Through the figure of Pleasant, we get the sense that an intentionalized, individualistic notion of agency is inadequate to account for agency as it is represented in the novel. Yet at the same time that Dickens's portrait confirms the implication of autonomy and automatism, accomplished through the bodily inculcation of social practice that underwrites the nonintentionalist and deindividuated theory of agency proposed by French cultural theory, it also makes it difficult to see how this theory could have political relevance. How can the agential qualities embodied by Pleasant intervene to create social change? De Certeau addresses this issue directly. Beginning from Bourdieu's premise that society produces subjects to advance its own purposes, through the inculcation of a set of embodied practices or _habitus_ that generate actions while constraining them within a given set of possibilities, thereby producing the illusion of volitional activity, de Certeau acknowledges that it is not easy to see how a politics could emerge. In order to insert a politically relevant agency into this model, he retains Bourdieu's notion that the _habitus_ provides a framework within which any number of actions may be generated, but he adds that some individuals actively choose which actions to take. Just as a pedestrian chooses a singular route through a grid of city streets, de Certeau analogizes, certain individuals, those who have the leastpower vis-à-vis mechanisms of production, create singularities that constitute a resistance to the system. Doesn't this account reinstate an individualized and intentionalized account of agency? De Certeau argues otherwise. The individual who creates a singularity by playing creatively with the opportunities afforded by the system does not exercise _political_ agency as such. De Certeau grants intentionality to the individual to use and to innovate on practices that seem to her to be likely to achieve her goals, but he makes no claims that such intentions will actually achieve those goals or change social structures. Rather, it is the aggregation of such singularities, the combined effect of the "art" of these practitioners, which emerges as "culture": culture itself will reveal the "cracks" in the "system" as it evolves (_P_, 37), because culture "articulates conflicts and alternately legitimizes, displaces, or controls the superior force . . . develop[ing] in an atmosphere of tensions, and often of violence, for which it provides symbolic balances, contracts or compatibility and compromises, _all more or less temporary_" (_P_, xvii). *[End Page 733]* At that point, then, analysts of cultural processes, like social science researchers, will be in a supraindividual position to judge which practices foster progressive social change and to promote them as political action: "These ways of re-appropriating the product-system, ways created by consumers, have as their goal a _therapeutics for deteriorating social relations_. . . . A politics of such ploys should be developed" (_P_, xxiv). In this way de Certeau accords politically efficacious agency to the findings of social scientists who study cultural activity that, while depending upon individual intentional activity, expresses no particular individual intentions itself. Intentionalism—the notion that voluntarily undertaken actions will bring about results matching the animating purpose—returns, however. A "politics of such ploys" has no meaning unless the promoter of these ploys imagines that individual actions would be undertaken intentionally to conform to the political plan in such a way as to bring about the results promised by the plan. But intentionalism is not the biggest problem for de Certeau's theory. Once de Certeau acknowledges that practices do not have inherent meanings but only temporary and contingent significances, he risks undoing the opposition he has set up between a dominative social structure and the space of creativity he calls culture (_P_, xiii). How can practices that "the system of products effects within the consumer grid" be distinguished from those that are art or maneuvers by consumers in the space of gaps in the system (_P_, xvii)? If all the practices that count as art or culture aggregate to legitimize the system some of the time and displace it at other times, as de Certeau concedes, then we will not be able to distinguish among practices on the basis of their effects: if "similar strategic deployments do not have identical effects," then how do we mark off "culture" from "the system" (_P_, xvii)?33 What is more, if culture both develops in response to the system and takes only temporary shapes, then the system must be changing somehow, or the culture would not be temporary. If cultures are temporary, there would be a temporal mismatch between the social system and culture that precludes political application. The lessons learned from a culture derived from resistances to a given social structure may not apply to the state of affairs when the social structure changes. Thus, the mechanism of social change in de Certeau is mysterious. In effect, de Certeau posits social structures that, as a condition of tactical efficacy, do not change in response to cultural innovations. In that case, it is not clear what relevance to political agency this art of maneuvering has or could have. *[End Page 734]* In order to provide a more secure basis for differentiating culture from social structure, de Certeau distinguishes between _strategies_, defined as operations enabled by and adequated to social patterning that derive their power from their alignment with existing social forces, and _tactics,_ defined as operations undertaken from a position of weakness to seize fleeting opportunities for resistance that derive their power from lapses in the social system.34 This definition of tactics is based either on the way an individual uses the system to achieve his ends, "vigilantly mak[ing] use of the cracks . . . in the surveillance of the proprietary powers" (by reference to individual intention, precisely the account this theory was intended to displace), or on the basis of the individual's position and power relative to the system (the members who are granted the least power by the social system exercise the greatest resistance to it), in which case, as in Butler's, it is an exceptionalist theory (_P_, 37). In neither case does de Certeau provide a story that accounts for structural change. Because tactics never shift positionally weak people into a position of strength (or, alternatively, as Nietzsche has it, if the so-called weak are always already stronger than the so-called strong), the structures seem to be proof against change, making practitioners of tactics politically irrelevant. De Certeau himself states that unless practices are "regulated by stable local units," tactics will "go off their tracks," that is, not work at all or be indistinguishable from strategies (_P_, 40). But if practices are regulated by such a stability (and that regulation seems to be a _sine qua non_ for any analysis apposite to the development of a politics of ploys), then we encounter the problem of how a space for resistance could arise. To address that problem by insisting on the social system's production of two inherently oppositional subject positions risks granting unassailable power to that system. If the social system is not stable enough to create this invariant distinction, then by de Certeau's own lights, it either changes without any intervention, or it produces subjects who are indeterminately both tactical and strategic, rendering positionality useless as a guide to political analysis or action. In that case, politically relevant analysis requires some means other than positionality or intentionality for differentiating strategic from tactical activity. The difference could only be established on the basis of outcome, but because de Certeau concedes that practices cannot be distinguished on the basis of their effects, resurrecting outcome as the distinguishing feature imports a fatal circularity into the theory. *[End Page 735]* Two excellent illustrations of this difficulty in de Certeau's tactical theory and its implications for conceiving agency appear in the chapter in which John Harmon meets the self-winding Pleasant. Harmon has gone to Pleasant's pawnshop in order to find a way to clear the Hexams from suspicion of his murder without revealing his own identity: he confronts Rogue disguised in Radfoot's clothes, certain that recognizing the outfit of his murderous accomplice will intimidate Rogue into clearing Hexam. Rogue seems to be behaving tactically in de Certeau's terms when he tries to assert his own authority against Harmon by insisting on drinking from an inferior glass without a foot, a maneuver that "had a modest self-denying appearance; but it soon turned out that as, by reason of the impossibility of standing the glass upright while there was anything in it, it required to be emptied as soon as filled, Mr. Riderhood managed to drink the proportion of three to one" (352_)_. A positionally "weak" subject, Rogue takes an opportunity to innovate on dominant social practice for his own purposes in a tactical way. Yet, the resistance and innovation supposedly here instanced metamorphose into complicity with other determinative cultural structures. When Rogue succeeds in his tactic to drink more liquor than Harmon, he becomes unable to counter Harmon's moves, and so ends up agreeing to all of Harmon's demands. This example demonstrates the problem for analysis posed by de Certeau's theory, insofar as it reveals that none of the candidate categories for securely distinguishing tactic from strategy actually deliver: here intention, position, and outcome contravene one another. However we formulate the determining factors in Rogue's actions—self-interested calculation, bad habits, ingrained _habitus_, lack of economic and cultural capital due to the domination of a hierarchical class system, susceptibility to force—it is clear that Riderhood's bid for agency can be redescribed quite accurately as complicit with the very structures oppressing him. Pleasant's actions throughout the chapter also speak to the problem of finding a politically telling agency in social practices, for she exemplifies the same kind of overdetermination or indeterminate origins of behavior found in the Victorian analysis of habit. She winds herself up in accord with social custom; she "has it in the blood, or [is] trained" like a bloodhound to pursue her seagoing "prey" in accord with capitalist dictates; and she tries to protect her father, despite his abuse, in accord with patriarchal ideology and prevalent social norms (345). Of course, although she lives within and upon institutions, conventions, ideologies, and system-wide strategies (commercial *[End Page 736]* shipping, sailors' habits, capitalist economics), she need not be determined fully by these structures insofar as she can seize opportunities that present themselves. Still, it is difficult to see where strategies, or practices conforming to structural domination, leave off and resistant tactics begin. If it is true that Pleasant seizes the opportunity that has come her way when Harmon appears, then we could view her as behaving tactically, autonomously positioning herself to take advantage of this new circumstance in ways that undermine the hegemony of classist and sexist ideologies. But we could just as easily view her as repeating, from habit or the inculcation of social ideologies, the practices of a subject position marked by its conformity to systemic structures. When she agrees to run Harmon's errands, for example, she reenacts her relationship to her father, who treats her as his lackey, as much as she positions herself to profit from Harmon.35 Even her most autonomous actions, her predations on the sailors, imitate her father's and Harmon's treatment of her. Under these conditions, the political relevance of the distinction vanishes between a practiced Poll Parrot habituated to repeating social constraints and those of a practicing rogue maneuvering tactically within those constraints. The connection between social practice and habit turns out to be especially helpful for understanding this problem of indeterminacy and the source of circularity in de Certeau's account. Because habits are observed regularities, they constitute evidence of a regulating force like a social structure. And because habits arise from diverse sources (a self-conscious decision to discipline one's mind and body, or a socially directed regimen, or a psychodynamically generated compulsion) and from complicated forces (the intersection of peer pressures, familial routines, occupational requirement, generational acculturation, psychological predilection), they serve to distinguish individuals from one another as much as they reference common sources of conditioning. Yet, for the same reason, habits are entrenched in ways that make it impossible to separate conscious from unconscious motives, external from internal determinants, individual from social factors, or oppressive from liberatory effects simply by reference to the behaviors themselves. De Certeau's own observation that a system does not have univocal effects points us to the impossibility of deciding whether a given action's departure from systemic dictates is an expression of inherent multivocality or evidence of creative transgression. The actions and their effects do not lead us back dependably to the nature of their *[End Page 737]* regulation—as drive, will, social imitation, or social disciplining—much less to a description of a social structure against which we can compare those actions. It is precisely because this indeterminacy of social practices at their origin destroys the conditions under which politically relevant outcomes can be linked in a causal way to their animating political intentions that the distinction between strategy and tactic seems to depend ultimately on exceptionalist and intentionalist grounds, even though such a solution undermines the express political project of the theory itself. III. "Human Warious" and the Ethics of Social Agency ---------------------------------------------------- It may be obvious by now that the sticking point for the theories of agency under discussion occurs when the theorist turns from describing behaviors as a function of social conditioning to prescribing political actions that will bring about social change. Each explicitly seeks to avoid an individualistic, intentionalist account of agency, but their political thrust—their avowed purpose of transforming social systems—requires that they present agency in terms of individual actions that not only escape systemic dictates but also are able to govern outcomes.36 The turn to embodied practices as revelatory of underlying social regulation seems promising as a way of conceptualizing a nonindividualized and nonintentionalized agency, especially in conjunction with the apparently norm-destabilizing effects of Derridean iterability, but, as we have seen, both performative theory and French cultural theory end up importing individual intentionality and positional exceptionalism to provide the political charge in their theories. Where Butler relies on the appropriability (its contingent significance) of a practice for the most rigorous part of her argument only to discard it in making her claims for political agency, de Certeau ignores his own assertion that practices do not have inherent or stable meanings but only temporary and contingent significances (_P_, xiii). To put it another way, both critics have their own way of repudiating the transindividual or social sphere in which all political action must transpire: this fantasmatic dimension, present in each of these theories, elides the social relation necessary for agency. In fact, political projects are enabled precisely by such elisions: this disavowal of the social sphere permits the fantasied matching of action to outcome on which all political exhortation is based. As I turn to my discussion of social agency, therefore, I want to emphasize that I am not proposing another theory of political agency *[End Page 738]* but rather theorizing the form of agency that actually occurs in the social sphere, one that by its nature cannot be pressed into service for the kinds of political claims made by Butler and de Certeau. Social agency provides the grounds on which any account of political efficacy can be—and ought to be—assessed. I will address the ethical relevance of this point below, but, for now, I begin with the most general point about agency. In response to criticisms that agency involves more than the linguistic capability to resignify, I would argue that whatever else informs agency—material practices and corporalization, for example—it remains nonetheless a form of signification. Agency is the name we give to actions when we confer a certain meaning upon them, to wit, that they bring about a discernible change in a state of affairs (including internal mental states and particular personal affairs) in such a way that the change can be attributed to an agent acting deliberately. Agency is attributed retroversively, regardless of its coherence or incoherence with an agent's actual intentions. The conferring of meaning on any given action derives from the general rules of appropriability that apply to signification per se, including its retroversive temporality. Because our very ability to appropriate a meaning for our own purposes depends upon the condition that such a field of other potential meanings exists, it follows that meaning—in this case, agency—operates according to a particular _logic_ of the social. What makes signification qua signification "social" is its irrevocable split between two functions which must always be simultaneously at work, such that the operation of one entails the operation of the other, a split carefully demarcated by Derrida. On the one hand, signification requires the selection of one particular significance from among a field of contingent and indeterminate signifiers, each of which has entered the social arena by way of previous usages and has been taken up by individual minds through contextual appropriations and particularized associations. For this reason, because past, present, and future appropriations by others are always in process and always exerting pressure to some degree, the selection has a transindividual (not supraindividual) status. This provisionally stable meaning always emerges retroversively from the particular signifiers contingently available at that time to contribute to or contest it. On the other hand, signification also requires, equally and at the same time, a dissolution of that provisionally stable relationship between the chosen significance and its field of possibilities; without this operation of dissolution, no appropriation, past or present, could *[End Page 739]* take place. It is this operation (not, as Butler would have it, the intentions of the performer) which keeps the (indeterminate) field of transindividual possibilities open and in flux. The split between the moment of stability and the moment of dissolution cannot be repaired, for signification depends upon it. This split condition means that, within every stable meaning, a host of possible other meanings lurks, making any particular meaning ineluctablytransindividual, that is, social in its very constitution. Dickens's use of phrases from proverbs ("The Cup and the Lip," "Birds of a Feather") for volume titles in the _Our Mutual Friend_ exploits both of these operations. While the proverb has a relatively stable meaning, organizing a host of particulars as examples of its application, it is also true that the fragmenting of the proverbs and the specific particulars associated with them in each volume provide opportunities for readers to attribute new significances to the proverb itself, in effect destabilizing its meaning as a function of the social nature of signification. Dickens provides an even more striking picture of this social dimension, as it applies to agency in the final paragraph of the chapter in which Venus first mentions Pleasant. The scene in which Wegg takes his leave from Venus dramatizes the fluctuations of light in the world of sociality and the shifting play of meanings that result from it: The unfortunate Mr. Venus gives him a shake of the hand with a shake of his own head, and drooping down in his chair, proceeds to pour himself out more tea. Mr. Wegg, looking back over his shoulder as he pulls the door open by the strap, notices that the movement so shakes the crazy shop, and so shakes a momentary flare out of the candle, as that the babies—Hindoo, African, and British—the "human warious," the French gentleman, the green glass-eyed cats, the dogs, the ducks, and all the rest of the collection show for an instant as if paralytically animated. (91) In this moment of parting, Venus and Wegg enact a curiously one-sided social ritual. It seems that Venus initiates the handshaking and then shakes his own head, but the phrasing of "gives him a shake of the hand . . . a shake of his own head" not only emphasizes the articulation of Venus and Wegg into body parts, but also creates a momentary confusion about who is doing what to whom by indefinitely parceling out those body parts to individuals (a shake of whose hand?), by turning "shake" into a substantive that can be transmitted like a disease or an object ("gives . . . a shake of"), and then by *[End Page 740]* employing pronouns that could refer to either party ("him . . . his"). Reading the scene as depicting an everyday cultural habit thus requires a virtually automatic repression of two other alternatives that emerge simultaneously: _both_ that Venus shakes his own hand (and then his head) _at_ Wegg _and_ that Venus gives Wegg the shakes, causing Wegg's head to waggle. The very word "shake" shakes itself into different meanings in these different contexts. The second part of the paragraph, however, returns precisely to these more unsettling possibilities, retroversively bringing to light their radicality. Due to a shift in light (regard or perspective), the collection of bottled, articulated, and stuffed specimens in the shop shifts from determinately dead to indeterminately alive, raising the specter of the co-implication of subject with object, life with death, internal motive with external determinant, agent with patient. This passage presents agency not as an individual or even supraindividual phenomenon, but rather as a function of thesocial dimensionwhich splits each meaningwith a transindividual self-difference. The political moments in Butler and de Certeau correspond to their failure to adequately theorize this transindividual and retroversive nature of signification and agency. The political valence of their discourse depends on their talking, at key points, as though meanings are not irrevocably split, as though the appropriability and instability of signification could be suspended. Agency, in these theorists' work, stands for political efficacy, yet their own descriptions of the conditions under which agency actually takes place, their political claims, have a fantasmatic dimension, a disavowal of the realities of the social arena within which political effects transpire: either the social arena narrows down to a narcissistic relation, or it fractures into fundamentally separate camps. By contrast, a theory of social agency can account for the transindividual dimension that at once sustains the distinctiveness of individuals and maintains the social field of relationality necessary for political action. Because each individual act acquires its split meaning through the interactions of convention, custom, personal habit (however generated), and idiosyncrasy—terms that have a supplementary relation to one another, in the Derridean sense—on the parts of both actor and audience, it instantiates (a version of) the social arena and creates new social relations at the same time.37 The split between self-sameness and difference which we know as iterability not only forges a relation among individuals but also establishes a relation of self-difference within individuals, which we know as the unconscious. For this *[End Page 741]* reason, the narcissistic result implicit in performativity is not a feature of this account of social agency, and for the same reason, even so-called complicitous actions can have transformative and progressive social effects. What transindividual agency does prohibit, as a condition of agency itself, is the kind of intentionalized translation of aims into outcomes that the political promises and ploys of Butler and de Certeau propose.38 Recognizing these limitations clarifies both the nature of our freedom and our responsibility. The retroversive logic of agency's social dimension explains why the sole conditions under which our actions become meaningful are also the conditions which compel us to act before we can know that meaning, binding us to as yet undetermined responsibilities. Because the social dimension of agency entails both autonomy and heteronomy, it necessitates action without foreknowledge of results: some determination must be made, some power must be exercised, some exclusion must be enacted, despite (and because of) that indefinite susceptibility to resignification, no matter our intentions. The degree to which we will succeed in these efforts, or be held accountable for them by others, or suffer sanctions as a result of our actions, of course, will not be determined solely by ourselves. This is the condition of signification. We ignore, disavow, or deny this condition to the degree that we imagine (or exhort others to act accordingly) that we can know in advance how others will interpret our meanings and thereby govern results, or that we can control the degree of susceptibility to resignification (creating greater or lesser availability to appropriation), or that we can exclude this exclusionary moment.39 John Harmon's realization that he unthinkingly set up the conditions under which innocent people could be falsely accused of his murder; Pleasant's discovery after her father's drowning that others determine his reputation; Wrayburn's failure to consider how he is endangering Lizzie; Riah's enlightenment as to the racist implications of his humility—these examples reaffirm, without setting a particular program of action, how responsibilities are incurred because social systems are instantiated in individual behaviors in complex ways, because the meanings of one's actions can be guessed at but not known in advance or governed, and because even the most slavish devotion to assumed social dictates cannot master the vicissitudes of meaning inherent in the transindividuality of signification. In this way, an appreciation of the social dimension of agency takes on ethical force.40 In my view, Butler's and de Certeau's theories are not only suspect but also unethical, because they *[End Page 742]* misrepresent how agency actually works. Ethics must be capable of being realized: by repudiating, however unwittingly, the social dimension within which all subjects and their actions have any significance, they fail to appreciate what ethics demands. If the social dimension of signification is the condition of agency, then it becomes easier to understand why the fantasy of intentionalized control over meaning lures us so forcefully. It is disturbing to discover how easily our meaning for ourselves can be destabilized and actions co-opted. Realizing that we are not linked securely, via permanent meanings, to larger social structures sheds light on how customs serve to protect us from the repeated shocks of being interpreted and misinterpreted: they give our actions a relatively predictable (if illusorily so) social meaning, even as recourse to these customs signals our need to be protected from threats to our sense of stable significance. By the same token, habitual and stabilizing social practices, like handshaking or marriage proposals, can be disturbing in themselves; using them, we seem to be living out someone else's script, creatures of custom rather than autonomous agents. To use the pun Dickens puts in Venus's mouth, social agency is a function of the "human warious"—"wary-us" or "war-I-us." In this arena, each individual, at once a member of a collective and distinct from it, is in a perpetual struggle to exempt herself from the vicissitudes of social meaning, without detaching herself completely from the social world on which she must rely for any sense of her own significance. When we experience such constraints on our ability to impose our will or our estimation of our own value, we may long to regain the comfortable illusion of intentionalism. Yet if we could actually realize such fantasies of control, we would risk ceasing to exist at the symbolic level, for we have no meaning outside of this social arena. At the same time, even though the wish to impose meaning on others is a wish to circumvent the social dimension of meaning, it is also true that these fantasies themselves help glue the social arena together. Dickens's presentations of Pleasant's contradictory status with respect to (self)determination, then, accurately conveys the fact of self-difference or transindividuality at the level of social meaning as well as the consequences of realizing the fantasy of narcissistic omnipotence. By articulating social agency as an ethical matter, the novel helps us see why the passage from a cultural particular to a politically viable universal must be forged again and again, without reliable guides to the results, and how politics is predicated on repressing this history. If Dickens's politics do not meet our standards *[End Page 743]* of progressive thinking, nonetheless, the picture of social agency drawn in _Our Mutual Friend_ suggests that his progressivism stands at least on a par with our own. Endnotes -------- This essay was written with the support of Georges Lurcy Funds from Tulane University. The National Humanities Center provided generous assistance, and I am grateful to scholars there (John Kucich, Dianne Sadoff, Harriet Ritvo, Ginger Frost, Geoff Harpham, and Jonathan Riley) for their comments. I also want to thank my colleagues Teresa Toulouse, Tom Albrecht, Faye Felterman, and Kellie Warren for their valuable suggestions. Anyone familiar with the work I have coauthored with Joseph Valente will recognize in this essay the debt I owe to our collaborative theoretical work. Of course I am responsible for all errors. 1. See Gregg Hecimovich's "'The Cup and the Lip' and the Riddle of _Our Mutual Friend_," _ELH_ 62 (1995): 955-77. 2. Charles Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1865) (New York: The Penguin Group, 1997), 27. Subsequent references to this novel will be cited parenthetically by page number; chapter titles are given in the text because there is no standard edition of the novel. 3. The novel is constructed in two main story lines, both devolving from the fact that the body of a drowned man is misidentified. In the first so-called Harmon plot, John Harmon, exiled heir to the Harmon fortune (comprised of vast dust mounds), returns to London from a life at sea to claim his inheritance or abjure it, depending on his assessment of Bella Wilfer, the girl his father's will insists he marry. Once landed, George Radfoot, John's companion onboard ship, conspires with the outcast riverman Rogue Riderhood to murder John, adopt his identity, and seize the fortune. Drugged and dressed in George's clothes, John is thrown into the sea but manages to drown George instead. When the body is found by Rogue and his sometime partner Gaffer Hexam, the authorities believe that John Harmon has been murdered; John goes to view the body incognito, which makes his face, if not his name, known to the police. To escape apprehension as a murderer and to prolong his opportunity to observe Bella, John adopts a new identity, "John Rokesmith," and takes on the duties of secretary to his father's most faithful employees and his own childhood protectors, Noddy Boffin and his wife, who have inherited the Harmon fortune and also taken in the impoverished yet imperious Bella Wilfer, feeling that she has suffered by the terms of the will. The illiterate Boffins have employed Silas Wegg, an envious one-legged man, to read to them; Wegg sees an opportunity to advance himself by finding another Harmon will among the dustmounds with which he plans to blackmail Boffin. Wegg enlists the taxidermist Mr. Venus in his plan, but Venus, who only participated while he was down in the dumps about being rejected as a marriage partner by Rogue's daughter Pleasant, reveals the plan to John Harmon. In the process of thwarting Wegg's plans, John falls in love with Bella and weds her. In the second Hexam story line, Gaffer Hexam is suspected of the Harmon murder. John seeks the true culprit, Rogue, and wrestles with his conscience about revealing himself so that Gaffer's daughter Lizzie will not suffer on account of the *[End Page 744]* false accusations against her father. Instead, John settles on blackmailing Rogue into helping him clear Hexam's name. Eugene Wrayburn, whom Lightfoot involved in the legalities surrounding the case, falls in love with Lizzie despite the difference in their social standing and his father's displeasure. Unfortunately, Lizzie's brother, Charlie, who is trying to better himself, wants Lizzie to marry his unappealing teacher, Bradley Headstone. Headstone feels so strongly about Lizzie that he frightens her: his passion turns into jealous rage against Wrayburn, whom he attempts unsuccessfully to murder. Lizzie leaves London in order to protect Wrayburn from Headstone, ultimately rescues him from Headstone's attempted drowning, and finally becomes his wife. Rogue blackmails Headstone with the knowledge of the attack, but when Headstone tries to kill Rogue, both end up drowning. These characters and a host of minor players—among them the nouveau-riche Veneerings; the usurer Fascination Fledgby, who engineers the bankruptcy of the Veneerings; Riah the Jew, who is forced to act as Fledgby's front man against his own moral code; Betty Higden, the poor woman who would rather die on the road than be taken to the poor house; and the crippled Jenny Wren, dressmaker to dolls, who takes care of her alcoholic father and, with Riah, befriends Lizzie Hexam—provide a set of comparisons and contrasts that invite and frustrate moral accountings in ways that, as I argue above, illuminate the conditions of social agency. 4. John Stuart Mill, _On Liberty_ (London: Harlan Davidson, 1947), 60. 5. This realistic dimension is supported by the narrative's reliance on apparently forced coincidence: both the realism and the coincidences highlight the likelihood of slips between cups and lips. 6. I greatly admire John Farrell's essay on partnering in _Our Mutual Friend_ ("The Partner's Tale: Dickens and _Our Mutual Friend_," _ELH_ 66 [1999]: 759-99), but he tends to establish his pairs by reading narrative fate as an index of moral value. 7. For example, it seems that John Rokesmith unwittingly teaches Rogue Riderhood how to mount an effective blackmail (Rogue-smith?), for the scene in Pleasant's shop where the disguised Harmon intimidates Rogue into repudiating his charges against Hexam is clearly echoed in Rogue's successful blackmail of Headstone in the schoolroom. Trying to distinguish these two cases by arguing that John acts from selfless or disinterested motives (to clear Hexam's name for the Harmon murder) while Rogue doesn't (his own neck is at stake) has some problems: at the time of his conversation with Rogue, Harmon self-interestedly decides to remain incognito in part because he is concerned about how the authorities would view his failure to come forward earlier. By contrast, Rogue's self-interestedness, if not his blackmail activities, is entirely proper, given that he is innocent of the crime in which Headstone seeks to implicate him. The novel also effectively demolishes the argument that ends justify means, showing that there can be no reliable way to ascertain whether one's intentions to do good will in fact result in a beneficial outcome. Good intentions evidently will not suffice, for Riah's sense of morality and self-sacrifice turns out to align him not just with the malicious Fledgby but also with a racist ideology and a predatory economic system. The examples of Headstone's and Wrayburn's love for Lizzie offer dramatic counterexamples to the proposition that loving intentions cancel out reprehensible effects as well as raise the question of the standpoint from which we are to assign value to outcomes. 8. See, for example, George Gissing's "The Radical," in _Charles Dickens: A Critical Study_ (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1904). Contemporary critics of Dickens's social views famously include J. Hillis Miller (_Charles Dickens: The World_ *[End Page 745]* _of His Novels_ [Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1958]); Jonathan Arac (_Commissioned Spirits: The Shaping of Social Motion, Dickens, Carlyle, Melville, and Hawthorne_ [New Brunswick: Rugers Univ. Press, 1979]); and Kucich (_Excess and Restraint in the Novels of Charles Dickens_ [Athens: Univ. of Georgia, Press, 1981]), among others. The view that Dickens offers useful insights into the nature of social relations and the mechanisms of social change is gaining currency, in part due to Elizabeth Ermarth's _Realism and Consensus in the English Novel_ (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1983); see, most recently, Farrell for a useful overview of the issues and critics in this discussion (797 n. 22). 9. While it is not the purpose of this essay to trace the links between Victorian and Victorianist accounts of agency, the interested reader will find a comprehensive account of the complexities and terminology of the Victorian debate in John R. Reed's _Victorian Will_ (Athens: Ohio Univ. Press, 1989). For one recent essay on this point, see Amanda Anderson's "The Temptations of Aggrandized Agency: Feminist Histories and the Horizon of Modernity," _Victorian Studies_ 43 (2000): 43-65. 10. In Victorian studies itself, explorations of the relative power of individual agents to challenge and transform dominant systems have been advanced primarily by feminist scholars, such as Nancy Armstrong, Mary Poovey, Deirdre David, and Anderson, and cultural studies scholars, such as Patrick Brantlinger, Anne McClintock, and D. A. Miller. See Anderson for a critique of this literature's exceptionalist claims. 11. Daniel Paul Scoggin has written that "Dickens employs the metaphor of living-deadness to identify the far-reaching desire by the avaricious to control the future." See his "Gothic Capital: Speculation, Specters and Atonement in the Victorian Novel," _DAI_ 59 (4):1181. 12. As his critics note, J. L. Austin contradicts himself when he admits that the effect of any "performative" speech act is always dependent upon context. See Austin, _How to Do Things With Words_ (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1962), 8. Because this theory and its criticisms have been well rehearsed, I abbreviate this account. See the critiques of Austin mounted by Jacques Derrida in his _Limited Inc._ (Evanston: Northwestern Univ. Press, 1988), and Joan Copjec in her "_India Song/Son nom de Venise dans Calcutte desert_: The Compulsion to Repeat," in _Feminism and Film Theory_, ed. Constance Penley (New York: Routledge, 1988). 13. Austin, 14. 14. Austin, 108. I reformulate this relation between perlocutionary and illocutionary acts from an unpublished manuscript coauthored with Valente. 15. Austin, 115, 105. 16. Judith Butler, "Imitation and Gender Insubordination," in _Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories_, ed. Diana Fuss (New York: Routledge, 1991), 24. 17. Butler, _Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity_ (London: Routledge, 1990), 148. 18. Butler, _Gender Trouble_, 148. 19. In the opening arguments of _Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative_ (New York: Routledge, 1997), Butler herself follows (and then apparently forgets) Derrida's critique of Austin's perlocutionary and illocutionary distinction, acknowledging that iterability allows merely for the possibility that a resignification will transform social structures. 20. Although Butler has disclaimed this volitional form of agency since being charged with it by critics of _Gender Trouble_, she continues to resurrect it, along with *[End Page 746]* its positional claims, as the political warrant of her theorizing about agency. See Melissa Clarke's discussion in "Rosa Parks's Performativity, Habitus, and Ability to Play the Game," _Philosophy Today_ 44 (2000 supplement): 160-68. 21. For Butler's influence on some feminist theorists' claims to create reliable political effects, see Lois McNay's _Gender and Agency: Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist Theory_ (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000). See Fiona Webster's "The Politics of Sex and Gender: Benhabib and Butler Debate Subjectivity" (_Hypatia_ 15 [2000]:1-22), for a concise discussion of Butler's theory of agency and its political potential. 22. Austin's (and Butler's) emphasis on the agent's intentions betrays a debt to the Anglo-American tradition of the philosophy of action, which states the minimal conditions of agency: the agent, one, has the capacity to choose between options and, two, is free from constraint to undertake the action chosen. Haunted by a Cartesian volitionalism, in which a mentally-situated will animates an otherwise inert body to act out its purposes, this account takes the agent as its reference point, limiting its considerations of agency to the effects _on the agent_. See Brian O'Shaughnessy, _The Will_, 2 vols. (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980), and Donald Davidson, _Essays on Actions and Events_ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). 23. There is a considerable literature in political philosophy based on the notion that such empathetic identification is necessary: without it, so the story goes, we would not be able to compare our positions with others in order to conceive values and institutions impartially. My position is that the empathy so conjured is always partial and always mediated by fantasies of similitude, the content of which will necessarily be different for the parties involved, notwithstanding the identification. Nonetheless, such exercises in identification form a crucial part of the social relation, so long as we understand that relation, as I explain below, to be necessarily split. 24. The members of this group best known in the U.S. are Pierre Bourdieu and Michel de Certeau. Luce Giard and Henri Détienne are other influential theorists. 25. In fact, Butler herself appeals to Bourdieu's theories for just this purpose; see her _Excitable Speech_, 134-35. Interestingly, she faults Bourdieu for making Austin-like distinctions between legitimate and illegitimate performatives, a criticism she does not apply to her own work (146). 26. De Certeau, _The Practice of Everyday Life_ (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1984), xi. Hereafter abbreviated _P_ and cited parenthetically by page number. 27. These theorists take their cue on nonintentionalism from the phenomenological account of habit articulated in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's _Phenomenology of Perception_ (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1995), who regards "the grasping of a habit" as "the grasping of a significance, but it is the motor grasping of a motor significance. . . . Habit expresses our power of . . . changing our existence by appropriating fresh instruments" (143, 144). For Merleau-Ponty, habits however acquired have nonintentional agency insofar as they reshape us and the world around us. As we obtain new bodily knowledge, our ability to transform our lives and our circumstances grows, no matter what our conscious intentions. See Clarke for a fuller discussion of Bourdieu's links to Merleau-Ponty. 28. For Bourdieu's definition of the _habitus_, his term for these durably inculcated predispositions, see _The Logic of Practice_ (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1980), 54-55. 29. Other parts of Pleasant's body also partake of this duality. For example, like her hair, the swivel eye she inherited from her father sometimes does what she wants and sometimes seems to act independently: neither eye nor hair are fully at her command. *[End Page 747]* 30. See Athena Vrettos, "Defining Habits: Dickens and the Psychology of Repetition," _Victorian Studies_ 42 (2000): 399-426. 31. I am grateful to Warren for this image of Pleasant-parrot as sailor sidekick. 32. Venus also associates Pleasant with parrots: he first met her when he was "down at the waterside . . . looking for parrots" (492). 33. For a less critical account of the political relevance of de Certeau's theory, see Mark Poster's "The Question of Agency: Michel De Certeau and the History of Consumerism," _Diacritics_ 22 (1992): 94-107; Ben Highmore's "'Opaque, Stubborn Life': Everyday Life and Resistance in the Work of Michel de Certeau," _Xcp: Cross-Cultural Studies_ 7 (2000): 89-100; and Michael Sheringham's "Michel de Certeau: The Logic of Everyday Practices," _Xcp: Cross-Cultural Studies_ 7 (2000): 28-43. 34. For an extended definition of the difference between strategies and tactics, see de Certeau, 35-39. 35. When Harmon sizes up Pleasant, we may imagine that he is assessing her moral worth. Yet because her shrewdness, closemouthedness, and rationalizing not only suit Pleasant to her quasi-larcenous business but also correspond to Harmon's need for a particular kind of service, it is only by according an absolute positive moral status to Harmon—one he himself refuses—that Harmon's use of Pleasant seems to be a philanthropic intervention earned by her positive moral qualities rather than a self-interested deployment of her morally ambiguous habits. 36. Since drafting this essay, I have read Bruno Latour's "Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern" (_Critical Inquiry_ 30 [2004]: 225-48), in which he exposes a "critical trick" of describing, without acknowledging doing so, subjects and objects as both determined and determining: "The subject is either so powerful that he or she can create everything out of his or her own labor . . . or nothing but a mere receptacle for the forces of determinations known by natural and social sciences; the object is either nothing but a screen on which to project human free will . . . or so powerful that it causally determines what humans think and do" (241 fig. 5). 37. The zeugmatic position of "mutual" which simultaneously separates and conjoins the two other words in the title of this novel is paradigmatic of these dual functions. 38. Some contemporary theorists of agency, such as Ernesto Laclau (_Emancipations_ [New York: Verso, 1996]), Chantal Mouffe (_The Return of the Political_ [London: Verso, 1993]), and Alain Badiou (_Ethics: An Essay in the Understanding of Evil_ [New York: Verso, 2001]), have recognized, albeit in different ways, the crucial importance of understanding agency in terms of signification, as a function of retroversion and reappropriation, basing political efficacy on what I am calling social agency. Badiou implicitly references the two operations of signification in his description of an emergent political situation; see esp. 112 and following. 39. Of course, political and social factors come into play to attempt to fence off meanings and enforce certain actions; nonetheless, signification works only by means of the necessary failure of stable meaning, as a function of transindividuality and retroversion. See, for example, Slavoj Zizek's _The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology_ (London and New York: Verso, 1999). 40. The same properties that make agency social also split social structures. A structure is available only as a function of and split among the various actions that are taken to be instantiations of it. Systems appear as a function of both stabilizing and dissolving operations, which is to say that they work by failing, just as signification *[End Page 748]* itself does. See Jean-Luc Nancy's _The Inoperative Community_ (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1991). In my view, the social nature of agency has truly democratic potential, for it requires us, first, to represent to each other, in a searching and public way, the vicissitudes of signification that will beset us when we act in the social sphere and, second, to identify more precisely, if provisionally, the multiple effects of conventions, institutions, and other mediating structures.


slaveholding



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 659-684
Free Carpenter, Venture Capitalist: Reading the Lives of the Early Black Atlantic
Philip Gould
---------------
of his master's son by claiming that he is merely obeying his master's instructions. When the son becomes violently irate, Smith wryly summarizes the American slave's predicament: QUOTE (376). By alluding to Christ's injunction to distinguish between spiritual and secular authority, Smith is able to call attention to the moral bankruptcy of slaveholding QUOTE --a thematic staple of the slave narrative characterizing later works by Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, and others. As a more openly secular account than Marrant's, Smith's Narrative simultaneously demystifies religious hypocrisy and sanctifies (through the religious connotations of


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
government in the American hemisphere until 1865. Borne of what C. L. R. James called QUOTE (Black ix), Haiti came to represent an encroaching threat to national and colonial interests throughout the New World, a frightening specter of revolution and retribution against both Anglo-American [End Page 411] and European slaveholding economies. Yet the history of its revolution was in fact QUOTE as Michel-Rolph Trouillot has argued (Haiti 82). Slavery in the Americas had from its beginnings been predicated on a worldview in which QUOTE (73): simply put, QUOTE (83). Both the revolution and the very existence of Haiti presented a challenge, in Trouillot's words, to the QUOTE

in the US before returning to Saint-Domingue to revolt; and a mid-nineteenth-century US disavowal of independent Haiti precisely as a nation of QUOTE and thus a potential threat to its own racially based economy. It was, however, the latter inter-American relation--between the first nation to abolish slavery in the Americas and its slaveholding neighbor to the north--that Faubert brought to bear upon his own drama of Ogé's uprising. In the opening scene of the first act, the Marquis de Vermont, a leading plantation owner and member of the colonial Superior Council, invokes the US in his response to news that the colony has been

Yet if Faubert seeks to consolidate the original status of his text in the introduction, he also repeatedly problematizes the copy-model dichotomy so often deployed to denigrate postcolonial literary production. When the slaveholding marquis cries, QUOTE the larger play clearly signals not an aesthetic lack in the copy but a moral bankruptcy in the model. At the same time, the opening scene gestures toward a play within a play: within the theatrical commemoration of Ogé and his role in Haitian national history, in other words, Faubert produces an inter-American drama--one that implicitly

redemption that link Tom's death with the deaths of the Haitian insurgents, opposing the former's passive acceptance of slavery and the latter's active vows to secure their rights or QUOTE (61). As in Stowe's novel, moreover, the primary story of the titular figure, Ogé, embeds the domestic tale of a slaveholding father's painful loss of his beloved Creole daughter, Delphine, a character repeatedly described as a noble and angelic spirit who, like Stowe's Eva, pleads on behalf of the enslaved and is proscribed before her family (including a vain and mean-spirited aunt who recalls Eva's mother, Marie St. Clare). Like Eva, Delphine serves often as a mouthpiece for her

it QUOTE as Stowe puts it, precisely QUOTE (224). Yet their relationship-- QUOTE in Hortense Spillers's analysis (32)--is meticulously stripped of any overt romantic potential by Eva's young age, by her spiritual status, and ultimately by an untimely death that prevents her from reaching sexual maturity in a heterogeneous, slaveholding Creole society that might [End Page 425] threaten the racial purity she embodies. In Faubert's play, on the other hand, the QUOTE of Eva's counterpart is not a slave at all but a young homme de couleur who studied with Delphine in Paris. The relationship between the worshipping Alfred and his beloved Delphine, moreover, overtly

set of racial anxieties prevailing in the contemporaneous US and emerging in response to the very inter-American theater in which the play itself is located. These concerns appeared with particular clarity in a series of vigilant new restrictions passed in the early nineteenth century by slaveholding states prohibiting the emigration of Haitians and other free people of color from the francophone Americas. As early as 1778, Virginia had enacted legislation to forbid QUOTE in general; passing similar restrictions over the next 25 years, North and South Carolina directed their legislation more specifically toward the West Indies. But by 1806, the newly


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
remain in a state of pupilage under the government of some other race" (574). Approaching this issue of a "natural" fitness for slavery from the opposite direction, O'Conor also worried aloud to the judges that if _Lemmon_ weren't overturned, "the non-slaveholding States could pen up all slaveholders within their own States as effectually as the slave is himself confined by the rule applied in this case" (580). Raising this specter of white slavery, O'Conor is warning the court that acknowledging what Evarts mordantly termed the arbitrary and "artificial relation" that makes

1854-1861_ (1973). 3. Along these lines, in his 1852 pamphlet, _The Condition, Elevatio Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States,_ Delany argued that "freemen even in the non-slaveholding States, occupy the very same position politically, religiously, civilly and socially, (with but few exceptions,) as the bondman occupies in the slave States" (14).


privileging



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
(327-28). Shields acknowledges that such studies would have to move away from the elite literary and aesthetic traditions that Civil Tongues surveys, and toward the politics of the streets, borders, and regions that occupy social historians like Newman and Waldstreicher. My second reason for privileging Shields's study is that its consistent use of the category QUOTE breaks the national frame used, to different ends, by Newman, Waldstreicher, Looby, and Irving. By divorcing the concepts of civilization and nation (and thereby questioning the historical progression that Elias


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
self-consciousness, an awareness of its own project of dramatic mimesis, suggesting in turn that Faubert's theatrical revisitation of slavery in colonial Saint-Domingue will in fact model itself after the QUOTE of the US. Self-reflexively announcing its own generic status as a form of imitation, the play engages a Western literary hierarchy privileging the original over the derivative, an often international dichotomy that was especially fraught with ideological implications in an increasingly postcolonial American hemisphere of the nineteenth century, where, as Porter has put it, QUOTE (515). This becomes especially clear later in the introduction to the play,


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
For Jewett, natural history has no such force; there is nothing of Emerson's sense that the naturalist's "study of things leads us back to Truth" ("The Naturalist" 75). Her most popular story, "A White Heron" (1886), quietly condemns the naturalist's search for specimens. Natural history depends on privileging the sight of visible form, on attaining a "visibility freed from all other sensory burdens," on suppressing the other senses that threaten the whole domain of the orderable (Foucault 133). The naturalism of _The Country of the Pointed Firs,_ in contrast, generally suppresses the visible on behalf of the tactile, the


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 348-357
Perpetual Emotion Machine
Michelle Burnham
---------------
they received. There is undoubtedly a worthwhile attention demanded by his portraits of Peterborough men such as Benjamin Alld and William Diamond and their broken bodies and lost estates, but by privileging those bodies as sites of verification Resch not only refuses to recognize that those, too, are finally rhetorical constructions, but also stops short of exploring in greater detail some of the more interesting stories about the politics of feeling that his book has


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
novel speaks directly to the widespread interest in history among Americanist literary scholars. Further, I suggest that the problems presented by historicism involve not only its means of evaluating texts, but, more fundamentally, the conception of history that underwrites it: namely, the privileging of a text's moment of production over and above its moments of reception. For a more extended critique of Tompkins's historicism, see Thomas 27-31. 7. See Thompson and Link in _Neutral Ground_, who accuse the New Americanists


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
American citizenship. In _Slaves in Algiers_, Rowson follows a similar strategy, as I argue below—one that is not Republican per se but seeks to ward off Federalist critiques of Republican licentiousness (with a language of feminized virtue) and deploys a Republican privileging of whiteness as a means of creating a genealogical identity for American women that endows them with political liberty. 3. Republican Genealogies


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1033-1051
Alive in the Grave: Walter Pater's Renaissance
Jeffrey Wallen
---------------
in his explanatory notes to the opening lines of The Renaissance: BLOCKQUOTE Pater's privileging of the Renaissance can also be seen as a rejoinder to Ruskin's enthusiasm for the Gothic, such as in his The Stones of Venice. Arnold's definition of the "critical effort" first appears in "On


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
manufacturing and towards the management of land.) By the very same process, Eliot undermines gendered boundaries between male business and female domestic realms. This distinctive critique of capitalism is, despite evident similarities, not so much Marxist as it is professional (and arguably Ruskinian). Garth's way of doing business, privileging love over acquisition, and labor value over exchange value, not only domesticates entrepreneurial practice (in the manner of Dickens's literary professional), but also repositions the man of business as a professional agent (Garth manages the property of others rather than, like a capitalist, or even Herbert Pocket,

important and, on the other, fundamentally constrained by the incompletion of the critical project that preceded it. 83 Consider, for example, Poovey's deliberate epistemological focus on dominant rather than oppositional discourses: an example she offers is the privileging of Chadwick's dominant Sanitary Report over the oppositional working-class responses it evoked. 84 By assuming that certain texts--such as those by Benthamite-influenced reformers--are the self-evidently dominant artifacts of epistemological study, Poovey reproduces the defects of an insufficiently

nor, on the decease of a bishop . . . do we (yet) offer his diocese to the clergyman who will take the episcopacy at the lowest contract. . . . [S]ick, we do not inquire for a physician who takes less than a guinea, litigious, we never think of reducing six-and-eightpence to four and sixpence" (173). Ruskin's privileging of a fee system is also interesting in relation to Middlemarch. Tertius Lydgate's attempt to supplant the extant practice of selling drugs to patients rather than collecting a fee for a medical consultation is, of course, a move away from early linkages between medicine and trade, and towards modern medicine's rigorous professionalization.


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
unattributed borrowings, fragmentary sketches, correspondences, transcripts, and opinions on everything from the French [End Page 744] revolution to the ethics of snuff. And it is the motley and cacophonous quality of these magazines that has authorized the privileging of the novel over the contradictory evidence and ambiguous conclusions offered by the anonymous periodical sketch. Yet there is reason to wonder if we in fact do not read this literary culture somewhat anachronistically. Indeed, I will suggest in what follows that all the reasons we might use to dismiss the

proves the strict, anti-romantic reader as vulnerable to dangerous texts as the novel-reading female quixote she believes Jane to be. If the novel offers a resolution to this crisis it is similar to the one presented by The Coquette, not in the privileging of any character's position but in the model of the novel itself. The long collection of letters neutrally adjudicates between our three principles. In the end, there is no clear villain, no strong hero, not even a strong plot: it is as if Brown is experimenting with a


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
Wollstonecraft's makeshift theory of sun deprivation and the history of global migration is fascinating in part because it insists on seeing the immediate present as a trace of lost origins ("the first dwelling of man happened to be a spot like this"), while insuring that that prehistory is rooted in a crude Germanic and Caucasian past. 51 In privileging a heliotropic impetus for the gradual peopling of the globe, Wollstonecraft suggests that environmental conditions not only delimit native character but are fundamentally connected to the history of racial and cultural difference. According to Wollstonecraft, a speculative venture such as this is a duty


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
individuals, leads [End Page 992] to effects which were no part of anyone's design. Emerson was hardly unaware of the phenomenon itself--it is a major theme in essays like "Compensation" and "Spiritual Laws," which follow "History" in Essays: First Series. Here again, though, it is hard to see why privileging the individual as the basic unit of historical interpretation should preclude an investigation of such concerns. But while factors outside the realm of individual intentionality may

self-reliance" (238). As Emerson makes clear from the outset of the essay, the interpreter is "to embody every faculty, every thought, every emotion which belongs [to the human spirit] in appropriate events" (237), an [End Page 1001] exhortation which would seem to undermine the case for privileging (or for that matter stigmatizing) any one character trait when it comes to interpreting the past. But the obvious inference here is that a concept like self-respect does not refer in any primary sense to a character trait at all but alludes, once again, to a certain interpretive stance or


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
constitute the modern subject, it is possible to suggest that Burney, far from simply trying to give nothing the narrative density of something, imaginatively reconstitutes the wanderer's body in the interest of a postrevolutionary reconstitution of rank. 6 For Burney, this project does not entail the simple privileging of one metaphysical term over another, such as we find, for example, in Edmund Burke's claim that only "vast libraries," "great collections of antient records," "paintings and statues," and "grand monuments of the dead" can counter the noxious abstractions of republican

The wanderer figures the novelistic development of what McKeon calls "questions of virtue." 25 The question of her worth cannot be resolved, as it is for McKeon in novels through Richardson's Pamela, by privileging the superior instrumentality of one medium of personal value--interiority or exteriority--over the other. 26 Instead, Burney offers as value her heroine's deferral of singular interiority and exteriority in practice. Bourdieu theorizes this change in the medium of value, rejected by Hazlitt in favor of the


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
It should also be noted that adoption wasn't always the endpoint. More often than not, the child simply wished to remain where she was for the time being, having established bonds and customs with her new family. In Commonwealth v. Hamilton (1810), an early Massachusetts case which helped to lay the groundwork for privileging the child's wishes, a mother attempted to reclaim her child who had been bound in service until the age of eighteen. The court responded: "as there is no evidence of any neglect of that duty on his part, but, on the contrary, the child appears to have been well treated, and to be attached to the family of


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
allegory" of the Romantic new historicism--where it reflects its Jamesonian, Althusserian roots--embraces what is (in the Romantic tradition) a Coleridgean understanding of allegory. 2 When such critics use a Coleridgean, or classical, understanding of allegory as structure, they then can displace the temporal component of allegory onto narrative, thus privileging historical, narrative context over the lyric allegorical text. I argue that in so doing, such critics *[End Page 1029]* suppress, or repress, the very criticism on whose shoulders they stand, that is, de Manian-inspired deconstruction. In formulating this claim, I turn to Robert Caserio's "Pathos


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
and the vicar. In More's fictional universe, this condition of having acquired moral influence over the lives of others turns out to be the surest index of individual regeneration. To be sure, the concern for personal agency in _Tom White_ does sometimes mystify the institutional operations of the Cheap Repository and the Sunday school movement by fictionally privileging less formal networks for communication and social change. The recipes and household tips that achieve mass circulation through this tract are passed along more casually within it: "I shall write all down as soon as I get home," Dr. Shepherd announces in response to Mrs. White's domestic advice,


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
elegant gewgaws—he is also expressing the deeper anxiety that informed such obsessive concern about Black appearance.45 His excessively rhetorical conjuring of clothing as epidermal augmentation registers an anxiety about the possibility that there are no immovable signs of Blackness. Hawthorne's privileging of the naturally generated clothes *[End Page 262]* of the unpolished Blacks suggests not a confidence in material signs but an apprehension that the surface signs of Blackness not only can but, more crucially, are being erased.46 His fantasy that the manmade


absenting



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
reader, this essay will conclude with a reading of "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" as an exemplary instance of Whitman's efforts to absent himself from the text by creating textual gaps that clear a space for the reader to fill. As possession reciprocates the act of absenting, the scene of writing and the scene of reading converge, and the subjective space the reader occupies becomes the site of the poem's construction and the effective origin of the poem itself. What seems self-evident, but perhaps not openly admitted, is that

sent in place of Whitman, taking his place _in absentia_. He sets himself up first as passive receptacle, filled and penetrated by language. In turn, his infusion of the reader with language simultaneously empties out the subject position of the poetic persona in a process of subjective absenting that replicates Whitman's initial passivity. The scene of writing and the scene of reading exist as separate but indissociable literary spaces that reciprocally shape the poet's access to the reader and the reader's access to the poetic text. Whitman's self-conscious inscription of

In the 1855 _Leaves of Grass_ "Black Lucifer" becomes simply "Lucifer," and the overt reference to revolt is repressed, intimated only in what Christopher Beach refers to as the "cultural intertext" of the whale.28 The placement of the Lucifer passage, however, enacts the process of absenting initiated in the notebook writings by creating a moment of subjective suspension in the poem. Michael Moon claims that "figures of black Americans in the 1855 _Leaves of Grass_ . . . are included in the text but effectively excluded from its 'fluid' dynamics. . . . [T]hey are represented as being

perfectly suited to a poem like "I Sing the Body Electric" with its emphasis on genealogical progression, a poem like "The Sleepers" allows the Lucifer figure to enact another type of textual fluidity, flowing into and filling the vacated space left by Whitman's momentary absenting. In other words, the inclusion of black Americans results in part from the textual fluidity that allows for the more radical exclusion or emptying of Whitman himself. In connection with this dynamic, the implied *[End Page 933]* opposition of master and slave in the Lucifer section continues to

sleep-chasing poet to the vehemence of the oppressed slave may be jarring, but as unsettling as such a passage may be, such subjective fluidity invites readers to acknowledge a moment of absence and, in effect, learn for themselves how Whitman invites his reader into the text. As in the Lucifer passage, Whitman's absenting creates a tangible locus for alien identification that simultaneously marks a space for the reader to enter the text. Before moving this argument from race to reading, I would like to

race—his turning over of poetic voice—was revolutionary, the revolution has more to do with the connection between race and the implied reader than with a "sympathetic poetry about slaves."34 In writing race, Whitman discovers more about a radical absenting of the mind than about race.35 In this light, we can now return to the unwritten _Poem of the Black Person_ and interpret it as a proper departure point for Whitman's race writing. A closer look at Whitman's proposal to "infuse . . . their passiveness—their character of sudden fits—the *[End

interpret it as a proper departure point for Whitman's race writing. A closer look at Whitman's proposal to "infuse . . . their passiveness—their character of sudden fits—the *[End Page 935]* abstracted fit" will provide a clearer representation of this absenting process. One of the meanings of "abstracted" that Whitman would have known is "absent in mind" (_OED_). While on one level the passage denotes the black person's predilection for absent-minded paroxysms, the

point for Whitman's race writing. While "fit" appears here to denote a violent tantrum, it may also suggest the way in which surfaces or bodies or articles are adjusted and adapted to fit one another. In this sense, we can read the near-afterthought of "the abstracted fit" as the poet's absenting of the mind to accommodate or adjust to a radically new subjectivity. More so than any particular sympathetic portrayal, it is in this radical/racial absenting that race stands at the theoretical heart of Whitman's democratic poetics.

bodies or articles are adjusted and adapted to fit one another. In this sense, we can read the near-afterthought of "the abstracted fit" as the poet's absenting of the mind to accommodate or adjust to a radically new subjectivity. More so than any particular sympathetic portrayal, it is in this radical/racial absenting that race stands at the theoretical heart of Whitman's democratic poetics. III. An Aesthetics of Absence

the athletic reader that Whitman calls for nor settles for a textually emplaced reader who functions as passive recipient for the poet's meaning. Whitman balances the apparent subordination of the reader by creating momentary suspensions in the poem, replicating the processes of absenting and possession discussed above. Wolfgang Iser's theory of active reading, specifically his ideas about the role of "textual blanks," helps to elaborate this process. Iser contends that "[a]s blanks suspend connectability of textual patterns, the resultant *[End Page 937]* break in _good

moments in the poem where Whitman suspends the poetic text: first, to invoke the absence of writing and, second, to absent himself from the poem. Whitman initiates this absenting process in section 4—the short, five-line passage that serves as both coda _in medias res_ and the transition to the aggressive thrust of his initial fusing approach: *[End Page 939]*

address to the reader, the more immediate and obvious metonymic association would be with the reader. Opposed to the idea of poetic reversion that underlies both Cohen's and Gilbert's readings, "Flow on, river/reader!" preserves the continuity of the poem while enacting the release of the text to the reader and the absenting of the poet which began in section 4. The transition from suspension and absence to the animated commands of the final section is grounded in the shared experience of the poem and plays upon the give-and-take between the reader's memory and expectation.49 If we

44. Roger Gilbert, "From Anxiety to Power: Grammar and Crisis in 'Crossing Brooklyn Ferry,'" _Nineteenth-Century Literature_ 42 (1987): 341. Gilbert examines the interplay of the constative and performative qualities of language in the poem to illustrate Whitman's transcendence of the absenting and deadly qualities of writing. 45. Cohen writes, "It seems that the recurrent fantasy of some readers to be sexually possessed by Whitman may appear the case in a


misreading



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
subjects. But that independence for Hawthorne is not a product of a naturally self-sufficient self; it is instead bred and cultivated in the associational activities of an independent civil society. 22 Bercovitch's second misreading has to do with Hawthorne's attitude toward the nation. Certainly many Americans see the US as fulfilling a divine mission, just as the Puritans saw themselves as the chosen people. But Hawthorne's work on/with that exceptionalist myth is too powerful to be confined by Bercovitch's narrative of secularization,


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
at large. This discussion allows me then to offer a reading of the novel that comprehends its participation in broader cultures of information as well as its engagement with authorial anxieties about the professionalization and control of knowledge production in a moment of informational chaos, when either misinformation or misreading could mean a matter of life or death. *[End Page 220]* 1. Medical Eloquence and Sympathetic Stomachs ---------------------------------------------


ELH 66.1 (1999) 87-110
"Monumental Inscriptions": Language, Rights, the Nation in Coleridge and Horne Tooke
Andrew R. Cooper
---------------
probably the main inspiration driving the proposal and eventual composition of the New/Oxford English Dictionary." 15 Aarsleff had in fact stated that: BLOCKQUOTE This is not simply to be dismissed as one critic misreading another. Taylor's use of Aarsleff is symptomatic of the way in which Horne Tooke's work frequently ruptures the seamless narrative imposed upon the complex history of language theory in England.


ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
issues feed off each other, these agendas also work at cross purposes. To understand the piece's literary satire, the reader need only perceive that Mr. Booley's interpretation is incorrect. To understand or even register the political criticism, the reader must then recognize the strength of this misreading. And it is indeed the case that no matter how outrageous the latter's interpretive constructions become, they remain politically cogent. It is equally the case, however, that no matter how politically cogent these remarks may be, as acts of interpretation they remain outrageous. It


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
cheiromantist, that is, reads Lord Arthur in the specific context of his practice of cheiromancy: as a fortune teller, naturally he must prophesy Arthur's future. In response, Lord Arthur interprets the claim as a duty and is unable to see that its meaning is merely provisional, occasioned by the expectations of fortune telling. This misreading is off-handedly enough made clear at the end of the story by Lady Windemere, who, twisting the proverbial knife, objects not to the cheiromantist's lack of authenticity but rather to his heartfelt expressions of romantic sincerity: "Do you remember that horrid Mr


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
Lucy, far from condemning Eliza, works to restore the latter's powers. In the first half of the novel Eliza is a gifted storyteller; she is confident in her own abilities and gathers a community of fellow women writers and male readers about her. After the initial scene of misreading in the garden, Eliza risks all to assume her ultimate role as writer, scripting a proposal to the man who had precipitously passed judgment on her. Eliza's response to the inevitable failure of her writing, which up to this point has remained relatively immune to the exigencies of the

facts speak for themselves. But neither is it simply the autobiography of Eliza Wharton, the would-be heroine of her own tale who would speak for herself at every turn. Where the sermonized version of Eliza's tale goes wrong is easy to see, as epitomized in the novel by Boyer's misreading and silencing of Eliza. Where Eliza's version of the tale goes wrong is perhaps harder to identify. But clearly it inheres in large measure in her fantastical belief that she can refuse all choices and connections and still control reception at every turn. The novel suggests that this


ELH 67.3 (2000) 819-842
Playing at Class
Karen Sánchez-Eppler
---------------
and homoerotic bonds that impel corporate/capitalist culture. In this account the "rags to riches" formula speaks a truth about capitalism that is, I think, deeply consonant with the constructions of childhood and class identity at stake in my analysis here. In both cases the misreading of Alger's stories correctly asserts the sources of pleasure and attraction within them. 21. "Number able to read and write 4,423; read only 2,371; unable to read and write 1,861; total 8,655 or 10% illiterate" (R, 1870, 18).


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
noninstrumentalizing and antiliberal has significantly influenced the larger project of which this essay is a part. 29. Warner has recently argued that liberal-symptomatizing readings of Whitman "[get] almost everything wrong, though it's a misreading partly developed by the late Whitman, as it were, himself." Whitman, in Warner's view, problematizes the "phenomenology of selfing" intrinsic to the "ideology of self-characterization" that underlies the consolidating and instrumental movement within liberal subjectivity: _Leaves of Grass_, Warner writes,


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
to a use for that experience of "mock study" that does not devalue but rather functions as the very condition of valuation. In its appeal to the activity of readerly self-observation, "Frost at Midnight" gives a different kind of support to the more modern notion that the strong reading is necessarily a misreading. 57 V. Solipsism and Sociality --------------------------

taste, or one's conception of autonomous selfhood in the first place--and in the distortion of "common sense" produced thereby, to indicate the possibility for radically transforming those conditions. If the literature of Romanticism does not itself fulfill that role, it leaves at least a map of misreading towards its possible realization. For the Romantics, after all, it is not simply that in reading we read ourselves, but that in reading we read ourselves as changed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
rhetorical question, Gaskell posits an imaginary, perfectly complementary audience for her tale: it is masculine, city-dwelling, and modern—and because its members comprehend the ostensibly more sophisticated systems of meaning that obtain in London, they can chuckle in unison at Cranford's misreading Brunoni or the Captain. Actually, Gaskell begins referencing her model listener even earlier *[End Page 1006]* in the novel and with the identical gesture. On page 2, Mary Smith relates a typically Cranfordian anecdote in which a woman continues using a red silk umbrella long

a mask) in which it is maintained for a certain time, through an at least minimally complex extravagance, before returning to the quiescence of the nonnarratable.13 The ladies' collective misreading of the Brunoni/robbery connection and the various hauntings that attend the text (Miss Matty has a recurring dream of a phantom child, the ladies tell gruesome ghost stories in the heat of the entirely imagined "panic") all seem to derive from an absent and longed-for external stimulation that


desiring



_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
_Opal_ 5.6 188). But there was a catch. "The beloved and honored Superintendent," one editorial announced ("Editor's Table," _Opal_ 5.6), "nor either of his estimable Assistants...do not advise or supervise in the matter, farther than to express their decisions that such and such individuals, thus desiring—and many are _here_, somehow seized with _author-mania_, who before never thought of the thing, may be furnished with writing materials and opportunities to 'improve their gift'" (188). Editorial freedom was always tempered by contributors' knowledge that writing was a privilege that could be taken away. And there is some evidence of more direct


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
pantheon of national heroes. Another writer protesting exclusion, William Grimes, closes his 1825 slave narrative with a defiant proposal: "If it were not for the stripes on my back which were made while I was a slave, I would in my will, leave my skin a legacy to the government, desiring that it might be taken off and made into parchment, and then bind the constitution of glorious happy _and free_ America. Let the skin of an American slave, bind the charter of American liberty" (232). By such rhetorical moves, those disenfranchised by Anglo-Saxon notions of nationhood exposed


ELH 66.1 (1999) 111-128
Seeing Romantically in Lamia
Paul Endo
---------------
spear, [it] went through her utterly, / Keen, cruel, perceant, stinging" (2.299-301). "Translated into dream terms," Frye writes, "the quest-romance is the search of the libido or desiring self for a fulfilment that will deliver it from the anxieties of reality but will still contain that reality." 23 Lamia exposes the futility of this search: to contain reality and deliver oneself from its anxieties--which is nothing but sublation in the Hegelian sense--presupposes a superhuman


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
celebration of their overthrow. The fantasy reinscription of the past also rebukes the syntax of the sadistic logos of history through a mobility derived from the attachment of the desiring image to a more private discursive order than the symbolic. Reik, we recall, uses the theater as an example of masochism's fantasy component, yet it would seem more appropriate to think of the cinematic techniques of montage and mise en scène in this connection. The fantastic properties of the masochistic image stand in

that serves as scapegoat for the transcendent abstractions of the sublime. This is a historical terrain; it emerges from the inequities of history as they are inscribed in the metaphors of power. As such, they have a power of resistance lent them by their situation, not intrinsic to them, a utopian dissent located in the desiring body. One should not perhaps say this with any hope or even with any belief. We know how all determinisms seek us out wherever we hide and show us that our most treasured utopian visions are the product of the same


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
such scenes might be said to take the place of the sympathizing character in the eighteenth-century sentimental text, thus permitting multiple identifications along [End Page 1027] the chain of observation. One could imaginatively (and emotionally) occupy any one or all of these positions--both insider and outsider, sympathizing spectator, desiring subject, and desired object. Such multiple identifications are made textually explicit in Enoch Arden by the repetition of the spectacle of dispossession. First Philip is portrayed as the hidden (and despairing) observer of Enoch and Annie's happiness, then Enoch looks on as Philip


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
The kind of doubleness (at the very least) that this nonequivalence implies is equally applicable to the male sexual body. Dorian's collection is a collection of histories which is also a coded collection of gay history, an intervention in the history of men desiring men. In this register, chapter eleven functions as a gay manual, a repertoire for an identity--but, crucially, one that is always already not identical to itself. 20 To return to the metaphor of space, this repertoire opens or makes space in female spaces--interior decorating, the collecting of bibelots, dress [End Page 186] fashion,


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
Read in light of Synge's own patriarchal nationalism, Nora's role in the play becomes further complicated. Though she represents, as a self-willed peasant female, a fundamental attack on Griffithian nationalism and rural patriarchy, she equally represents, as Synge's desiring female, the native appropriated by another form of patriarchal nationalist discourse. Yearning for an irretrievable primitive past, Nora functions as the incomplete native, the lacking native, the native who is never simply "a peasant" but always a construct/confirmation of (controlling) masculine desire. The degree


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
predictable in an adventure story, but it is also and relatedly predictable for a novel that encodes a colonialist experience and a colonial act of knowledge. The complex operations of sexual fascination and fear--what Robert J. C. Young calls (borrowing from Delueze and Gauattari) "the desiring machine" of colonialism--manifested themselves in colonial relations of domination in a variety of ways. As Young argues, they are apparent in the nomenclature of racial mixing; in scientific and cultural studies that build upon the nineteenth-century identification of


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
section 28. The passage more precisely explores the way particular sensations come attached to emotions and thoughts with particular valuations, and the ways in which those value-laden associations can be restructured by the subject-as-agent so as to bring the moral and the erotic life differently into line, thereby relocating the more heterogeneously desiring body at the center of identity and not in agonistic conflict with it. The first manifestation of "touch" that we see in the passage, where the object (the world, another person, the speaker's lawless body) impinges


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
_Schopenhauer as Educator_, written two years before Bradley's _Ethical Studies_, he urged, "The man who does not wish to belong to the *[End Page 304]* mass needs only to cease taking himself easily; let him follow his conscience, which calls to him: "'Be Yourself! All you are now doing, thinking, desiring is not you yourself'" (127). 13 More famously, of course, fourteen years later Nietzsche would give _Ecce Homo_ the subtitle, "How One Becomes What One Is." Eliot, for her part, recognized that becoming oneself was a struggle


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
the disaster that Malthus fears. This scenario of abundant disaster transposes the problem of the lack of the lack onto a social stage, suggesting that a monetary system of exchange, like the desiring subject, also relies on absence. Without death and scarcity, the social order would collapse. The empty place of power reappears here as the empty place of life and wealth: only the gap between what people have and what they might wish to have sustains them. In this novel, the Lacanian subject of desire, the Lefortian empty place of power, and the economic


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
condition of property then they may desert this enclave and assert their own interests and importance. How in that case might a stolen thing get a voice? The short answer is, through the same channel as the desiring owner, namely advertisement. The person who has lost a thing has it "cried." Moll *[End Page 954]* Flanders says a single unadvised woman is like a lost piece of gold or jewelry, and "if a man of virtue and upright principles happens to find it, he will have it cried, and the owner


seafaring



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
one another, he asks her "to stop at his house some day," so he can show her "some outlandish things that he had brought home from sea" (399). And Mrs. Todd has decorated her house "with West Indian curiosities, specimens of conch shells and fine coral which [three seafaring husbands] had brought home from their voyages in lumber-laden ships" (384). Such objects, which could well come from Herman Melville's Spouter-Inn, are the remnants of the mercantile economy by which coastal villages like Dunnet Landing thrived before the Civil War. But just as that economy has disappeared, providing the

fully naturalized in this account (the guitar's inspiration coming from the wind), nonetheless there is a parallel narrative in which the depths of the house are explored. A friend of the family's, Captain Lorenzo, wanders through the house in search of a chest that the woman's seafaring husband was supposed to have hidden somewhere in the house. He "rummag[es] in the arches an' under the stairs, an' over in some old closet where he reached out bottles an' stone jugs" (549). The story of the guitar's animation is inseparable from the search through the house, the investigation of all the dark insides of the house. The


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
Critics often note the abundance of foreign imports in Dunnet Landing6 —but what were Maine villagers _exporting_ in exchange for such exotic goods? The narrator's reference to the "West Indian curiosities, specimens of conch shells and fine coral which [Mrs.Begg's seafaring husbands] had brought home from their voyages in _lumber-laden ships_" quietly reiterates a fact already obliquely registered by the title of Jewett's volume: Maine was trafficking in trees—primarily hardwoods like its prized white pines, but also various products derived from its "pointed"

that "The function of all this colonial exotica—whether tea caddies from the other side of the equator or shells left on an island from pre-Dunnet days—is to situate Dunnet at the center of a far-flung empire. It does not matter that the town's seafaring heyday has passed; Dunnet still occupies a position of cultural power" (93). 7. In his appendix to _The Maine Woods_, Henry David Thoreau discusses both the fir's lack of practical value and its abundance


fetishizing



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
easily, there was considerable difficulty in mobilizing what he called "impediments" (215; and see Hinsley, _Smithsonian_ 83-123). The neglect of trade (and thus the very idea that goods might circulate beyond the reach of language) symptomatically demonstrates how thinking about things--thinking about things as embodied thoughts--meant fetishizing place, just as thinking about place meant fetishizing things. Mason had previously joined Goode in asserting scientific authority by analogizing ethnology to botany or zoology. Artifacts were grouped to

"impediments" (215; and see Hinsley, _Smithsonian_ 83-123). The neglect of trade (and thus the very idea that goods might circulate beyond the reach of language) symptomatically demonstrates how thinking about things--thinking about things as embodied thoughts--meant fetishizing place, just as thinking about place meant fetishizing things. Mason had previously joined Goode in asserting scientific authority by analogizing ethnology to botany or zoology. Artifacts were grouped to show the sequence of technological developments, invariable among

"simple country people" who "have a kind of fetichism" (103), she means that they believe there is a "personality" in "what we call inanimate things" (104). In _The Country of the Pointed Firs,_ Jewett permits no such distancing and simplifying account of the local population: the narrator herself participates in the fetishism, fetishizing the landscape and villagescape. Not only are people perpetually metaphorized as natural objects, but artifactual objects are thoroughly personified (377). Despite the resulting atmosphere of mystery, particular objects attain legibility, and what one reads is human


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
past—not to mention the violent realities of contemporary policies and institutions. In the face of cultural pressure to construct a national narrative, however, Poe mocked the fetishizing of American subjects, and his complicated resistance to literary nation-building left telltale evidence in his fiction—sometimes, as I will suggest later, in the ominous form of disfigured or putrefying bodies. Despite his Virginia upbringing and early association with the _Southern


locks



_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
announcing in an asterisked footnote that "the cut on the outside title page is a tolerable representation of the features of Mrs. P., though by no means a flattering picture" (5). The image is a staid representation that resists being construed as tantalizing even as it is at odds with the header on each page, _The Octoroon Slave and Concubine._ No stray locks escape, no bare flesh peeps through the thin and revealing clothing Mattison is so eager to have Picquet describe. As Barbara McCaskill notes, "when a face fair-of-skin peered from the page . . . the frontispiece engraving began the process of confronting white America with the terrible


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE Not the continental instruments of judicial torture but the very doors, locks, bolts, and chains of incarceration are "engines" of tyranny that constitute the "empire" of man over man and turn the free man into a slave: "I have felt the iron of slavery grating upon my soul" (182). Caleb's "soul-sickening loathing" at the prospect of "spend[ing] a few weeks in a miserable prison, and then to perish by

of human depravity" (103). Falkland applies the epithet to Caleb when he accuses him of theft (162), and it is picked up by Forester (174). Caleb finally applies the term to the legal system of tyranny: "Among my melancholy reflections I tasked my memory, and counted over the doors, the locks, the bolts, the chains, the massy walls and grated windows that were between me and liberty. These, said I, are the engines that tyranny sits down in cold and serious meditation to invent. This is the empire that man exercises over man. . . . How great must be his depravity or heedlessness who vindicates this


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
myth—but because Shelley delays mentioning her female countenance until the very end of the poem, and it is then that we find out she is dead. The maniac maid who lies down passively in the streets in _Mask_ has been transformed into a trunkless female head, "a woman's countenance, with serpent locks, / Gazing in death on heaven from those wet rocks" ("M," 6.39-40). This change reveals the actual body at stake: not only does the mirror of Medusa's breath suggest her own complicity in her death, but the poem's significance also depends on her dead body. By giving "It" a female face, by

mirror of breath, in which Medusa's countenance is reflected back to her. This self-reflection is dangerous; it threatens to fix Medusa as victim, to leave her a trunkless head. Though "every-shifting" ("M," 5.37), the mirror contains her revolutionary potential, revealing merely "a woman's countenance, with serpent-locks / Gazing in death on heaven from those wet rocks" ("M," 5.39-40). To be caught in this brazen glare is to stay in the dynamic of oppressor/oppressed.

voices and speak for them. Both of these are mistakes that Shelley wanted to avoid. Given this context, "the inextricable error" is not, as McGann claims, Medusa's sin, which puts the blame on her, but the violence of patriarchal oppression. This oppression kindles the serpents' "brazen glare" and locks *[End Page 199]* the oppressed into the position of victimized woman, in which her only options seem violent retaliation or complicity in her own victimization. In the intricate windings of this poem, the poet attempts to save himself, the reader, and the victimized woman from


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 141-165
William Blake's Androgynous Ego-Ideal
Tom Hayes _Baruch College and The Graduate Center_ _City University of New York _
---------------
Mellor describes it as an "organ of Benevolence."21 Milton Klonsky refers to it as a "strange brachite growth" and remarks that we would cast the figure as "the Man from Outer Space in any science fiction movie."22 Robin Hamlyn says it "suggests the tree of knowledge."23 Catherine said that when Blake was young his "locks stood up like a curling flame, and looked at a distance like radiations, which with his fiery Eye and expansive forehead . . . made his appearance truly prepossessing."24 The lines streaming from Blake's forehead, in the profile portrait that Catherine made a few years after Blake's death, could be seen as such a fiery eye (figure 5).


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
49. See Shakespeare's _Julius Caesar_ , in _Complete Works_ , 2.1.191. The entry on anachronisms in F. E. Halliday's _A Shakespeare Companion 1550-1950_ (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1952), emphasizes their amusement value: "[C]locks strike in Rome and Cleopatra plays billiards," he reports, "Caesar wears a doublet, Chiron carries a rapier, and Gloucester in pre-Christian Britain needs spectacles" (24). Jonas Barish notes that "most of Shakespeare's anachronisms are [so] discreet" that New Arden editors


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
(at least in imagination) the internal states of her forlorn and long-dead parents. Miss Matty describes a Cranford that existed long before the one Mary Smith records. In fact, the story of Peter is really one of origin—it's the violent rupture of his parting that seals Cranford off from the rest of the world and locks it in a timeless, *[End Page 1002]* changeless, Eden of "Amazons" (1). After Peter leaves, Mrs. Jenkyns sickens and dies, and a guilt-ridden, feminized version of her husband soon follows. The day her mother dies, Deborah vows never to marry because it would mean abandoning


Underlying



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
problematic layers within the structures of Protestant theory and practice: what began as a broad-based theoretical refutation of Protestant religion (see, for example, his early break with Channing in _The Mediatorial Life of Jesus_ [1842]) led eventually to investigations of the _causes_ of Protestant failure. Underlying the ruins of Protestantism, Brownson found an unseemly obsession with humanism or philanthropy (both of which are harshly pejorative terms within his lexicon). Subsequently, at the deepest level of humanism, he found idolatrous impulses to erect false gods. Above all, and motivating and conditioning the impulse toward false gods, he found culpable the drenchingly


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 496-508
South of the American Renaissance
Thomas M. Allen
---------------
Carolina, race riot, does not at least partially serve to perpetuate another set of familiar notions. As Woodward points out, the rest of the country hastraditionally viewed the South in terms of poverty, religious fundamentalism, antimodern agrarianism, and, of course, slavery and racism. Underlying these dismal themes is the fundamental trope forSouthern identity in the American national imagination: pathology. Surely the South is more complex than this, and the suppression ofthat Southern complexity tells us something important about America's effort to define its national identity in


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
school of thought, aptly remarking that "[t]hese fresh accusations served the same purpose in New York as had the accusation of Governor Phips's wife in Salem. The trials ceased abruptly" (225). 12. Underlying my discussion of what Walter Benjamin calls a "state of siege" is Michael Taussig's use of Benjamin to describe the disciplinary power when the state deliberately uses disorder, uncertainty, and paranoia as tools of social control.


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
Both Long and Benezet, despite their differing views of race and their conflicting aims, accept the notion that the black races are inferior. By contrast, Thomas Clarkson, who paid generous tribute to the effects of Benezet's work, goes further than most in stressing the equality of the African. Underlying his arguments against the slave trade was a Christian universalist view of race. He believed that all mankind sprang from the "same original" and that the notion of separate species contradicted scripture and science. 33 His first work on the subject, the prize-winning Cambridge dissertation An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
that he has: [End Page 836] BLOCKQUOTE Underlying the humor there is almost a nightmarish quality to a newspaper and periodical press that can not only circulate stories of scandalous meetings with convincing authority and efficiency, but can even be used to fabricate such meetings out of nothing. At the center of this malevolent characterization of print stands Joseph


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
limitations and united together in civilization through technology. In both cases, for all their discussion of commerce, commentators omit the economic ground of the expansion of the telegraphic network and its consolidation into the Western Union monopoly by the late 1860s. 44 Underlying the rhetoric of both, however, is another kind of materiality, the way in which nerving the nation (and the world) at once freed it from particular bodies and at the same time re-embodied it. While the telegraph was described as an instrument both demonstrative and productive of the dominance of white mind


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
"as" a form of metaphysical inquiry. Kathleen Coburn is therefore correct to remark in her gloss on that entry that Coleridge offers "[t]he first hint of the _Biographia Literaria_, and an important elucidation of its form" (_CN_, 1:1515n). Beyond that "hint," however, Coleridge gestures towards a momentous revolution in modern philosophical thought. Underlying Coleridge's decision to write his metaphysics in, and as, his life is a shift occurring in this period towards the role of the self as a legitimate source for such discoveries, and for the universal validity of principles so derived. It is a story, in short, of autonomy. Coleridge implicitly posits the autonomous self

self-observation frequently produces a distortion of common sense--an experience of doublevision, a relic of childish thought--as the condition of invoking a _sensus communis_. Such narratives as the _Confessions_, with its anxious opening address "To the Reader," embody this experimental act and so compel its readers to encounter it in similarly embodied form. Underlying De Quincey's pleading and his nervous sensitivity to reproach in those pages, perhaps, is the recognition that the critical judgment is subject to the same distortions. The _Confessions_ thus brings the rule of aesthetic judgment into contact with the cognitive procedures that it mimes.


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
Godwin might argue that people, once taught to be free, would recognize this wish as their own, experiencing it not as coercion but as liberation, but in so doing he would presume that he knows what is best, that without reason such a man "will never rise to the dignity of a rational being" (_E_, 692). Underlying his philosophy is the coercive demand that people eradicate all coercion: "the dictates of reason," Godwin writes, will bind people "more strongly than with fetters of iron" (_E_, 660). Although he eliminates every other mode of coercion, he never questions the demand that humanity eventually liberate itself from them, or that every virtuous person must be


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 141-165
William Blake's Androgynous Ego-Ideal
Tom Hayes _Baruch College and The Graduate Center_ _City University of New York _
---------------
Here, as elsewhere, such as when Blake says, "In Eternity Woman is the Emanation of Man she has No Will of her own There is no such thing in Eternity as a Female Will" (_CPP_, 562), he anticipates Lacan's startling observation that "the Woman does not exist."13 Underlying both of these provocative statements is an awareness that sexual equality cannot be achieved by simply acknowledging the difference between masculine and feminine traits and allocating to each a *[End Page 146]* positive mutual identity, because in many binary oppositions—aggression/passivity,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
relationship between these literary scenes, and that the recursivity between absence and possession offers valuable insight into Whitman's own understanding of his poetic project. Underlying the poet's myriad attempts to articulate a theory of language is the sense of an ineluctable evolutionary progression that repeats the influx and efflux of the writer/reader engagement. Whitman's linguistic writings develop a theory of absent centers and deferred origins, mirroring the creative enterprise of his poetics.

reciprocal gazing through the fluid medium of the text that inscribes both writer and reader, neither at the expense of the other. Underlying this notion of a dual inscription is a concern with how the text of the poem and, more specifically, writing itself function. In a manner complementary to Cohen's reading, Roger Gilbert claims that the poem primarily concerns Whitman's confrontation with the reality of his own mortality, a confrontation


Corresponding



_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 93-102
Transatlanticism Now
Laura M. Stevens
---------------
_Enlightenment Fiction in England, France, and America_, and W. M. Verhoeven's edited collection _Revolutionary Histories: Transatlantic Cultural Nationalism, 1775-1815_ present three distinct approaches to literary study within a self-consciously Atlantic context. Corresponding roughly to Armitage's categories of historical scholarship, they also operate implicitly—or in Giles's case, explicitly—through three tropes of transatlantic analysis, which I will call the _cracked mirror_, the _seamless garment_, and the _circulatory system_. Each of these


ELH 67.4 (2000) 951-971
John Thelwall and Popular Jacobin Allegory, 1793-95
Michael Scrivener
---------------
Two or "Gagging" Acts, between which were the sedition trials in Scotland and the treason trials in London for the leaders of Scottish and English Jacobinism, John Thelwall played a central role not just politically as leader and lecturer of the London Corresponding Society but culturally as allegorical satirist, song-writer, and poetic parodist. 1 Thelwall's cultural production illustrates the unstable boundaries between discrete discourses (political, aesthetic, and legal), as his songs and allegories exist in both oral and print cultures. As legal evidence for Thelwall's

song-writer, and poetic parodist. 1 Thelwall's cultural production illustrates the unstable boundaries between discrete discourses (political, aesthetic, and legal), as his songs and allegories exist in both oral and print cultures. As legal evidence for Thelwall's and the London Corresponding Society's seditious and treasonous intentions, these poetic texts are sites for conflicting interpretations. The government's wish to punish what it perceives as symbolic violence in the various texts is not unconnected with the violence of the judicial system and of loyalist groups. In this

then put on trial and ultimately acquitted for publishing a seditious allegory. The acquittal, an invigorating triumph for London Jacobinism, inspires Thelwall to write yet another defiant allegory that is published only after his own acquittal for treason in 1794. The three songs he composed for the London Corresponding Society that were used as evidence against him at his treason trial Thelwall publishes in 1795 in his periodical, The Tribune, which, however, is forced to discontinue because of the repressive legislation passed at the end of 1795. At lectures during 1796 and

----- At his trial for treason in 1794, the prosecution used as evidence three of Thelwall's songs that were sung and distributed at London Corresponding Society meetings and that he later published in The Tribune. 3 One satirizes the military debacle at Toulon in 1793, another the rhetoric of constitutionalism, "Britain's Glory; or, The Blessings of a Good Constitution," and the third, the one I wish to examine, is a more general satire, "A Sheepsheering Song." 4 His

dependent on print, for being collective rather than individualistic, and for being the symbolic interaction of a politicized group outside the purview of constitutionally sanctioned authority. They were an indispensable component of democratic reform dinners, London Corresponding Society meetings, radical assemblies, and protests. Even after severely repressive legislation made open political work impossible, radicals could still retreat to their taverns and sing radical songs. Iain McCalman writes extensively of the radical use of "free and easies" for political organizing and

He publishes the ballad after his own acquittal for treason, just as he wrote the poem initially after Eaton's acquittal for sedition. Indeed, the preface and text of the poem are celebratory, commemorating a triumph over the forces of repression. The London Corresponding Society celebrated by producing medals imprinted with a Chaunticlere image. 22 The plot of the poem is as follows: The ghost of John Gilpin, a comical character in Cowper's poem by that name, awakens "Lawyer

ed. Donald H. Reiman (New York: Garland, 1978), iv. John Gilpin's Ghost is hereafter cited parenthetically in the text by section and line numbers and abbreviated J. 22. See Selections from the Papers of the London Corresponding Society, 1792-1799, ed. Mary Thale (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983), 117 n. 50. 23. Steven E. Jones, Shelley's Satire (De Kalb: Northern Illinois


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
popular culture, replacing the festive and sometimes prodigal traditions of communal life with more sober and frugal practices dictated from above. In a provocative article, Susan Pedersen has challenged the tendency among historians to understand the Cheap Repository in narrowly political terms, as an assault on Painite radical discourse and the London Corresponding Society. Her argument is compelling in many respects. There is ample evidence that, in their formal features and appearance, the Cheap Repository Tracts sought to imitate, and thus supplant, a vast body of popular chapbook and broadsheet literature, which had long been treated with suspicion by evangelical


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
central premise of the _Enquiry_, that actual legislation falsifies the decrees of immutable reason. Not long after completing _Caleb Williams_, Godwin wrote a pamphlet attacking the way the Lord Chief Justice conceived of "constructive treason" in a case against several members of the London Corresponding Society. 19 As Helfield shows in the pamphlet, Godwin argues that the law "is and must remain constant" and have the same meaning in all circumstances, in effect that "it is an objective and self-contained entity that can be apprehended independently of judicial constructions." But this novel's ending demonstrates that the law can be known only through


shearing



ELH 67.4 (2000) 951-971
John Thelwall and Popular Jacobin Allegory, 1793-95
Michael Scrivener
---------------
There are twelve eight-line stanzas of alternating iambic tetrameter and trimeter lines, with strong rhymes at the end of the trimeter lines: abcbdefe. Thelwall plays with the ambiguity of fleecing--both sheep and humans. To shear is to fleece, so that shearing and fleecing are used interchangeably. The song's theme, "all the world are sheerers" (S, 4), is developed in a series of vignettes beginning appropriately in the country (S, 1-63), and culminating in the city (S, 64-108). The song's humor comes from the contrast

fleecing are used interchangeably. The song's theme, "all the world are sheerers" (S, 4), is developed in a series of vignettes beginning appropriately in the country (S, 1-63), and culminating in the city (S, 64-108). The song's humor comes from the contrast between shearing as harmless cutting of sheep's wool and harmful "cutting" of people. The gleeful tone and satirical focus are announced in the first stanza: BLOCKQUOTE (S, 1-9)

are announced in the first stanza: BLOCKQUOTE (S, 1-9) Death has the last word, the final shearing. The refrain is an almost absurd assertion, as "we" are depicted as willfully shearing, despite ourselves. Pastoral symbolism inevitably suggests a parallel between innocent sheep and innocent--or gullible--people, as well as a parallel between shepherd and social authorities. However, the

(S, 1-9) Death has the last word, the final shearing. The refrain is an almost absurd assertion, as "we" are depicted as willfully shearing, despite ourselves. Pastoral symbolism inevitably suggests a parallel between innocent sheep and innocent--or gullible--people, as well as a parallel between shepherd and social authorities. However, the song pointedly [End Page 952] avoids the bathos of victimized

between innocent sheep and innocent--or gullible--people, as well as a parallel between shepherd and social authorities. However, the song pointedly [End Page 952] avoids the bathos of victimized innocence. The sheep, after all, are "silly," and the song seems to equate shearing with living in a world where it is shear or be sheared--or more accurately, whether one shears or not, one will inevitably be sheared, sooner or later. After the introductory first stanza the song's first part, focusing

as "we" of "every rank and state" are fleecers of one sort or another, but the song's disenchanted stance makes the assertion of popular rights that much more compelling, as the difference in degree is reinforced by the bone-picking image--suggesting that governmental shearing is of a much more deadly nature than other kinds--and as the "golden fleece" of freedom is one of the very few images of transcendent value in the entire song. To risk death for an ideal, in the context established by the song's meaning, is to be extraordinarily heroic in a world of shearers. Although not

kinds--and as the "golden fleece" of freedom is one of the very few images of transcendent value in the entire song. To risk death for an ideal, in the context established by the song's meaning, is to be extraordinarily heroic in a world of shearers. Although not elaborated, a system of values counter to shearing is evoked by the "golden fleece"--a fleece not marked by fraud, trickery, and self-interest. [End Page 954] As a song for an audience of mostly urban artisans and

whereby eventually the king would lose his life in a political conflict. 5 Factors contributing to "Sheepsheering's" legally treasonous status include its access to a popular audience, its popular form as a song, its discrediting of the constitutionally sanctioned opposition (the Whigs), the shearing symbolism's hinting of the guillotine's decapitation of royalty and aristocrats, the apocalyptic conclusion that evokes symbolically a revolutionary transition, and in general the overall repudiation of ruling-class legitimacy. The song takes for granted popular sovereignty; it is


narrating



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 659-684
Free Carpenter, Venture Capitalist: Reading the Lives of the Early Black Atlantic
Philip Gould
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE Cast in the language of divine deliverance, these two scenes reveal the power of language for both protagonist and autobiographer. By narrating his story to Aldridge in a way that capitalizes on the ambiguities of liberty, Marrant fulfills at once the expectations of evangelical Methodism and the anti-authoritarian theme residing just below the narrative surface. This is not conventional captivity narrative. As opposed to, say, Mary Rowlandson's

(which made the slave account for only part of a human being for purposes of state taxation and representation), Madison argued for QUOTE (Rossiter 337). Whereas Marrant sentimentalizes familial relations (chiefly through the biblical model of the Prodigal Son), Smith reduces them to the prosaic realities of slave economy. In narrating his subjectivity out of the Madisonian paradox underwriting slavery, Smith nonetheless perpetuates the ideology of value endemic to slave capitalism. Like the character featured in his own narrative, the autobiographer Smith commits the sin of slavery (apparent, for example, in the epigraph from Thomas Clarkson). He commodifies


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
read as prophetic. When read alongside Brown’s courtroom address, it suggests the transformation that the rhetoric of suffering will undergo during the war years. As the bodies mount, a theological emphasis on Christ’s love as a model for human compassion fails to account for the crisis. Those responsible for narrating the war--from politicians to poets--conjure a punitive God who exacts obedience in the form of human suffering. A reformist construction of slave pain provoking the conversion and consequent radicalization of the unenslaved makes way for a wartime rhetoric of pain as the condition of a white nation paying penance to an angry God for its crimes against slaves.


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
naturalism must struggle. For if character is explicable too narrowly in terms of indigenous scene, then the humanitarian concern for the waste of ability makes little sense. The difference between materialist anthropology and the materialism at work in Jewett's fiction amounts foremost to the difference between describing a culture and narrating the lives that compose a culture, for narrative--even naturalist narrative, even regionalist narrative--can hardly proceed without imagining alternative fates for its characters.


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
mechanisms of social cohesion, specifically the motivation for political obligation. 16 But political and legal meanings are not measured against some abstract, independent, or objective truth--and rarely in the theoretical idiom of political discourse. They are measured against alternative forms of organizing, narrating, and understanding political experience. In the wake of war, nuptial contract and romance collaborated in narratives of social order, even as they offered alternative fictions for how national ties--other than the political, economic, and social--might secure a citizen's allegiance.


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
paradoxical "destructive progress," or like the corpse that "decay[s] by piece-meal" even as it extends its bodily boundaries by "filling the air with deadly exhalations." The mass response, as described here, inverts Stevens's discovery of Mervyn on his doorstep; common "credulity" starkly contrasts with Stevens's detached demeanor. Mervyn, narrating this sequence, reminds his audience repeatedly that these images were not yet based on his own observations. Rather, he represents the news from the city as a rumor with a weighty life of its own, a rumor that "swelled" until it filled the farmhouse like an unwanted guest. 15


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
boundaries; she is not confined to a particular age (which is not to say that she stands outside of history—only that she is embedded within it in complex ways). So while Sedgwick's story—her narrative discourse—concerns Puritan New England, she situates her narrator—the text's narrating instance—at some indefinite moment in the future she merely calls "now": "Where there are now contiguous rows of shops, filled with the merchandise of the east, the manufactures of Europe, the rival fabrics of our own country, and the fruits of the tropics . . . were, at the early period of our history, a few log-houses, planted


ELH 66.3 (1999) 707-737
Historical Space in the "History of": Between Public and Private in Tom Jones
George A. Drake
---------------
725] And while Providence may shape final outcomes in Fielding's view, it registers in his novels as an effect rather than an operant force susceptible to analysis--Fielding's narrating voice almost never mentions it. Instead, Providence is invoked by Fielding's least credible characters--Blifil, Partridge, and the Man of the Hill--and even when more sympathetic characters offer providential explanations, they are made the butt of satire. When Adams admonishes Joseph Andrews to accept what


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
speaks of a loss of speech: BLOCKQUOTE In so excessively speaking the loss of speech the Mariner makes loss constitutive of the tale he tells. He is an artist in the Dionysian mode, narrating loss as a means to narration. But he is mad too--medically speaking. In its excess, the Mariner's speech is painfully consistent with contemporary medical descriptions of melancholia, that traditional pathology of loss.


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
pass my time thus?" (CH, 5). This opening is all but convention for Brown: the writer fully broken down, too close to the scene of trauma to go on. But here, unlike in Wieland and Edgar Huntly, the narrative begins not with the writer at the end of the experiences narrating them to a silent audience, but with the writer in the midst of the experiences, narrating them to an audience who will not only respond, but who will script his responses and actions as well. For a short novel, the story is a fairly complex weave of love

Brown: the writer fully broken down, too close to the scene of trauma to go on. But here, unlike in Wieland and Edgar Huntly, the narrative begins not with the writer at the end of the experiences narrating them to a silent audience, but with the writer in the midst of the experiences, narrating them to an audience who will not only respond, but who will script his responses and actions as well. For a short novel, the story is a fairly complex weave of love triangles, in which Edward, previously (though lovelessly) engaged


ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
of bachelors, who "kill time." Irving alludes here to an urban subculture of bachelor life, with an infrastructure of taverns, boarding houses, and street life--a subculture that makes an alternative to patriarchal households [End Page 783] imaginable, even if temporarily. He is also partly narrating here a change in his own writing: its mutation from genteel diversion into literary career. Brevoort and Paulding were among the bachelor collaborators with whom Irving had written Salmagundi. The authors of that work had assured its readers that they wrote neither for fame nor for

from the struggle. ("Commerce," he wrote in his notebook in 1818, "is a game where the merchant is one party & ruin the other.") 40 Irving also sees, like Tocqueville after him, that material conditions in the United States make the family less capable of narrating beyond the individual life. Irving contrasts his American tales with a long description of a landed patriarchy in the "Christmas" section of The Sketch Book. There, feudally guaranteed continuity of a family, conceived as a web of property and class relations, works to provide a framework of temporality for the

might seem to be an odd aspect of feudalism for Washington Irving--youngest of eleven children in a mercantile family, bachelor, expatriate--to embrace. And perhaps it is just because of Irving's persistent unease with his own relation to such structures that he kept narrating them with obsessively alienated longing. "Rip Van Winkle" does not tell the story of reproduction's incoherence for someone left out of it or dominated by it. This is the story of someone who by the end will be called "one of the


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
70 He _almost_ does, as Bage is careful to note, and the bastard ultimately fails to come into his own. His story remains untold: just as Bage's novel initially toys with the idea of making the bastard Gregory its protagonist, but quickly replaces him with Hermsprong, so the ending of Bage's text elides the bastard's presence. Though narrating the entire story, Gregory concludes by reporting the various fates of the other characters but leaves out his own. With this narrative scenario, Bage rejects the tradition of social


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
Latimer, the first-person narrator of "The Lifted Veil" whose ability to read others' minds causes him torment. Just as several critics have noted the parallels between Latimer's curse and the epistemological crisis of the protomodern narrator, so can we see in Daniel's dilemma Eliot's commentary on the process of narrating, and novel-writing, more generally. 10 Elsewhere in the same paragraph, the narrator comments that Daniel "hated vices mildly, being used to thinking of them less in the abstract than as a part of mixed human natures having an individual history, which it was the bent of his


aestheticizing



ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
solution. We might, in other words, conclude that such resistance itself, and the threat it poses to the very survival of the subject qua subject, is what defines the ugly. If the aesthetic can be considered the only mode of transcendence left in a highly rational, empirical age, then the de-aestheticizing ugly comes fraught with all the horror of not just primal [End Page 579] but final chaos, of apocalyptic destruction. From the outset, Victor attempts to fortify himself against such destruction by identifying his place within a larger network of national, political, and family ties:


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
wounded, altered the nature of the discursive battle. There was much more to lose for both sides in presenting their version of events, and the ground upon which this struggle was played out was that of the female body. Bamford's later description of the massacre continues his earlier aestheticizing of the women present, but now they symbolize the extreme violation committed by the government, much as in Cruikshank's _Massacre at St. Peter's_ and _Manchester Heroes_: BLOCKQUOTE


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
historical problem of U.S. slavery.3 Scholars have long been disturbed by Hawthorne's apparent refusal to take race-based slavery seriously, a refusal marked by his unwillingness to discuss slavery in anything but purely aesthetic terms, as a metaphor for psychological bondage.4 Typically, such aestheticizing has been approached in one of two ways: either as an unfortunate consequence of Hawthorne's chronic inability to engage the real world—temperamentally detached from his time, Hawthorne is more interested in Puritans than in Abolitionists, more devoted to

the most egregious instantiation of the primary ideological failing of Hawthorne's writing and thought: his use of the aesthetic to excuse, contain, or conceal the political problem of race-based slavery. Thus, Eric Cheyfitz has argued that Hawthorne's aestheticizing of Black slaves provides "an alibi" for the status quo, that is, the continuing *[End Page 252]* "dehumanization of these people," while Nancy Bentley contends that such aestheticizing allows Hawthorne to simultaneously acknowledge and "safely enclose" an "emblem of the real political crisis," and Evan Carton traces how

excuse, contain, or conceal the political problem of race-based slavery. Thus, Eric Cheyfitz has argued that Hawthorne's aestheticizing of Black slaves provides "an alibi" for the status quo, that is, the continuing *[End Page 252]* "dehumanization of these people," while Nancy Bentley contends that such aestheticizing allows Hawthorne to simultaneously acknowledge and "safely enclose" an "emblem of the real political crisis," and Evan Carton traces how the complex aesthetics of _The Marble Faun_ attempt to repress the "actualities" of race and slavery.8 It is imagined, in short, that

Indeed, if _The Marble Faun_ can be seen as an experiment in bestowing personhood upon the man/faun Donatello, then "Chiefly About War Matters" can be seen as Hawthorne's redaction of this literary experiment as an explicitly political one.16 By aestheticizing slaves, Hawthorne expresses and constitutes rather than represses and avoids knowledge about slavery, race, and personhood. Hawthorne's representation of an essential correspondence between fauns and slaves, in other words, is inseparable from antebellum disputes over what the indisputable

Since Hawthorne's account of the truth of the Negro slave has been thoroughly superseded—become a debate beyond debate—it has perhaps become too easy to condemn Hawthorne's aestheticizing as a fundamentally inadequate response to the reality of slavery. However, to presume that Hawthorne is making an obvious mistake about what slaves essentially are (displacing or mystifying the truth) is to erase how intensely the facts of slavery were being contested during the antebellum period and to treat the conceptual

the literal and the figural can be. Hilda reacts so strongly not to the doctrine of the Fortunate Fall, but to the notion that Donatello's murder could be transformed from the literal act of murder into an abstract theological question. Hilda, in short, is disgusted by Kenyon's aestheticizing, more than by his theosophizing. This climactic scene reveals the extent to which the aesthetic in general, and the Romance in particular, are dangerous precisely because each depends on the effacing of the literal and the erasing of the individual (in this case the Model). In this

theosophizing. This climactic scene reveals the extent to which the aesthetic in general, and the Romance in particular, are dangerous precisely because each depends on the effacing of the literal and the erasing of the individual (in this case the Model). In this text, aestheticizing looks a lot like murder. VIII. Fauning Slaves --------------------

but the danger of the aesthetic itself. Indeed, since Hawthorne opposes the category of the aesthetic to individuality, it is ultimately immaterial whether the Negro is beautiful or ugly. All that matters is that the Negro is a fundamentally aesthetic creature. By aestheticizing the Negro, in short, Hawthorne crystallizes his understanding of the Negro problem: the Negro is ineligible for personhood not because of how the Negro looks, but because the Negro incarnates the aesthetic experience itself.

34. Campbell asserts, "I do not say one word concerning the question of slavery, that is entirely foreign to the nature of my book" (11). But he is quick to point out that "I loathe that hypocrisy which claims the same mental, moral, and physical equality for the negro which the whites possess" (11). Campbell's de-aestheticizing of Black women must be considered in the context of the numerous white slave owners who raped their Black slaves—one suspects that at least part of the motivation behind Campbell's account of the ugliness of the African woman is to convince his audience both that


naturalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
and blacks to merge through the imagination, suggesting an affective "sameness" once the burden of marked bodies is removed; in this sense, sympathy is consistent with other universalizing ("we're all the same under the skin") forms of liberal humanism. On the other hand, it turns racial difference inward, naturalizing it as the product and sign of individual affect. By making the knowledge of civil behavior implicitly a racialized knowledge, sympathetic whites closed the borders between sympathizer and sufferer, ensuring that whites might flirt with imaginative racial merger while maintaining autonomy through the distance of white observation (what

-------------------------------------------------------------------------- The location of racial injustice and of citizenship's rights and responsibilities within the interiors of citizens' bodies, as I've suggested, had consequences: naturalizing, individualizing, and simultaneously universalizing republican values; placing the causes and consequences of racial inequality beyond the reach of structural transformation; and providing white Americans with a sense of interior "depth" that made identification (and typically appropriation) of black suffering a requisite


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
environment. Whereas Mason thought of the phenomena of "all mankind as natural objects" ("Progress" 528), Mrs. Todd simply regards social behavior as a kind of natural behavior, which has the effect of naturalizing any "strange and unrelated person" (384), incorporating any anomaly into her scheme by explaining it in the analogical relays between local culture and local nature. But when the narrator herself contemplates the many Bowdens she's met during the Bowden reunion, she


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
mordantly termed the arbitrary and "artificial relation" that makes humans into property could logically lead to white Southern slave owners being held as slave property (598). O'Conor's narrative of horrors represents his attempt to reinvigorate the ideological, naturalizing "self-cloaking mechanism" of American racial policy that New York's decision threatened to reveal as contingent and based solely on force. 8 Attempting to make black slavery seem natural by appealing to what his audience would regard as the ludicrous spectacle of wealthy white planters held as slaves,

rhetorical edifice of racial ideology and justifications (539). And like O'Conor's arguments before the New York Court of Appeals, Delany's making Judge Ballard the audience for Armsted's remarks underscores the law's role as one of the primary components of any naturalizing discourse. Most important, though, Delany's crucial repetition of the phrase "self-interest" here and in the novel's opening scene emphasizes the connection between individual, apolitical slave owners and the business of illegal, international slave trading. Although Armsted protests that he would hold whites


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
male masochist transfers oedipal power to a maternal law within which he remains a loyal and devoted subject. Considered from this angle, masochism seems to pose a radical challenge to the foundations of the political and cosmic order that Mitchell understands Burke to be naturalizing in the Enquiry into the Beautiful and Sublime. Mimesis is the point of contact between history and pathology in Burke and Deleuze. Burke meets the challenge to the established order at the level of the politics and the aesthetics of the image, if we attribute


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
gender, and race are understood and disciplined according to an emotional caste system. References to class privilege and gender subordination are gently circumvented in favor of essentialized differences of feeling. Like its bourgeois readership, the Kailyard nation imagines its own legitimacy by naturalizing the hierarchies that sustain it. I. Building the Home of Nation ------------------------------

love--rather it is recognized by its ability to serve the good of the national home. Nations depend on discourses of affect to construct and inspire a sense of unity and commonality while simultaneously naturalizing the social divisions that make nations possible. Kailyard narratives, in like form, erase differences as they erect them, authoring myths of racial and cultural distinction while reinforcing divisions of inequality and histories of subordination. Thus, it is important to see emotions as a constructed


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE As most historians of feminist thought observe, the early nineteenth-century reception of Mary Wollstonecraft's challenge to male cultural hegemony suffered at the hands of her scandalous biography. By naturalizing feminine passivity and subordination, anti-Jacobin ideologues such as T. J. Mathias and Richard Polwhele cast Wollstonecraft as a mind come "unsex'd," a woman who "O'er humbled man assert[s] the sovereign claim, / And slight[s] the timid blush of virgin fame." 2 However, in "Mary," an often neglected lyric

feel that I was still a part of a mighty whole, from which I could not sever myself" (L, 17). It is this "involuntary sympathetic emotion," with its centripetal force, that Wollstonecraft paradoxically seeks in her solitary rambles, an attempt to reanimate her fidelity to "simple fellow feeling" by naturalizing the [End Page 916] construction of self-in-the-world in and through her predominate metaphor, the "face of the country." Sweden, Norway, and Denmark are, significantly, politically neutral countries in the war between England and France, and as Mary Favret points out, "they seem poised at the threshold between feudal and industrial societies, between monarchy


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 223-243
Industrial History, Preindustrial Literature: George Eliot's _Middlemarch_
Jessie Givner
---------------
Manufacturers," she notes that "qualities dominantly associated with women in nineteenth century representation, such as nature, embodiment, and birth, are also employed at times to familiarize, naturalize, and assign life-giving functions to material and largely machine-based production." At the same time, however, those naturalizing figures of pregnancy and embodiment are eventually displaced by "machines [that] completely outstrip nature in importance as they begin to intervene in history." 14 In Eliot's work, I would argue, we can see a movement that is exactly the opposite of the female embodiment / man-made machine shift which Newton observes in nineteenth-


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
property is effected, but not without minimizing the presence of the father. Of course, this important moment of generic wrestling in the novel doesn't undo the ultimate result of Evelina's reintegration. And it doesn't undo the novel's problematic suggestion that, by naturalizing Lord Orville's rank-specific manners, by chastening the fop and the rake, and by exposing the manners of the middle ranks, it accomplishes some kind of escape from, or at least a purging of, the system *[End Page 155]* of ranks. But while _Evelina_ remains divided between undercutting and preserving the distinction


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
Teresa Michaels suggests that the sort of bonding we see between Belinda and Lady Delacour is the source of much confusion about Edgeworth's novel, leading to alternate readings of _Belinda_ as conservative (reiterating aristocratic values) or liberal (naturalizing bourgeois ideology). The reason for such trouble, Michaels asserts, is Edgeworth's mingling of "personality and property." According to Michaels, Edgeworth manifests loyalties both to the aristocratic family unit, as well as to a possessive individualism. While Edgeworth criticism has been split on the topic


gendering



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 348-357
Perpetual Emotion Machine
Michelle Burnham
---------------
If anger has been curiously sidelined within emotion studies, the emotions of women have typically taken center stage. These books, by focusing largely or exclusively on feeling men, go a long way toward the important project of de-gendering sentimentality studies. Ellison compellingly argues, for example, that liberal guilt has always belonged to both men and women, but that it has always "mattered most politically" (174) when it has been felt by men, a point well-supported by Resch's study. Building on and from her


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
of [End Page 405] the image in Burke's treatise through the role of masochism in the construction of male subjectivity. To superimpose the topography of this perversion on Burke's inquiry, rather than attempt to reorient Burke's theory in the history of ideas, is to apply a heuristic model to the notable gendering of the examples and metaphors that envelop his differentiation of the sublime and the beautiful. While Burke's stress on the aesthetic importance of terror for the experience of the sublime might lend credence to the supposition that the sublime is the site of a masochistic formation, the opposite is

purlieus of the princely hierarchy and to transfer this traditional affinity to the modern procedures of the dominating eye of ethnographic science and media technology. Burke's repudiation of the beautiful on the eve of the transition from the old regime to the middle-class state, his gendering of the image, and his search through the sublime for a new heroism of the abstract suitable to the emergent society, seriously bring into question the present accepted wisdom on this subject. It is clear that the sublime, at least in Burke's influential formulation, far from originating a moment of individual

it as a point of resistance precisely because of its marginal status. If Deleuze and Reik are right about the unyielding opposition of masochism to all forms of superego constraints, images may not cling as obstinately to the current modes of [End Page 427] subjection as abstractions. They are, so to speak, left over. And the gendering retained by images from earlier misogynistic characterizations endows them paradoxically with a certain resistance to the new patriarchal functions. More specifically, unchaining the image from the reflexes of power permits it to challenge the metaphysics of the real insofar


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
York: Vintage, 1989), 158-59. That Ralph Waldo Emerson, on Cavell's reading in _Conditions Handsome and Unhandsome_ (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990), foregrounds the more affirmative aspect of perfectionism's possibilities while Eliot foregrounds the more negative aspect is one place to begin thinking about the *[End Page 317]* gendering of this dynamic, given the traditional understanding of Victorian women's selflessness. 26. Quoted in Neil Hertz, "Two Extravagant Teachings," in _The End of the Line_ (Columbia Univ. Press 1985), 146.


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
feminine sympathetic realism and the practices and responsibilities of narration. I will then examine a specific case study in _Adam Bede_, the intranarrative pause and its homology with masculine narratorial intervention. Finally, I will consider the broader cultural context of Eliot's gendering of narratorial techniques--the rhetoric of obstetric medicine in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and its metaphors of invasion and dismemberment. Eliot's incognito works within, and draws upon, a wide range of cultural associations of certain kinds of knowledge with

demonstration. Arthur's secrecy enables the plot; Hetty's would forestall it. What is striking about the transgressions of Hetty, when seen in light of Eliot's own concerns about the gendering of her authority, is that, in each case, the key issue is the ability to give birth: in her letter to Stowe, Eliot specifically links this life-giving power to interpretive--and therefore authorial--skill, while it is Hetty's unwanted and problematic pregnancy that disrupts the easy resolution


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
political threat was figured as sexual threat and, in particular, as violent male aggression against a passive female, or at least feminized, victim.3 The most overt examples (and thus the most seemingly transparent in their meaning) figured political threat as sexual violation or rape. This gendering of dominance seemingly constructs and reinforces difference as a simplistic opposition between masculine power and feminine passivity. The viewer is asked to identify with the feminized victim and reject the blatant abuse of power, but only to affirm his position as heroic rescuer. Despite

But in calling attention to his own failed act of representation, he creates the possibility for another metaphor, even if he cannot fully articulate it. In this rewriting of the victimized woman, as in _Mask_, Shelley reveals the violence involved not only in the gendering of oppression, but also in the representation of any victimized subject. ---------------------------------------------------------------------


obscures



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
and redefining national citizenship as an exercise in self-surrender, Lincoln not only enables identifications between the living and the dead indispensable to the war’s continuation, but also disavows the state’s responsibility for wartime losses. The power of the dead to inspire the living effectively obscures the power of the state to inflict violence on its citizens: in the Gettysburg Address, the nation appears to be (re)generated by the sacrifices it, in truth, demands. Civil War scholars have often subjected the war itself to a similar abstraction, viewing wartime violence as the source of a revitalized national identity rather than the result of ongoing conflicts and


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
of early US-Western narrative. Moreover, Sundquist's framing of diverse narrative genres in terms of their coincidence with US-American eschatological idealism is both elegant and understandable--given historical outcomes (see 129). Yet I think Sundquist's rather eager return to idealism obscures the multiplicity of nineteenth-century US-Western rhetorics. 3. While I don't mean to suggest that Brooks's work has precisely the same goals as Márez's, I am grateful for each scholar's insights


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
typically been theorized separately.2 *[End Page 437]* Far from positing an unbridgeable chasm among the domestic, national, and foreign spheres, these novels articulate their synergy in US imperial endeavors. The discourse of separate spheres, as has often been pointed out, obscures the complex and conflicted ways middle- and upper-class white women experienced the patriarchal operation of familial life and the masculinized affairs of market and state. If previous scholarly considerations have failed to take into account domesticity's imperial entanglements, then recent efforts by Lora


ELH 66.3 (1999) 707-737
Historical Space in the "History of": Between Public and Private in Tom Jones
George A. Drake
---------------
does in the country, where Fielding's scenic economy requires that someone is almost always behind the next bush, or around the next bend, or eavesdropping through a keyhole. But for Fielding the authenticating devices used by novelists like Defoe merely [End Page 720] mimic the practice of bad historians--they overwhelm with empirical evidence that obscures causality. By conducting the process of historical judgment openly, and selecting only the details he finds important, Fielding bases historical authority on his own interpretive ability rather than the spurious authority of events themselves. Thus when he calls historians mere "Topographers or

of character. The question for Fielding, then, is not so much whether a given event is likely, but rather whether, given a certain concatenation of accidents, characters behave in a manner consistent with his understanding of human nature. Fielding's specific objection to the marvelous is not simply that it is unlikely, but that it obscures verisimilitude. But Fielding's sense of probability is not strictly limited to character, though it is not extended to likelihood in the modern sense. Actions in Tom Jones do not occur in isolation, and the interactions of characters follow a


ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
household decorations made from scraps. It is, I think, this sort of accumulation by thrift that is suggested by the word "Threadneedle" in the Bank's nickname. If the Bank is a house, its work is figured as the unpaid needlework of the housewife. The metaphorization of banking as housework then obscures women in their roles as wage laborers, just as it obscures the substantial profits the state bank takes in the money market. In fact, in this era low-wage piece-paid sewing was a widespread occupation for both single and married women, but figuring needlework as housework (a labor of love)

accumulation by thrift that is suggested by the word "Threadneedle" in the Bank's nickname. If the Bank is a house, its work is figured as the unpaid needlework of the housewife. The metaphorization of banking as housework then obscures women in their roles as wage laborers, just as it obscures the substantial profits the state bank takes in the money market. In fact, in this era low-wage piece-paid sewing was a widespread occupation for both single and married women, but figuring needlework as housework (a labor of love) obscures needlework as wage labor and appears to evacuate women from

laborers, just as it obscures the substantial profits the state bank takes in the money market. In fact, in this era low-wage piece-paid sewing was a widespread occupation for both single and married women, but figuring needlework as housework (a labor of love) obscures needlework as wage labor and appears to evacuate women from the money economy. As the seeming stability of the land economy wears out, the bank and the middle-class home are propped up as shelters from the whirling public world of circulation, imaginative locations that provide an origin and end of value. Just as bank

on Nemo's desk, obscure Lady Dedlock's path and recall the snow-like whirl of the Chancery papers. Esther's mother returns eventually to Nemo's grave, and Esther finds her there, dead, the next morning. When Esther identifies her mother's body, the whirling snow has become the hair that obscures her mother's face: "I lifted the heavy head, put the long dank hair aside, and turned the face" (B, 869). This trope of the hair obscuring the face--the final mark of Lady Dedlock's identity--recalls the focus throughout the novel on Esther's own face, the face that was changed during her illness, by


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 167-197
Wordsworth's Visionary Imagination: Democracy and War
Brian Folker
---------------
however, is always suspicious of their political dimension as formal structures of authority removed from the people themselves. The fact *[End Page 193]* that he could imagine no healthy revision of the political realm--no sense in which a democratic revolution could ever be successfully consummated--too often obscures this distrust and makes his endorsement of the cultural appear wholly reactionary and nostalgic. It remains for us to consider, however, what substitutes for the political in the poet's thought and supplements the tenuous nature of emotional cultural attachments.


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
she humored him: "but he only held it in his hands as a deposit until he could find a safe investment befitting so small a sum" (380-81). Sally's hoarding calls into question the economic norms to which it is contrasted by reversing the hypostatization which usually obscures the meaning of money: for Sally and Mr. Benson, her sovereigns are not so many material objects, nor even markers of abstract and exchangeable value, but rather the concrete signs of their relationship. By repersonalizing this money--and with it the labor-relation it *[End Page 208]* represents--Sally's hoarding


obviate



_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
historical-fictional practice as requiring "a certain licence of invention" in order to make facts stick. The writer of such fiction, Brown argues, in the 1799 essay "Walstein's School of History," shares with other professionals an "enhance[d]... power over the liberty, property, and health of mankind" and an obligation to "obviate, by intellectual exertions, many of the evils that infest the world" (153). So conceived, professional "power" is unapologetic; it is a "common good" (153). This connection between observation and authority is critical to Mervyn's


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
the beautiful admits those fantastic features of the mimetic system that can [End Page 420] dislodge punishment from its role as perpetrator of the law and reduce its mandates to risibility. These features are there, however, only to be cast out, thus clearing a path for a form of representation that will obviate the need for mimesis and depend on pain alone. II. ---


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
"performance," without pernicious "interference in personal matters." 43 Thus, in both Laing and Martineau, domesticity is harnessed to a comparatively non-gendered politics with discernible origins in Puritan ideologies of the home. The entrepreneurial domesticity thus constituted aims to obviate rather than establish the need for the surveillant power of modern institutions. I emphasize "aims" because the ultimate effects of this entrepreneurial writing of domesticity are inevitably more complicated than its express


ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
own theoretical aporia by claiming that the ugliness that cannot be denied in nature must be represented within given aesthetic categories, namely the beautiful or the sublime, for to present the ugly qua ugly would make the viewer turn away in disgust--and hence obviate all aesthetic judgment: BLOCKQUOTE What we discern in the passage above is that the ugly is that which


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
performance as a "rehearsal," he effectually eliminates even the rehearsals of Pizarro in an attempt to achieve a pure, spontaneous communication with playgoers. If this was indeed his aim, then Sheridan's dissatisfaction extended beyond anxieties over print, for his manner of composing Pizarro also attempts to obviate performance as a mediating agency, ideally rendering the actors mere conduits of his creative powers. 19 The circumstances surrounding the production of Pizarroserve as a


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
line" (366). Thus even though McKeon subordinates Pamela's "dress" to her "writing" as proof of her value and dissolves the possibility of "pregnancy" into "creative labor" (374), one might want to stipulate that chastity remains an anatomical criterion, whose specification in discourse can hardly obviate the material demands of patriarchy summed up by McKeon himself. Pamela offers the uneasy possibility that aristocratic rape might be forestalled by Pamela's more-than-Puritan ability to derive discursive value from her "jewel," but that jewel is not itself converted into text: that


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
peoples. Celebrating the cross-racial erotic potential of the telegraph, Whitman provides a more material counter-reading to Thoreau's spiritualized understanding of telegraphic racial union, a more powerful and threatening possibility which, finally, the violence in the second verse of "O Susanna" seeks to obviate. While the 1855 version of _Leaves of Grass_, especially "I Sing the Body Electric," celebrates the possibilities of cross-racial identification, and perhaps even cross-racial sex, and describes


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 875-901
Poe in Love: Pedophilia, Morbidity, and the Logic of Slavery
Peter Coviello
---------------
guardians of youth should think it a reasonable idea to hand Poe over to, say, a *[End Page 875]* nine-year old; or rather it almost explains it. There yet remains a kind of dissonance, a residue of sheer perversity, that no strictly formal rationale can fully obviate. In exactly what sense, one wonders, is something as morbid as "The Black Cat," or as vengeful as "The Cask of Amontillado," or as sexually piquant as "Ligeia" or "The Fall of the House of Usher" or any number of other Poe tales, "suitable material for minors," as the school psychologists say? In what terms could anybody justify


silencing



_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
voice, the Law of the Father that the senators embody, through a revised mulatta subjectivity. This example of a "phantasmic vehicle of identification" (Hartman 18) is unsettling, especially since Berlant's rendition uses Hill as a proxy through which to speak to the powerful, while it extends Hill's inability to make herself heard by silencing her and erasing her body and the specificity of her (darkly) racialized experience entirely. This is a double-edged empathy, for "in making the other's suffering one's own, this suffering is occluded by the other's obliteration" (18-19). Such "a recourse to fantasy reveals an anxiety about


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
of a unified public sphere; in this way the _Repository_ mirrored partisan political gazettes that claimed to represent the "popular voice" while dismissing opponents as dangerous. 10 Debate was limited to the nuances of the climatist position; contagionist doctrines appeared only as the subject of merciless review essays. In the editors' minds, such silencing of opponents' voices was not sinister: it was necessary to convince American decision makers of the need for precautions that would, they believed, prevent more deaths. In order to construct a national medical audience the _Repository_ assumed the form of popular literary miscellanies, including a


ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE Viewed in this context, then, Dickens's defense of spontaneous combustion functions as part of the novel's more general argument against the silencing or discrediting of individuals lacking what those in positions of authority deem sufficient cultural capital. 29 Yet Liebig and Lewes clearly seek to assert the authority of experts in "investigating and explaining natural phenomena" not only against illiterate figures such as Jo--whose cultural disenfranchisement is


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
pressure illustrates both the doubled circuit of feeling and the powerfully restrictive conduits of expression which, as I am arguing, give sentimental narrative its affective charge. The scene shares with Nell's sympathetic viewing of the Edwards sisters' reunion its [End Page 1024] saturation with poignant self-reference and the overt silencing of such reference. In this instance, however, feelings Nell was not permitted even unconsciously to feel are literalized--someone else has what I should have--before they are subjected to, as Karl Kroeber puts it, "hyperbolic repression." 31


ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
Alison can be highlighted by comparing them with later writers more sensitive to the potential tyranny of the majority. "If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion," John Stuart Mill would plead in On Liberty, "and only one person of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind." 72 Which brings us back to the defamiliarization characteristic of the Romantic imagination and to Malouf's paradoxical claim that only the

sensitive to the potential tyranny of the majority. "If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion," John Stuart Mill would plead in On Liberty, "and only one person of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind." 72 Which brings us back to the defamiliarization characteristic of the Romantic imagination and to Malouf's paradoxical claim that only the difficult and unfamiliar can "speak out of the centre of each one of


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
seeks out a mode of presentation in which the novelist governs the events and source material as adjudicator and compiler. The Coquette in these terms does not present a totalizing understanding of the facts; that is the work of the sermons and conduct manuals that had by this time long mined the story, silencing Whitman and letting the facts speak for themselves. But neither is it simply the autobiography of Eliza Wharton, the would-be heroine of her own tale who would speak for herself at every turn. Where the sermonized version of Eliza's tale goes wrong is easy to see, as epitomized in

facts speak for themselves. But neither is it simply the autobiography of Eliza Wharton, the would-be heroine of her own tale who would speak for herself at every turn. Where the sermonized version of Eliza's tale goes wrong is easy to see, as epitomized in the novel by Boyer's misreading and silencing of Eliza. Where Eliza's version of the tale goes wrong is perhaps harder to identify. But clearly it inheres in large measure in her fantastical belief that she can refuse all choices and connections and still control reception at every turn. The novel suggests that this


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
In fact, the poem problematizes Shelley's exhortation to the Men of England through the female mask of Earth. As the female voice of revolution dominates the poem, the Men of England are reduced to silently watching. What should be a process of animating the masses seemingly becomes a process of their silencing. In line 260 deeds are the means to resistance. By 299, these have become "strong and simple words / Keen to wound as sharpened swords" (_MA_, 299-300) and finally are merely "looks": "Stand ye calm and resolute / Like a forest close and mute, / With folded arms and looks which are /


repudiate



ELH 66.1 (1999) 157-177
'Tranced Griefs': Melville's Pierre and the Origins of the Gothic
Robert Miles
---------------
This self-subversion is at the core of Melville's analysis of American ideological life in Pierre. The aristocratic, feudal, and Gothic accoutrements with which Pierre begins the narrative are self-evidently not the stuff of a realized democratic utopia. Pierre's inability to repudiate this extraneous ideological baggage is the most significant and immediate fact in his failure to become an American literary titan. The "influence of England in politics, literature, philosophy and religion, has exercised and still exercises a most baneful sway over the American mind." 34 So


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
little idea" (E, 63) and "a great clearness helps little towards affecting the passions" (E, 60). Burke takes a similar stance, then, toward the notion of the beautiful and the efficacy of the image. According to him beauty and the image lack the power to impose themselves on the mind, and he seems to repudiate a whole literary tradition by attributing the same impotence to the passion of love. At one point indeed the sublime experience is said to operate by the exertion of power directly on the imaging faculty itself. Burke


ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
Irishmen and the years before their uprising, Morgan suggests the illusoriness and destructiveness of a nationalism that harks back to the pre-colonial condition rather than forward to a constitutional, modern state, as well as complicates that vision as utopian. The novel is ultimately pessimistic: the colonial past which both nationalisms repudiate remains inescapable. [End Page 940] I. --


ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
the vexed cultural conditions out of which it evolved. After all, who are the "we" [End Page 556] that in Trilling seek bafflement, dispossession, and resistance in art but an élite, the children and (more to the point) the students of Romanticism and Modernism? The "we" who in Trilling "repudiate pleasure and seek gratification in--to use Freud's word--unpleasure" inherit a culture that has, to quote Andreas Huyssen on Modernism, "constituted itself through a conscious strategy of exclusion, an anxiety of contamination by its other: an increasingly consuming and engulfing mass culture." 69


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 223-243
Industrial History, Preindustrial Literature: George Eliot's _Middlemarch_
Jessie Givner
---------------
abstraction can be avoided if literature relies more on action than description. "The predominance of description," he writes, "is not only a result but also and simultaneously a cause, the cause of a further divorce of literature from epic significance." 12 Like Lukács's cautionary words about literary abstraction, Eliot's essays repudiate literary abstraction as a hindrance to historical realism. Yet there is some ambivalence in Eliot's articulation of the literary / historical relation; her desire for "concrete history" often seems to be at odds with her equally strong desire for a highly figurative history, a history that she describes, in a different


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
of the works. Finally, while those standards were irreconcilable, they were also in this case inseparable. The last reference to the poems in the correspondence managed to coordinate aesthetic and historical value only by succumbing to Macpherson's ruse. In a letter of February 1763, Gray referred to _Fingal_ to repudiate assumptions about the artistic sterility of the ancient Celts. The epic proved BLOCKQUOTE The poem allowed Gray to advance a claim about the imagination:


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 433-453
Forgotten Writers, Neglected Histories: Charles Reade and the Nineteenth-Century Transformation of the British Literary Field
Mary Poovey
---------------
prefer realism to idealism but tended to maintain that what critics called realism could also approach higher truths through detailed but imaginatively interpreted descriptions of everyday things.29 The persistence of concerns about truth in both of these positions reminds us that it was not culturally acceptable at mid century for a critic wholly to repudiate an ethical or moral definition of literary value (even when morality was not defined in the narrow terms Mudie's deployed). For this reason, the most sophisticated contributors to this debate tended either to reconcile idealism and realism as a means of producing truth or to find some way to make realism seem as


foregrounding



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
19. The most striking of these encounters occurs between the wooden-legged man and the contentious Methodist, who nearly come to blows over the question of charity (14-16). The chapter's ever-shifting focus is forecast by Melville's headnote, which reads QUOTE (10). By foregrounding Black Guinea and racial masquerade in this essay, I have consciously departed from the text's more varied approach. My goal is an analysis of antebellum race relations rather than a holistic interpretation of Melville's text.


American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
collective body that convulses, quivers, and thrills to the news of the War with Mexico. That is to say, if for Anderson, the nationalist QUOTE produces a sense of QUOTE as it connects different parts of the nation (25, 36), Lippard's war literature shows how nationalism works by also particularizing and foregrounding bodies rather than simply abstracting from and decorporealizing them. If the QUOTE of national history must be clothed QUOTE in order for people to respond to it (26), then nationalism as mediated by print capitalism also depends on thrilling sensations of embodiment.


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 471-503
Hello, Dude: Philology, Performance, and Technology in Mark Twain's _Connecticut Yankee_
Seth Lerer
---------------
Moreland 38). The novel's original illustrations mark *[End Page 479]* that progress. Just compare the full-length portrait of Sandy early on (Fig. 1) with the picture of the family and child in chapter 40 (Fig. 2). With its "God Bless Our Home" wall sampler, its emotionally charged figures, and its foregrounding of the baby and herbed, this picture drips with sentiment. If Sandy's earlier portrait was grounded in the theater, then, so too is this one--but instead of the seductions of the ingenue, we now have the tears of melodrama.


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
cultures, thoughts, and histories of the Africans themselves, these different representations of alterity are significant and they do have implications in terms of historical agency. In surveying Clarkson's pained and agonized attempt to share the thoughts of the African and to justify his Christianity, Coleridge's foregrounding of the positions of civilization and savagery, and Thelwall's reengagement with the problems of violence and historical change which had preoccupied him during the 1790s, we see that the field of colonialist and abolitionist discourse is varied, that it is full of paradoxes, ambiguities, and resistances, and that it is, on occasion, able to


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
Emerson reasons that "if the whole of history is one man, it is all to explained by individual experience" (237, my emphasis), those who find the metaphysical baggage an encumbrance may wish to toss it overboard. Doing so, however, will not affect the basic logic of the position I am interested in foregrounding here. With this logic in view, we can now see more clearly how Emerson's position diverges from the others we've been reviewing. Because the "Universal Mind" alludes to the condition which makes interpretation


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
and touch-- only the back of his hand--connect idea and action, heart and mind, eros and benevolence, man and maid. 22 This moment also provides a clear connection of the two economies, foregrounding the linkage between sex/feeling and commerce. 23 But rather than using this parallel to satirize the commercialization of sex, Sterne exploits it in the service of sexing commerce; in other words, it is feeling--in all of its possible forms--that makes the world go around, the motor that powers all of our "vehicles." This


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
Philosophy of Apparitions_ (1824) was to burst the bubble of superstition with the fine point of scientific fact, and thus complete the Enlightenment project of exorcising the specter from the popular imagination, new theories about ghosts also effectively undermined the Enlightenment imperative for absolute scientific objectivity by foregrounding the subjective nature of sensory perception, especially sight, and the ensuing uncertainties of all knowledge derived from empirical investigation. Ferriar thus explains that, while "spectral delusions" may sometimes be


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
material markers of race were stable, it is precisely such stability that Hawthorne seems most anxious about in "Chiefly About War Matters" when he represents these fugitive slaves as fauns. Indeed, this essay seems to mock the reliability of the materialist logic that underwrites aesthetic racialism, foregrounding the assumptions that underwrite the dominant aesthetic ideology of race only to weaken any racist account of aesthetics that relies on objective, visible markers. *[End Page 261]*

aesthetic problem. Hawthorne's understanding of racial aesthetics, in other words, needs to be distinguished from arguments that turned to the self-evidently ugly surface of the Negro as objective proof of Negro inferiority, as well as from those who sought to challenge prevailing claims about Negro inferiority by foregrounding the beauty of the Negro. Hawthorne establishes a critique of conventional racist aesthetics that looks nothing like the effort of Black intellectuals to invert

VII. the Fall ------------- Although Rome may promote art, it certainly does not promote morality.60 Indeed, _The Marble Faun_ culminates by foregrounding the serious moral problems raised by the aesthetic environment of Rome. Miriam, near the Romance's conclusion, offers Kenyon an explanation, one that most critics have seconded, of what _The Marble Faun_ is ultimately about: "The story of the Fall of Man! Is


unmasking



ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
the conclusion of an essay. Nor is it news that romantic love was a passion. But in seeing its self-conscious cultural roots in their complexity, we can better appreciate both the developmental character of songs and odes too often taken to be immediate or timeless and the unmasking of individual and collective drives in emotions still too often taken to be integral or organic expressions of sensibility. It is the childishness of Anacreontics that the romantic lyric still preserves, and that is lost in the world-weariness of love poetry later in the century. Perhaps its


ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
as occurring within a textual network of mutual exchange and rejection, but as "contradictions" between "sentimental ideology" and "actual economic and political conditions": BLOCKQUOTE Poovey's rhetoric of "uncovering" or "unmasking" hidden or invisible antagonisms behind the sensible surface of ideology unconsciously replicates Smith's poetics of invisible agency. Although she avoids the words "hidden" or "invisible," her extensive use of words like "uncover," "unmask," or of "contradictions . . . becom[ing] apparent" implies the invisibility or


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
populated. An ersatz utopia is, after all, a better-suited literary destiny for such a narrator, whose fluctuations between savvy insight and bumptious provincialism are perfect foils to _Erewhon_'s satiric registers. The nature of the satire is itself layered. On the one hand, Erewhon is a textual space comprised of unmasking projections of Victorian institutions and cultural beliefs--of a past that is not escaped but, as it were, ineluctably reproduced across temporal and spatial divisions. On the other hand, Erewhon is encoded as an alien society, for despite the uncanny echoes of


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
less an exaggeration of its principles, but instead a fundamental disruption of the reification on which capitalist exchange depends. Sally violates the logic of economics by arresting the cycle of exchange, unmasking money as a symbol rather than a material reality; she then similarly defamiliarizes language (in this case, language about money) when she orders her will. The uselessness of this document is overdetermined: it bequeaths money to Mr. Benson which, as we have seen, Sally need not have taken in the first place


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
charm, quite soon--a paragraph later, in a novel of some four hundred pages--Belinda apprehends this witty display as only a "thin veil" (6). Her suspicions are confirmed when she is whisked into the closet after her first night out, and Lady Delacour reveals her secret, unmasking herself: *[End Page 579]* BLOCKQUOTE After Lady Delacour's invigoratingly debauched behavior at an earlier masked ball, to see her in her decrepitude is contrast indeed. And yet, it is a fitting contrast, making still more


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
Radical Reform's mask provides another Revolutionary image that further reveals the cartoon's ambivalent politics. The ancient regime was associated with masks and masques, and the mask became a symbol of corruption; the Revolutionaries saw themselves as unmasking the corruption.39 Shelley, in fact, situates his _Mask_ in this tradition of masking by punning on "mask" and "masque."40 The cartoon, though, associates the values of the French Revolutionaries with the conservative side by implying that they unmask Death, and it aligns *[End Page 182]* radical reform with corruption and

the terror there" ("M," 5.38). Her mask reveals her misuse as a symbol to stabilize conservative male authority. Shelley's ability to recover Medusa's radical power depends not only on being able to read this "woman's countenance," but also on reading behind it, unmasking the image of patriarchal authority. The critical moment in this revision of the victimized woman occurs in stanza 2, a turning point in the poem in which Medusa's viewer is offered a choice of transformation or reification, of reading her


philosophizing



ELH 66.1 (1999) 87-110
"Monumental Inscriptions": Language, Rights, the Nation in Coleridge and Horne Tooke
Andrew R. Cooper
---------------
McKusick, among others, has read this letter as evidence of Coleridge's resort to one of his earlier favourite authors on language, James Harris. 19 Harris's Hermes is the most easily identifiable target of Horne Tooke's attack upon the false philosophizing of language in his account of "Winged Words," and McKusick's comments are entirely in line with the prevalent argument that the beginning of the nineteenth century marks an ideological and philosophical rupture between the ideas of Coleridge and Horne Tooke. The story goes that Coleridge rejected materialist language theory and returned


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
there is yet to go to make such social transformations possible. To the question of whether there is a link between pleasure and politics (the question with which we began), Wilde's collective individualism provides a qualified "yes, but" whose realization hinges on philosophizing utopia at home, in the everyday use of the very objects that currently hold us in thrall. 47 Swarthmore College

affective and moral understandings" (Soper, Troubled Pleasures: Writings on Politics, Gender and Hedonism [London: Verso, 1990], 14). 47. Fredric Jameson argues that Bloch's work on the utopian is premised on the idea that "real philosophizing begins at home . . . in lived experience itself and in its smallest details, in the body and its sensations" (Marxism and Form [Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1971], 122).


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
kind. Of this self-experimental approach Coleridge provides an instructive example in an early notebook entry: "Seem to have made up my mind to write my metaphysical works, as _my Life, & in_ my Life--intermixed with all the other events/or history of the mind and fortunes of S. T. Coleridge." 9 In his 1803 entry, Coleridge pledges to a mode of philosophizing that finds its truths, its method, and its evidentiary foundation in "S. T. Coleridge" himself. As in the canonical Romantic lyric, Coleridge's entry seems to admit no subject but subjectivity, and no metaphysics but that which his own life supplies.


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
intruding (on a friend's secrecy, on a reader's ignorance) is counterproductive of narrative. 2 Instead, we are left with an equally strange and discomfiting implication--that if Eliot's philosophizing narrator does not agree with Irwine's assessment, and instead would prefer a rattling good plot to openness and honesty between friends, then he (and by extension Eliot) advocates both unintrusiveness and secrecy. The second has unsettling implications for Eliot's moral aims, the first

This sense of the intervening narrator as problematic (and of secrecy as morally ambiguous) is one that Eliot shared with other mid-Victorian advocates of literary realism. Certainly for the original critics of Eliot's novels, the intrusive philosophizing and directive interpreting of their narrators is an aesthetic, if not a moral, failing--a criticism whose motivation is understandable when we consider how the narratorial intervention seems to undermine cherished *[End Page 542]* Victorian claims for realism. 3 I would

with Blackwood following the publication of _Adam Bede_. Furthermore, it is important to remember that one of the primary *[End Page 549]* registers of this tension is aggressively evident from the first novel to the last: the instructive, directive, expounding, philosophizing narratorial intervention. Eliot's habit is to use the intervention not only to direct her readers' interpretation of the plot (to defend the plausibility of her tale), but also to superintend their philosophical engagement with theories of narrative and literary representation generally. The shape and tenor of these


ascribing



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
Guinea's remark that he sleeps QUOTE a footnote points out that QUOTE On the basis of this rather obscure possible allusion, the note states that the beggar's oven remark is QUOTE (7). The edition is rife with equally speculative annotations. See Bellis for an argument against ascribing such coherence to the novel's representations. Works Cited ===========


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
finds problematic is not so much an implication of Magawisca's revisionist history of the Pequot War as it is the starting point of the novel's metahistorical discourse. I am not ascribing to Sedgwick here some remarkable powers of prescience, casting her as a proto-post-structuralist. Nineteenth-century writers of fiction were far more sophisticated about the relationship between history and fiction than they are sometimes given credit for. Like postmodern theorists of history, a number of early American writers challenged


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
in the same essay archly notes that "a foreign subject, at this epoch, was a weight more than enough to drag down into the very depths of critical damnation the finest writer owning nativity in the states" (_Essays_ 1027). Poe here indulges in self-pity, ascribing criticism of his own work to his predilection for the "foreign subject," the fantastic Old World of his tales. His indignation partly explains the shift to American locales apparent soon thereafter in his fiction.


ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460
Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue
W. David Shaw
---------------
control is deceptive. Though he wants to seem in charge, Andrea is merely commanding Lucrezia to do what she is going to do anyway. Even when Andrea dramatizes the end of strenuous illusion by pretending to know the worst about himself and his art, he still acts in bad faith. For he keeps acting out fantasies of ascribing his failures to the inattentive but often censorious Lucrezia. Worst of all, the scapegoat who should ease his guilt makes it more intense, since she is painted onto his soulless canvases, which stare back at him in silent admonition and rebuke.


ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
5. "History of Astronomy," 47 (my emphasis). 6. "History of Astronomy," 48, 49 (my emphasis). The "primitive" mechanism of ascribing "unexpected event[s] to the arbitrary will of some designing, though invisible beings" is also described in Smith's The History of Ancient Physics (Smith, The Early Writings, 117; my emphasis). 7. See also: "The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
place in Coleridge's initial conceptualization of The Watchman--for enhancing rather than suppressing the visibility of religious beliefs and the dissension among them. 1 The claim I am ascribing to Coleridge first arises in this issue of the newspaper in connection with a story--also told by the likes of Godwin and Hume--about the defeat of Constantinople by the Turks. As a consequence, we are told, learned Greeks were driven West into Europe, an event that happily coincided with the invention of


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
of course how sarcasm over the very idea of "reliv[ing] the state of mind of the Carthaginian" quickly moves into doing just that; in this particular case, the only clear victim of self-deception is Veyne himself. Moreover, given the stated aim of his polemic, it is odd to find Veyne ascribing our difficulty in understanding the behavior of the Carthaginian to the fact that "only the smallest part of [his] consciousness is active" within him and thus available to us. The oddity here is why Veyne should think this point refutes the views he takes himself to be attacking. (Writing History: Essays

something is the case? According to Stich, "we are, in effect, comparing the believer to ourselves. We are saying that the believer is in a cognitive state that would underlie our own normal assertion of the content sentence." And of course from this it follows that "we should have increasing difficulty in ascribing content to the cognitive state of subjects, as those subjects become increasingly different from us" (7, original emphasis). My thinking about "History" and the "folk psychology" upon which much of it is based is indebted to Stich's account. See also Donald Davidson, Inquiries


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
_for_ oneself (_Selbstdenken_, the condition of possibility for critique) necessitates thinking _of_ oneself--that the history of aesthetics intersects most compellingly with "the invention of autonomy" in this period. Whereas Kant sought to distance his own use of "common sense" from the external senses, however (ascribing it instead to "the effect resulting from the free *[End Page 124]* play of cognitive powers" [_CJ_, 74]), Coleridge--and I believe he is closer to Reid in this respect--regards common sense as dependent for its manifestation, and frequently for its very foundation, on the senses themselves. 25 It is on account of this strongly empirical


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 151-169
Walking on Flowers: the Kantian Aesthetics Of _Hard Times_
Christina Lupton
---------------
in the novel, Sissy is clearly in a position to claim simply to like flowers. And yet to take Dickens at his word--or Sissy at her's--on this count runs the risk of ascribing a simple sensitivity to Sissy which can be no more than a weak alternative to the facts of industry. If flowers are destined to grow between mineshafts, the preference for flowers is destined to survive only in the interstices of modern life. To read _Hard Times_ staging the opposition between coal mines


exclaims



ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
drunkenness, enough is too much, and the strategy of the poems is to be able to say little at length--and generally through multiplying poems rather than through extending individual songs. "Eh! [End Page 385] quel nombre, dis-moi, peut suffire à l'amour" [Oh! tell me, what number may suffice for love], exclaims Claude-Joseph Dorat in "Les Baisers comptés," both hoping and fearing a last one: BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE The form of a litany is entirely inorganic and designed to liberate


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
Other major instances of partnership in Our Mutual Friend include the contrasting connections of Wegg and Venus on the one hand and Jenny and Riah on the other. When the "friendly move" in which Wegg and Venus are engaged results in the discovery of a different Harmon will, Wegg exclaims to Venus: "'[N]ow, as a fellow-man, and as a partner in a friendly move . . . say, have I completed my labour of love to your perfect satisfaction?'" (494; 3.7). Wegg, of course, is far from engaging in a "labour of love" for his partner, but Dickens achieves great expressive effect with this character by sometimes


ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
costumes are quaint, and after sharing their pleasures Rip will find that his clothes have gone out of fashion, too. Immediately upon "finding himself thus alone in the world," he exclaims, "Does nobody here know Rip van Winkle?" (S, 781). When Rip asks this question he is suffering from the loss of a cohort and a context. What follows can be properly described as his identity crisis. It is one of the most vivid moments of the story, and it transfixed readers, painters, and performers in the nineteenth


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 167-197
Wordsworth's Visionary Imagination: Democracy and War
Brian Folker
---------------
democratic citizen and the coercive force of institutions has taken place. They appear to have bridged the gap between will and order that threatens to undo all of Wordsworth's most ambitious attempts to turn visionary poetic insight to actual social account. With unbridled enthusiasm, the poet exclaims, "Oh! let but any man, who has a care for the progressive happiness of the species, peruse merely the epitome of Spanish wisdom and benevolence" (299). Most contractual social theorists look to concentrate the means of


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
finally agrees to let Huck pretend that pickaxes are caseknives (otherwise Jim's escape might indeed take thirty-seven years). Unable to "let on" consistently, however, Huck suggests that they use a rusty saw-blade to expedite Jim's escape even more. As exasperated with Huck as Huck was earlier with Jim, Tom exclaims: "'It ain't no use to try to learn you nothing, Huck'" (269). The point of these mirror episodes is not just that Huck and Tom are incapable of arguing, but that argument or learning--the adaptation of logical structures to different contexts--is impossible. In this novel, once we have

Widow, Pap, the King, and Duke, not to mention the robbers and killers populating the river, all labor to impose their wills upon others. Even Jim intuitively expects to wield such authority over his daughter. When the girl, having unbeknownst to him lost her hearing, appears to disobey his command, Jim exclaims, as a prelude to slapping her, "'I lay I _make_ you mine'" (171). "Mine" here means "mind," as in "mind me," but the difference is negligible. No less than Pap, who thinks Huck's reward money belongs to him, Jim imagines his authority over his child to be absolute and proprietary.


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
Dick the restless weaver has been misled by the high "price of meat" (1:287) and "the rich man's state" (1:287) to doubt God's providence, but his contentment is restored in pious conversation with his fellow weaver, John, and then secured through a conceit drawn from the very fabric they have been laboring to produce. "My own carpet sets me right" (1:290), Dick exclaims, after John has compared "the whole design" (1:289) of an inscrutable providence with the two sides of a carpet: "This world, which clouds thy soul with doubt, / _Is but a carpet inside out_" (1:287-90). 64 Once again, More's own authority is never far from the surface. As the weaver discovers a


individualizing



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
tremendous agency to those buried at Gettysburg. Having declared his inability to commemorate the dead adequately, Lincoln asks those gathered at Gettysburg to take "from these honored dead . . . increased devotion." This devotion, directed to the Union cause, insures that the nation will have "a new birth of freedom" (405). In the absence of any individualizing features, the Gettysburg dead exert great influence. As in "John Brown’s Body," which enacts the power of the martyred body to inspire a living army, these unidentified corpses nourish the will of the community. Thus the war’s most difficult practical effect--the presence of so many dead bodies--becomes the source of its


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
"character." In locating the vectors of social inequality and dissent in proximity to normative "character," and by seeking to remedy social ills through the redisposition of delinquent interiority, nineteenth-century reformers, while making significant social gains for America's underclasses, simultaneously facilitated the individualizing and affect-saturation of political life. Reform has remained oddly resistant to this analysis, however, in part because of trends in American historiography that have tended toward

Garrison's citizenship-without-nations might usefully be *[End Page 39]* called, building on Etienne Balibar, the citizen-form. 13 Garrison's construction of the citizen-form provided the illusions Balibar attributes to the nation, universalizing the state by making citizenship the result of divine wisdom, while individualizing the state by asserting the reflection of divine will in personal affect. Garrison's divorce of citizenship from the nation begins with his public stand against institutional and political organizations (a somewhat paradoxical stand given the vast nationalizing network of antislavery societies Garrison operated within). As Garrison

-------------------------------------------------------------------------- The location of racial injustice and of citizenship's rights and responsibilities within the interiors of citizens' bodies, as I've suggested, had consequences: naturalizing, individualizing, and simultaneously universalizing republican values; placing the causes and consequences of racial inequality beyond the reach of structural transformation; and providing white Americans with a sense of interior "depth" that made identification (and typically appropriation) of black suffering a requisite


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1043-1065
Governing Economic Man: Joanna Baillie's Theatre of Utility
Julie Murray
---------------
development of the concept of sympathetic curiosity, which marks a distinct and crucial movement away from Smith's idea of the sympathetic imagination. Deploying a vicissitude of interest--curiosity--Baillie's theatre draws economic man, an entity governed by the wildly individualizing forces of interest, into the purview of moral governance. Writing, as she is, at the tailend of a century that obsessively considered the ground upon which commerce and virtue might be reconciled, Baillie continues Smith's rather urgent work of supplying the moral coordinates for economic man. Her

individual as individual, but necessarily antagonistic to anything individual that wasn't recuperated by the category of the citizen. If the object of the taxonomic discourse was civic man, that innately political animal, then the emergence of the figure of economic man--constituted first and foremost by the individualizing forces of interest--introduced a new and powerful element, one that would have no truck with the sacrifice of the individual in civic and moral philosophy.

nature of the art of government, discusses the possibility that the ruler's art is like the shepherd's who cares for each individual sheep in his flock." BLOCKQUOTE Bearing in mind liberalism's coordination of individualizing and totalizing forms of power, I suggest, allows us to draw into focus Baillie's particular achievement: outstripping Smith, she reconciles his dusty stoic philosophy to the new demands of economic man. If the movement in _Wealth_ is notoriously individualizing, with the

Bearing in mind liberalism's coordination of individualizing and totalizing forms of power, I suggest, allows us to draw into focus Baillie's particular achievement: outstripping Smith, she reconciles his dusty stoic philosophy to the new demands of economic man. If the movement in _Wealth_ is notoriously individualizing, with the priority of economic self-interest and the subsequent extension of its benefits to a social totality, then the entrenchment of the figure of stoic man in _Theory_ signals--first and foremost--an orientation towards the sociopolitical and its totalizations. Smith

is important for its registration of the manner in which she engages Smith's legacy. Significantly revising Smith's concept of the sympathetic imagination, Baillie inflects Smithean sympathy with her own idea of curiosity (and its cognates such as desire), and thus enables the individualizing move that Smith's commitment to a smooth, stoic surface cannot permit. "If man is an object of so much attention to man," she argues, "engaged in the ordinary occurrences of life, how much more does he excite his curiosity and interestwhen placed in extraordinary situations of difficulty and distress?"

angry man produces a reaction in his observers that is wholly un-Smithean. Exploiting the "sympathetick curiosity of our nature," Baillie's text deftly coordinates the individualizing force of desire with the totalizing impulse of its orientation towards Smithean sociability, and effects, in so doing, the moral regulation of the individual subject. "What human creature is there," she asks, "who can behold a being like himself under the violent agitation of those passions

transformations--political, economic, social, cultural--concomitant with liberalism's development of an art of government. Neither should the apparent stage failure of _De Monfort_ detract from what I suggest is an achievement of much greater consequence. Coordinating the individualizing force of interest-_cum_-curiosity with the totalizing gesture of Smithean sociability, Baillie's work--under the rubric of liberal governance--newly inflects that age-old term: romantic freedom.


kindled



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
Washington Relics, exhibited by the US Patent Office as a camp scene, where the general's spirit seemed all but palpable. A writer for _Harper's Weekly,_ despite the accompanying illustration, detailed the mise-en-scène, with its bed and blankets, sword and leathern scabbard, pistols, "and the bellows wherewith he urged the fire and kindled the unwilling wood when snow lay upon the ground and all was sodden and dreary" ("The Centennial" 781). This metamorphosis from description to a kind of narration--crucial in the subsequent life-group displays--recurs in the account of the camp chest: "[T]his has


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
However, the doctors did not so much impose a separate cultural milieu on their patients as take elements from the dangerous nineteenth-century world, bend them into therapeutic shape, and return them to patients in a purified form. The _Opal_ was just such a sanitized instrument, a bulwark against a diseased literary culture of "yellow-covered" novels that kindled "strange emotions" and threatened to "loosen the hold of the mind on eternal principles and allow it to wander on its dim and perilous way" toward "unhealthy" sensations (Ray, _Mental Hygiene_ 57-58).


putrefying



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
femininity. The prototypical reader of such massively popular works embodies and enacts the largest threat to Brownsonian Catholicity: "Her heart is _blase_ before she is out of her teens. Her whole being, body and soul, heart and mind, inside and out, from top to bottom, is diseased, full of wounds and putrefying sores" ("Religious" 146). Even as he registered the failure of Young American literature to fulfill its promise, Brownson knew that influence within the popular press led directly to control and influence among the widest range of readers and potential converts; therefore, his reviews work steadily to undermine the female ethos of idolatry that he saw


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
In the face of cultural pressure to construct a national narrative, however, Poe mocked the fetishizing of American subjects, and his complicated resistance to literary nation-building left telltale evidence in his fiction—sometimes, as I will suggest later, in the ominous form of disfigured or putrefying bodies. Despite his Virginia upbringing and early association with the _Southern Literary Messenger_, Poe recognized the perils of regional identification for a writer of national ambition; he critiqued literary nationalism not from a narrowly sectional viewpoint but

itself, often represented as a beautiful woman in nationalist iconography. Night after night, we learn, the artist pries open the box to gaze upon her remains. Wyatt dies for her on the Fourth of July, a gesture of patriotic martyrdom, but in fact the lady is already irrecoverably lost, corrupted. That her putrefying corpse sinks into the Atlantic off Roanoke Island locates the nation's apocalyptic ending in its beginnings, in the original act of European *[End Page 18]* encroachment. The inscription Croatoan became, in nationalist mythology, the cryptic trace of Governor


plundering



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
in the novel is presumed to be a free black man, will encourage slav to steal property (i.e., themselves) from white men who hold only an illicit title to them, the _Vulture_ passage makes the notion of ownership itself incoherent. Indeed, Blake is at once a potential plundering pirate and a black revolutionary nationalist who encourag slaves to stake a claim to property in themselves, while the white sailors--some of whom have direct economic interests in the ship's cargo--are *[End Page 724]* both enterprising businessmen and international criminals. The passage thus offers an ironic, implicit


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
American as a type--often identified, as I've suggested, as a hybrid. There were good and bad hybrids in Irving's lexicon. The German-American John Astor suggests the productive energy of the immigrant committed to making his way in a New World. Other hybrids, like the "roving" bands of "mongrels" Irving foresees plundering the agrarian settlements of the Far West, are American decadents addicted to risk and greed. The salient feature of the stereotypical hybrid is his or her


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
. . . had made the Americans the equals of any other people, not because of military power, but because that power was guided by a spirit of justice, and its goal was not conquest but freedom. The Americans, statesmen and sailors, leaders and common fold, were different from the 'the [_sic_] plundering vassals of the tyrannical Bashaw,' as one poet had described the Tripolitans, and the European nations that countenanced the Bashaw's plunder and tyranny" (34). While it is unclear that the US emerged with any decisive military victory, as Allison indicates, he nonetheless seems to offer


spacing



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 230-253
Book Review ~~~~~~~~~~~ Whose Dickinson?
Cristanne Miller
---------------
QUOTE ), not according to metrical norms. Seen from this perspective, Dickinson's poetry can only accurately be read when freed from the constraints of conventional print typography and conventional conceptions of her poems: as irregularly (not metrically) lineated, as involving irregular spacing and construction of punctuation marks (especially dashes which slant in various directions and are of varying lengths), and as including her own occasionally ambiguous placement of variant words or phrases on the page. As Bennett writes, QUOTE the QUOTE of Dickinson's QUOTE (

While this is the most significant of their editional decisions, other choices also differ markedly from Franklin's. For example, they represent most dashes with the same short QUOTE Franklin employs but use an apostrophe for those that QUOTE They also represent the wide spacing of words in Dickinson's late handwriting, note marginal comments as such and by position on the page following the text of a letter, describe some of the poet's QUOTE in the notes, and reproduce canceled words in brackets. 4 [End Page 237] In Hart and Smith's pages a poem is shaped quite differently from QUOTE


actuating



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
case, potentiate the constitutive actions undertaken in the Constitution. My assertion of Eureka's social resonance is also based on the notion, from classical precedent as well as from Poe himself, that particular documents or genres (poetry, in particular) bear an effective--that is, an actuating rather than a purely prescriptive--relation to institutions such as social formations. But even so, the claim that Eureka addresses residual problems of American social formation is bound to seem out of character for an

review hints at the belief in social hierarchy that underpins Poe's notion not only of American social formations but also of how we are to regard those formations: as successful or unsuccessful, faithful or unfaithful reproductions of those founded in predecessor documents. The phrase QUOTE invokes the idea of an actuating principle--in Bradfield's words, a QUOTE --that does not address existing institutions but instead digs below those superstructures to the foundational, originary moment (the QUOTE ) when any number of arrangements and concepts of relation were still possible (100).

regarded as intentional, inasmuch as changing our conception of social relations (how they should be conducted, how they are conducted) is never entirely disconnected from the potential to revise and alter those structures and relations themselves. The actuating QUOTE accessed through cosmology and through the founding documents revises in the abstract but never abandons the possibility of doing so in the flesh. 8 But Poe's concern with foundations extends beyond Eureka itself to


pacifying



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
to you had a contrary effect upon your minds?" (_Address_ 13). Although Garrison's portrait of the freed black, instructed by white abolitionists in the lessons of republican self-regulation, is on one level strategic, pacifying white anxiety about black retribution following emancipation, it is also a condition and a justification for the authoritative pedagogy of the _Address_ itself. The costs to his audience of such a pedagogy are indicated when Garrison grounds the authority by which he instructs those more intimately acquainted with the horrors of slavery and


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
loyalties and the love of fame. The North American fur trade was initially imagined as a means not only of cultivating Indian interest but also of deferring intercultural war. 16 Louis de Bonneville saw the establishment of trading posts on the southern Plains as the only means of pacifying the Comanches, and the trader James Beckwourth noted the pacifying effect of trade on the "simple Crows," who "supposed that the posts, with their contents, were the property of the nation, and that the whites who were in charge there were their own agents" (365).

initially imagined as a means not only of cultivating Indian interest but also of deferring intercultural war. 16 Louis de Bonneville saw the establishment of trading posts on the southern Plains as the only means of pacifying the Comanches, and the trader James Beckwourth noted the pacifying effect of trade on the "simple Crows," who "supposed that the posts, with their contents, were the property of the nation, and that the whites who were in charge there were their own agents" (365).


overweening



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 471-503
Hello, Dude: Philology, Performance, and Technology in Mark Twain's _Connecticut Yankee_
Seth Lerer
---------------
a threat to power, a self-imagined ruler of a landscape given up to foppery and fools. Look at the range of quotations that the _NED_ assembles to illustrate the nonce words of dudedom and the like. Phrases such as "the dude or dudine inhisdominion"; "the intense dudeness of Lord Beaconsfield"; "the Pharisiacal dudery"; "A dudish applicant, with an overweening sense of his own self-importance"; and, again, "the realms of dudedom." There is a politics to dudery, a sense that somehow this affected or imaginary persona poses a threat to the established order--that what replaces power politics or social class, or the familiar hierarchies of control is something strange.

with those of Annie Russell, Adelina Patti, or Sam Devere--or, for that matter, of the world of Thomas Edison. For early Edisonian hagiography, there was no place for affectation or performance. The Dicksons' _Life and Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison_ of 1894, quoted by the _NED,_ gives us the image of "[a] dudish applicant, with an overweening sense of his own self-importance" (230). But when we read the passage in its original context, we can see that such an applicant "refused to perform some of the rough work attendant on an important experiment" (230). Edison, we are told, "simply apologized with elaborate courtesy," rolled up his sleeves, and got to work


palpitating



Unveiled



_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
Mattison, Hiram. _Louisa Picquet: The Octoroon. Collected Black Women's Narratives._ Ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. _The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Women Writers._ New York: Oxford UP, 1861. ------. _Spirit-Rapping Unveiled, and Expose of the Origin, History, Theology, and Philosophy of Certain Alleged Communications from the Spirit World._ Special Collections, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. New York: Mason Brothers, 1853.


critiquing



_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
enlarging identities" (78). Artists and critics must find a way to care about both the distant and the local—to analyze regional communities without losing sight of the larger global community that requires and enables the production of regions. For although the local may provide a forum for resisting and critiquing nation-states and world systems, anticapitalist struggles can only succeed by imagining and inhabiting larger terrains of sympathy, solidarity, and collaboration. *[End Page 62]*


ELH 67.3 (2000) 819-842
Playing at Class
Karen Sánchez-Eppler
---------------
Child's Letters blend social criticism with rich accounts of the development of a moral and aesthetic imagination. They are thus simultaneously engaged in creating and elevating bourgeois subjectivity and in critiquing the social inequities that have historically made that subjectivity possible. Thus this letter, in which Child invites her readers to follow her imagination as it fabricates a future of abuse and ultimate criminality for the newsboy, presses on to ask: "When, oh when, will men learn that


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
once, in more programmatically Heideggerian terminology, have called the authentically temporal destiny of literature is in this late text ["'Conclusions': Walter Benjamin's 'The Task of the Translator'" (1985)] not opposed to political _praxis_, but rigorously identified with it"--but even here, the point has more to do with critiquing Terry Eagleton, than it does with contemplating the implications of what it might mean to formulate a historical poetics, in "truly temporal dimensions." 38 Not only is temporality clearly central to rethinking the deconstructive conception of language "vis a vis the materialist concept of history," but, more generally,


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
presence of the liberty cap in a cartoon could indicate a righteous struggle for governmental reform or a violent and anticonstitutional threat, but context did not always clarify which signification was meant. Moreover, because such parodies repeated *[End Page 172]* the images and language of what they were critiquing—what Jones has called the "mimetic violence of parodic satire"—they always threatened to become the very thing they mocked.20 In other words, cartoonists and writers like Cruikshank and Shelley had to tread a careful line between critique and capitulation. Potentially,


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
drawn attention to the precariousness of ostensibly natural signs. Indeed, at a moment when many slaves did "look" white, such anxiety over the mutable materiality of racial signifiers would be understandable. However, Hawthorne, as will become clear, is not critiquing racist hierarchies; he is logic on which such hierarchies have been conventionally predicated. Hawthorne is not abandoning racial hierarchies just because he is questioning a particular (materialist) version of racial aesthetics. For Hawthorne, unlike for many of his contemporaries, the crucial

For Hawthorne, unlike for many of his contemporaries, the crucial question is not whether the Negro is physically beautiful or ugly, precisely because he is suspicious of the aesthetic itself. Hawthorne can align the Negro with the beautiful precisely because he is interested not in critiquing standards of beauty, but in revealing how the Negro must be understood as a fundamentally aesthetic problem. Hawthorne's understanding of racial aesthetics, in other words, needs to be distinguished from arguments that turned to the self-evidently ugly surface of the Negro as objective proof


contaminating



ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
figurative language while simultaneously employing the metaphor "dungeon of metaphorical obscurity," but even more importantly that language itself here becomes the source of obscurity. The author imprisoned in this "dungeon" of figurative language could only be freed by a literal or purely conceptual language not contaminating or undermining his argumentation. Yet this language seems unavailable in The Wealth of Nations, which borrows not only metaphors from the natural sciences to represent the "gravitation" of prices, but also tropes of invisible agency from the gothic novel--as if Walpole's representation of Manfred literally imprisoned by "an invisible hand"


ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
society: it is whatever threatens to disrupt order as such, to undo those very distinctions. 16 Cousins draws upon this notion of "contagion," proposing that the ugly object appears as "an invasive contaminating life stripped of all signification," one that "gorges on meaning" as it engulfs the subject [End Page 568] with its own lack of meaning, its excessive incoherence. 17 In fact, in Frankenstein, the term "ugly" emerges at the precise point when the speaking subject is about to be consumed

encounter with the Creature, for example, Victor describes the wind "as if it were a dull ugly siroc on its way to consume [him]" (F, 176). While the sirocco is as invisible as wind and hence cannot, strictly speaking, qualify as ugly, his pathetic fallacy is apt. For as the "contaminating life" of the Creature spills out from his overstretched skin to pursue Victor physically and psychologically, it threatens to "consume" him and the entire symbolic order in which he is implicated. Thus while it is couched in admittedly boyish terms, William Frankenstein's fatal encounter with the


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
in two ways: "om in us" or "om i nous"; the prevalence of "i" in exceptional feet as a free-standing and easily dispersed phoneme favors the latter. In which case the presence of a French pronoun transposes "om" into "homme," which, translated, yields "man I we." But, as always with puns, the alternative won't go away, contaminating the French with its preposition and its English pronoun, to generate a hybrid, "man in us." Although one should not forget that this combination leaves "i" inappropriately high and dry, unless the man who is in us is taken as also in "I."


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
there kitchen winder! They put him wery nigh the top. They was obliged to stamp upon it to git it in. I could unkiver it for you with my broom, if the gate was open" (_B_, 278). At this point, Lady Dedlock shrinks "into a corner of that hideous archway, with its deadly stains contaminating her dress; and putting out her two hands, and passionately telling him to keep away from her, for he is loathsome to her" (_B_, 278). I will return to Lady Dedlock and her "deadly stains"; but for now I want to point out that containment of the dead in _Bleak House_ is at best ineffectual, and if we find in


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
15). Ann, the streetwalker with a "plundered . . . property," who is treated as a sacrosanct sister by the hero is an even better example of woman-as-other at once off limits and vulnerable (_C_, 21). Woman figures the other's autonomy, a place set apart where the male visitor's contaminating presence is invited yet forbidden. In conditional hospitality, then, the exchange and reciprocity brought by the subject is set against the subject's respect for the inviolability of the other. Through *[End Page 875]* respect, the I expresses its desire to welcome the other as other in itself, not as


repudiating



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
Señora Moreno disavows any kinship with Ramona on account of race, Aunt Ri figuratively adopts Ramona, vigorously advocating for Indian rights before governmental authorities who would patronize the very communities they allegedly served. Moral suasion would lead readers of _Ramona_ to join Aunt Ri in repudiating widespread discourses of Indian inhumanity and instead to acknowledge Indians as fellow human beings in a less civilized but tractable state.17 As imperial conquest gave way to colonial management, post-


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
more than one; nor, I think, have such difficulties proved easier to resolve today. To see the full force of this problem expressed, however, one could do worse than to turn to an overtly experimental poem such as Wordsworth's "Simon Lee." That poem reverses the trajectory of "Frost at Midnight," at first invoking and then repudiating a straightforward community through sympathy with the eponymous figure. "Simon Lee" courts only to reject an unreflective sympathetic response, and then insists, in the poem's famous apostrophe, that it is only the reader who takes pains to "think," (79) who will be able to make meaning of the incident. Romantic experiments such as


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
Pocock, "Modes of Political and Historical Time in Early Eighteenth-Century England," in _Virtue_, 91-102. Jürgen Habermas and Reinhart Koselleck offer different but compatible accounts of the accelerated rate of change characteristic of a modernity that, repudiating historical foundations, continually makes itself obsolete. See Habermas, "Modernity's Consciousness of Time and Its Need for Self-Reassurance," in _The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity_, trans. Frederick G. Lawrence (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987), 1-22; Koselleck, "Modernity and the *[End Page 1017]* Planes


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
self-abnegation. The price of both producing and reproducing great art, Hilda demonstrates, is the loss of a personality. Indeed, the distinction between creation and imitation, originality and reproduction, is predicated upon the very assumption that the Romance is dedicated to repudiating: that the aesthetic can ever be connected to the expression of individuality. Hawthorne thus repeatedly emphasizes how completely Hilda's devotion to the aesthetic blocks her from becoming an individual. Although


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
argument only to discard it in making her claims for political agency, de Certeau ignores his own assertion that practices do not have inherent or stable meanings but only temporary and contingent significances (_P_, xiii). To put it another way, both critics have their own way of repudiating the transindividual or social sphere in which all political action must transpire: this fantasmatic dimension, present in each of these theories, elides the social relation necessary for agency. In fact, political projects are enabled precisely by such elisions: this disavowal of the social

signification. In this way, an appreciation of the social dimension of agency takes on ethical force.40 In my view, Butler's and de Certeau's theories are not only suspect but also unethical, because they *[End Page 742]* misrepresent how agency actually works. Ethics must be capable of being realized: by repudiating, however unwittingly, the social dimension within which all subjects and their actions have any significance, they fail to appreciate what ethics demands.

7. For example, it seems that John Rokesmith unwittingly teaches Rogue Riderhood how to mount an effective blackmail (Rogue-smith?), for the scene in Pleasant's shop where the disguised Harmon intimidates Rogue into repudiating his charges against Hexam is clearly echoed in Rogue's successful blackmail of Headstone in the schoolroom. Trying to distinguish these two cases by arguing that John acts from selfless or disinterested motives (to clear Hexam's name for the Harmon murder) while Rogue doesn't (his own neck is at


aligning



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
the biography also reveals the degree to which he perceived of his public persona as both penetrating into and emerging from the private space of his household. He confirms that he has "had no compliment, no praise, no tribute from any [End Page 679] source, that was so precious to me as this one was and still is," aligning his daughter’s text with the overwhelming accolades he had received over the course of his public career. Furthermore, he admits that, once he discovered her project, he began "posing for the biography," much as he was doing for Paine at the very time he dictated these lines (MTA 2: 65).


ELH 66.1 (1999) 111-128
Seeing Romantically in Lamia
Paul Endo
---------------
14. Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1981), 112. We can exorcise the transcendentalism of this formulation by insisting that the magic spaces of romance, the "worldness of its world," are constantly emerging, disappearing, expanding, and re-aligning. 15. For thresholds in Keats, see Martin Aske, "Magical Spaces in 'The Eve of St. Agnes,'" Essays in Criticism 31 (1981): 196-209.


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
contest between entrepreneurial and professional versions of English middle-class identity. If capitalist ideology depended upon the myth of virtuous feminine self-sacrifice in order (symbolically) to curb capitalist excesses and mask contradictions, then male professionals may be seen to have waged their own struggle for status and power by aligning themselves with the domestic ideal. Throughout the nineteenth century, the meritorious service of a range of professional representations--the domestic comfort sought by exemplary clergymen such as Edward Ferrars in Sense and Sensibility (1811); the superlative domestic temperament of Dr. Hope in Martineau's Deerbrook


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
forget that a work, which solicits the attention of many readers, must build its claim on the variety as well as copiousness of its contents." 36 In thus implicitly aligning the novel with the museum (literary and otherwise), Lucy's late letters privilege the editorial function of the novelist as curator of miscellaneous correspondences. The early American novel often positioned its author as editor, telling a tale based on fact, citing documents as sources for the tale which is


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
but utility, not in the punishment of crime but the design of incentives and modes of surveillance that would bring about the greatest good. To make this design as flawless as possible, he sought to put the general good on a basis more stable and predictable than individual virtue, proposing ways of aligning duty and desire, utility and self-interest, according to which people would serve general utility simply by doing their own will. 2 But in the process of eradicating institutional violence against the subject, he disposed of the ethical subject as such, transforming it into the predictable, malleable creature of utility. Godwin shared much of this


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
Radical Reform's cape. Perhaps this underscores the threat of Reform to the laws, but it also connects the two opposing sides. Moreover, Britannia strangely recalls Marianne, the revolutionary goddess of liberty. Her scaled bodice with the words "_dieu et mon droi_" on the belt makes this connection explicit, thus also aligning the conservative side with liberty and revolution. The image is more complicated still because Britannia's serpent-like bodice also calls up the image of the hydra killed by Hercules, another symbol of Revolutionary power that viewers would have known. Hercules, in


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
personhood but as the absolute abomination of personhood. Rather than formulate an aesthetic theory that can reconcile the subjective and objective elements of the aesthetic, Hawthorne writes _The Marble Faun_ in order to elaborate the irreconcilability of the universal and the particular.57 Rather than aligning the aesthetic with the constitution of the individual subject, he positions the aesthetic as the primary antagonist of the subject and turns to the materiality of the art object *[End Page 270]* to save the subject. To the extent that _The Marble Faun_ carefully lays out the process


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
connection with this dynamic, the implied *[End Page 933]* opposition of master and slave in the Lucifer section continues to destabilize the privileged place of mastery throughout Whitman's poetry.30 In this racial crossing, Whitman surrenders his mastery of the text, aligning his poetic persona with passivity and a willingness to be possessed in a manner that will have more complicated implications for the power relations between poet and reader.


associating



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
chapter. In fact, the narrative at times attends more closely to the conflicts and exchanges between white men that Black Guinea's presence prompts than to the beggar himself. 19 A prominent interpretive strain within twentieth-century scholarship furthers this emphasis by associating Black Guinea and the novel's other confidence men with the devil or abstract evil and thus suggesting, perhaps even insisting, that readers should trust Melville's white donors rather than his beggar. 20 Nevertheless, the novel's representations encourage a disgust with the passengers' behavior


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
transformations of contemporary history. These images corroborated American allegorical paintings in the 1840s, such as Daniel Huntington's 1843 _Italia_ (Bailey 101-2), which depicted Italy as a woman and which, unlike most nineteenth-century representations of woman-as-nation, defined the nation itself as feminized by associating the female figure with aesthetic, rather than martial or political, implements. Landscape paintings subsumed such genre themes into vistas that are visual analogies of the tourist's gaze. Thomas Cole's 1833 _Italian Scene,


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
15. Although Fetnah announces early in the play that she was born in England, no evidence concerning the racial identity of her mother is given in the play; we know that her father, Hassan, is Jewish. 16. Melish points out that narratives associating homosexuality with North Africa are common (157). On Federalist accusations linking French Republican politics with homosexuality, see Waldstreicher, "Federalism" 116.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
wit and knowledge' fixed the eyes, ears, and hearts of their crowded congregations," Coleridge in fact attempts to recover the value of discussion and argumentative discourse which he presumes to be unknown to a nineteenth-century audience. The Lay Sermon thus continues by self-consciously associating its position of dissent with a defense of the mechanism of print (something that should remind us of the example from The Watchman with which I began my discussion). The period from Edward VI to James II, he argues, was characterized by "the warmth and frequency of . . . religious

supernatural authority which in turn commands specific kinds of beliefs from the reader (CW, 4.1:440). It is hardly surprising to find Coleridge in his notebooks associating Warburton and even Evangelicals like Wilberforce and Hannah More (as much as he might have agreed with their positions on abolition) with the "Devil-Worship" of "Savages"; and The Friend elsewhere derides popular journalism not because of its tendencies towards social anarchy, but because of its attempts to appeal to an


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 501-523
Sexual Politics and the Aesthetics of Crime: Oscar Wilde in the Nineties
Simon Joyce
---------------
shall take his morning's turn of sweeping it out. I occupy a cell with a bricklayer and a sweep, but they never once offer me the broom!" On leaving Newgate, he was transported to Van Diemen's Land and felt a similar sense of superiority over the "country bumpkins" on board, so different from the "poets and artists" with whom he was used to associating when he was still a celebrity criminal. Commenting on this last quote, Wilde repeats his dictum from "The Soul of Man under Socialism" (to which I shall return) in order to explain Wainewright's sense of alienation from his fellow criminals: "The phrase that he applies to his companions need not surprise us," he notes,


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
repressive assertion," and then he identifies his view of de Man's repressed: "De Manian allegory appears to derive from a repression of what is an alternative to allegory's violent positionings and antitheses [where the 'alternative' is identified as modern narrative's 'anti-allegorical pathos of uncertain agency']." 22 Here, establishing Caserio's strategy of associating allegory with repression is useful not so much for its commentary on modern narrative, but rather, in this context, for how the account models Romantic new historicists' use of the term allegory. In the following lines, I suggest, Liu's account of Wordsworth bears a striking resemblance to


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
Blair and Campbell believed that words are to some degree consolidated with ideas and objects. Blair felt that language is ideally mimetic: names for objects "imitat[e] . . . the nature of the object"; "words [are] copies of our ideas." Without speculating on the origins of words, Campbell declared that the "habit of associating the sign with the thing signified" leads persons to imbue this association with "a relation additional," as if signs and ideas are "naturally related to one another," related axiomatically, perhaps causally or by "resemblance." 49 Probably following John Locke's view more, American


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
exploration, we can also say that in the end this worldly trinity is synonymous with what eighteenth-century writers called Sensibility, drawn in part from the figure of the "Sensorium" that writers like Sterne invoked by bringing Heaven down to earth, and in the conflation of the two, associating both with the "eternal fountain of our feelings" and the source of the "divinity which stirs within." 4 Drawn from Ephraim Chambers's popular _Cyclopaedia_, which also feeds the musings of Walter Shandy in Sterne's earlier _Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy_, the figure of the Sensorium


Cited



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
liberty' . . . which destroys the 'governmental machinery' of nations by asserting that 'all things be in common'" (qtd. in Bradfield 83-84). Works Cited =========== Alterton, Margaret. Origins of Poe's Critical Theory. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1925.


American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 230-253
Book Review ~~~~~~~~~~~ Whose Dickinson?
Cristanne Miller
---------------
analysis of the field of Dickinson study, given the great loss to the community of scholars working in American poetry with her death early in 1999. Works Cited =========== Bennett, Paula. "'By a Mouth That Cannot Speak': Spectral Presence in Emily Dickinson's Letters." The Emily Dickinson Journal 1.2


American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 348-354
Melville the Poet: Response to William Spengemann
Elizabeth Renker
---------------
by Robert D. Madison and Dennis Berthold. Berthold is writing a book about the influences of Italian art, politics, and history on Melville's entire career, including the poems. Works Cited =========== Arvin, Newton. QUOTE Partisan Review 16.10 (1949): 1034-46.


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 659-684
Free Carpenter, Venture Capitalist: Reading the Lives of the Early Black Atlantic
Philip Gould
---------------
the latter. These readings, however, consider only the substance of Smith's entrepreneurial character, not the narrative features--and problems--it presents. Works Cited =========== Andrews, William L. To Tell a Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American Autobiography, 1760-1865. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1986.


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
is rife with equally speculative annotations. See Bellis for an argument against ascribing such coherence to the novel's representations. Works Cited =========== QUOTE The National Reformer March 1839: 107-08.


American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
colonization society; others settled on empresario grants; and still others were part of a short-lived QUOTE founded by German intellectuals (Jordan 45). Works Cited =========== Acuña, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. 3rd ed. New York: Harper, 1988.


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
Faculty at the University of Washington/Seattle, he is the author of Sentimental Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Citizenship in the Early Republic (Princeton UP, 1998). Work Cited ========== Irving, Washington. QUOTE The Complete Tales of Washington Irving. Ed. Charles Neider. New York: Doubleday, 1975.


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 212-241
The Religion of Art in the City at War: Boston's Public Poetry and the Great Organ, 1863
Mary Loeffelholz
---------------
23. To close one final circle: this poem, by one H. A. Sargeant, had an afterlife in Annie Fields's strange, oblique Civil War novel Asphodel (1864), where Fields reproduced it admiringly. Works Cited =========== Austin, James C. Fields of QUOTE San Marino: Huntington Library, 1953.


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
Milder, Frederick Newberry, Steven Mailloux, and audiences at the University of Oregon, the University of Washington, and the Kennedy Institute for North American Studies in Berlin. Works Cited =========== Althusser, Louis. QUOTE Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971. 127-86.


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
26. Dash discusses this passage briefly, noting that QUOTE (Haiti 16). See also Hoffmann's brief discussion of this poem (Essays 71). Works Cited =========== Belnap, Jeffrey, and Raúl Fernández. José Martí's QUOTE : From National to Hemispheric Cultural Studies. Durham: Duke UP, 1998.


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
Furthermore, he confirms that "no talent is required" to dictate an autobiography in this manner (MTA 1: 235). Rather, the writing simply bears the (trade)mark of his signature literary personality. Works Cited =========== Angert, Eugene H. "Is Mark Twain Dead?" North American Review 190 (1909): 319-29.


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
22. Dramatizing his complex relationship to Brown, as well as the volatility of political allegiances at this time, Wise organized a successful raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry on 16 April 1861 (Wise 274-81). Works Cited =========== Allan, Elizabeth Preston. The Life and Letters of Margaret Junkin Preston. Boston: Houghton, 1903.


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 814-822
New Origins of American Literature
Grantland S. Rice
---------------
7. See volume 1 (and forthcoming volume 2) of A History of the Book in America (2000), edited by Hugh Amory and David D. Hall. Works Cited =========== Gura, Philip F. "Early American Literature at the New Century." William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 57.3 (2000): 599-620.


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
22. For a sequence of events and documents of the Second Republic, see Roger Price, 1848 _in France_ (1975). Works Cited =========== Bailey, Brigitte. "'The Protected Witness': Cole, Cooper, and the Tourist's View of the Italian Landscape." D. Miller 92-111.


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
where the magical autonomy of the commodity form (the mirror of the stereotype) is positioned as the disembodied solution to the experience of social negativity or isolation" (642). Works Cited =========== Balibar, Etienne, and Immanuel Wallerstein. _Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities._ New York: Verso, 1991.


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
recovered" (15). The generalization of "eighteenth-century public speaking" and the concomitant use of the passive voice recur throughout his argument. Works Cited =========== Aptheker, Herbert. _American Negro Slave Revolts._ New York: International, 1963.


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
nineteenth-century episode of archaeology in the American Southwest). See Bill Brown, _A Sense of Things_ (forthcoming), from which this essay derives. Works Cited =========== Ammons, Elizabeth. "Material Culture, Empire, and Jewett's _Country of the Pointed Firs._" Howard, _New Essays_ 81-100.


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 348-357
Perpetual Emotion Machine
Michelle Burnham
---------------
profound political consequences of these potential alignments, have taken on a felt immediacy as I submit this essay two days after the September 11 terrorist assaults on New York and Washington. Works Cited =========== Austin, William. "Peter Rugg, the Missing Man." 1824. _Woollcott's Second Reader._ Ed. Alexander Woollcott. New York: Garden City,


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
Penalty," May1999, stored in the Web site archive at http://www.amnesty.org. Also see Human Rights Watch's reports at http:// www.humanrightswatch.org/hrw/campaigns/drugs/war/incarcerations. Works Cited =========== Baker, Houston. _Workings of the Spirit._ Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.


_American Literary History_ 14.4 (2002) 837-844
Contagion and Culture: A View from Victorian Studies
Mary Burgan
---------------
1. Professor Ann Carmichael, Indiana University-Bloomington, in an interdisciplinary faculty seminar on Illness, 1988. *[End Page 843]* Works Cited =========== Dickens, Charles. _Bleak House._ 1853. London: Oxford UP, 1948.


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 248-275
Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright
Martin T. Buinicki
---------------
Grass_ competing with the most current expression seems offset by his willingness to consent to the circulation of his text once he becomes an informed participant in the exchange. *[End Page 273]* Works Cited =========== Allen, Gay Wilson. _The Solitary Singer._New York: Grove, 1955.


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
the former slaves bear). Likewise, the sentimental and tragic representations of war eradicate (or disguise, most pointedly in the reunion romances of Thomas Dixon and Thomas Nelson Page) racial, class, and gender inequity. Works Cited =========== Anonymous. "Early Secessionists." _Harper's New Monthly Magazine_ 34. (Dec. 1861 to May 1862): 515-21.


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
24. For the position Gardner resists, see esp. Steven Watts, _The Romance of Real Life: Charles Brockden Brown and The Origins of American Culture_ (1994). Works Cited =========== Brown, Charles Brockden. "Adevertisement for Sky Walk." 1798. Rpt. inHarryR. Warfel, ed., _The Rhapsodist and Other Uncollected Writingsby Charles


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 471-503
Hello, Dude: Philology, Performance, and Technology in Mark Twain's _Connecticut Yankee_
Seth Lerer
---------------
1883. Mugglestone also reports that in 1905 and 1906, Murray gave a lecture entitled "The World of Words and Its Explorers" aboard a ship and to a local archaeological society. Works Cited =========== Aarsleff, Hans. _The Study of Language in England, 1780-1860._ Princeton: Princeton UP, 1967.


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
Louis, he has published widely on mid-nineteenth-century American writers and is the author of _Reimagining Thoreau_ (1995). He is currently working on a book on Melville for Oxford University Press. Works Cited =========== Brooks, Van Wyck. "On Creating a Usable Past." _Van Wyck Brooks: The Early Years._ Ed. Claire Sprague. New York: Harper, 1968. 219-26.


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
twentieth-century art and culture, see Paul Giles, _American Catholic Arts and Fictions_ (1992) and Thomas J. Ferraro, ed., _Catholic Lives/Contemporary America_ (1997). Works Cited =========== Beecher, Catharine E. _A Treatise on Domestic Economy, for the Use of Young Ladies at Home, at School._ Rev. ed. New York: Harper, 1846.


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
Levine adds that Delany here may be expressing a worry that revolutionary violence can easily escape the control of those who would lead it (208). Works Cited =========== An Act to continue in force "An act to protect the commerce of the United States, and punish the crime of piracy," and also to make


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
19. See Alan Leander McGregor for an excellent analysis of Irving's use of the language and symbols of feudal culture to valorize the Astorian venture. Works Cited =========== Adams, Brooks. "The Spanish War and the Equilibrium of the World." _Forum_ 25 (1898): 641-51.


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
26. I am drawing here on Foucault's idea that one of the central achievements of the nineteenth-century asylum was to substitute "for the free terror of madness the stifling anguish of responsibility" (247). See also Brodhead. Works Cited =========== "An Address to Our Readers." _Opal_ 3.1 (1853): 3.


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 93-102
Transatlanticism Now
Laura M. Stevens
---------------
Initiative at <http://www.umich.edu/~iinet/asi/links/html> contains an annotated list of many of these groups. Works Cited =========== Anderson, Benedict. _Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism_. London: Verso, 1983.


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
narrator "shares narrative authority with her characters" (xxxii-iii), through both direct (narrative) discourse and its incorporation of the epistolary form. Works Cited =========== Anderson, Benedict. _Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism_. New York: Verso, 1991.


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 496-508
South of the American Renaissance
Thomas M. Allen
---------------
Richmond, he is completing a book titled _A Republic in Time: History, Modernity, and Social Imagination in Nineteenth-Century America._ Works Cited ----------- Baker, Houston A., Jr., and Dana D. Nelson. "Preface: Violence, the Body and 'The South.'" _American Literature_ 73 (2001): 231-44.


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
(Odell and Quirk I: 411). 30. Allison discusses the Turks' appearance on stage as well (33). Works Cited ----------- Adams, Abigail. _The Book of Abigail and John: Selected Letters of the Adams Family, 1762-1784_. Ed. L. H. Butterfield, Marc


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
of siege" is Michael Taussig's use of Benjamin to describe the disciplinary power when the state deliberately uses disorder, uncertainty, and paranoia as tools of social control. Works Cited ----------- Anderson, Benedict. _Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism_. London: Verso, 1991.


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
38. Vincent Raphael analyzes the role of white women in the "benevolent" US colonial rule over the Philippines. Works Cited ----------- Alemán, Jesse. "Historical Amnesia and the Vanishing Mestiza: The Problem of Race in _The Squatter and the Don_ and


_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
argues that Crane's narrative allows his middle-class readers to take satisfaction from "the other half's degradation as imitations" (625). Works Cited ----------- Addams, Jane. _Democracy and Social Ethics_. 1902. Ed. Anne Firor Scott. Cambridge: Belknap-Harvard UP, 1964.


_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 719-727
Escaping from the Pirates: History, Literary Criticism, and American Copyright
Laura J. Murray
---------------
5. Malcolm Gladwell provides a brilliant discussion of the changes in delivery and warehousing techniques that power what we call the "internet revolution." Works Cited ----------- Austin, Graeme. "Does the Copyright Clause Mandate Isolationism?" _Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts_ 67 (2002): 17-60.


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
and Smock 6: 524). 33. On "jumping" scales, see Neil Smith. Works Cited ----------- Ammons, Elizabeth. "Material Culture, Empire, and Jewett's _Country of the Pointed Firs_." Howard, _New Essays_ 81–99.


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
"topsy-turvy plot" (218) and its ambiguous "racial dimensions" (219), noting that the gruesome action "plays into, even as it plays with, white racial fears" (219). Works Cited ----------- Anderson, Benedict. _Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism_. London: Verso, 1999.


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 501-523
Sexual Politics and the Aesthetics of Crime: Oscar Wilde in the Nineties
Simon Joyce
---------------
Democratic Federation, commented, for example, that "[w]hoever may be the wretch who committed these sanguinary outrages, the real criminal is the vicious bourgeois system which, based on class injustice, condemns thousands to poverty, vice and crime, manufactures criminals, and then punishes them!" Cited in William Fishman, _East End 1888: Life in a London Borough among the Labouring Poor_ (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1988), 226. George Bernard Shaw wrote to _The Star_ that "if the habits of duchesses only admitted of their being decoyed into Whitechapel back-yards, a single experiment in slaughter-house anatomy on an aristocratic victim might fetch in round half a

22. William Morris, _News from Nowhere, and Other Writings_ (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1993), 112-13. 23. Cited in Philippe Jullian, _Oscar Wilde_ (London: Constable, 1969), 145-46. 24. Reported by Ellmann, 243.


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
38. Eric Partridge, _A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English_ (New York: Macmillan, 1970), 466. 39. Cited by Edgar Johnson in vol. 1 of _Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph_ (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), 55. 40. Jane Gallop, "Keys to Dora," in _In Dora's Case: Freud, Hysteria, Feminism_, ed. Charles Bernheimer and Claire Kahane (New


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, [1925?]). 12. _Gentleman's Magazine_, July 1787, cited in Entwisle, 55. 13. Cited, respectively, in Fowler and Cornforth, 139; _Strawberry Hill Accounts: A Record of Expenditure in Building Furnishing &c Kept by Mr Horace Walpole_, ed. Toynbee (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927), 39.


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
10. See Shelley's preface to _Prometheus Unbound_, in _Shelley's Poetry and Prose_, 135. 11. Cited in Dawson, 196. The first volume includes _The Mask of Anarchy_, "Lines Written During the Castlereagh Administration," "Sonnet: England in 1819," and "Song to the Men of England." The second includes the high Romantic poems "Ode to the West Wind," "The Sensitive Plant," and "To a Skylark." It is unclear where Shelley

63. Shelley, "Ode to the West Wind," in _Shelley's Poetry and Prose_, 69, 68. 64. Cited in Morton D. Paley, "Apocapolitics: Allusion and Structure in Shelley's _Mask of Anarchy_," _Huntington Library Quarterly_ 54 (1991): 100. 65. The "maniac maid" appears in several of Shelley's poems. See


supposing



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
makes a political metaphor out of Negro evidence so that he can convince readers of the criminal's guilt and just execution. In the case of the Spanish sailors, the narrator again falls silent, and in his place Horsmanden simply records the court's charge to the jury. Their indictment is "grounded upon an act of assembly, supposing them to be slaves, by which act the testimony of one negro slave shall be legal evidence against another. But it has been made a question whether these prisoners, now before us, are slaves or not; and the prisoners themselves pretend to be free subjects of the King


ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
amused. "Our typical experience of a work" of literature in the twentieth century, Trilling concludes, "is to begin our relation to it at a conspicuous disadvantage, and to wrestle with it until it consents to bless us. We express our high esteem for such a work by supposing that it judges us. And when it no longer seems to judge us, or when it no longer baffles or resists us, when we begin to feel that we possess it, we discover that its power is diminished." 54 That bafflement and resistance are the work's difficulty.


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
His mistake does not consist in his radical disbelief, in his conviction that there is a universal deception--here he is quite right, the symbolic order is ultimately the order of a fundamental deception--his mistake lies on the contrary in his being too easy of belief and supposing the existence of a hidden agency manipulating this deception, trying to dupe him" (Slavoj Zizek, "How the Non-Duped Err," Qui Parle: Literature, Philosophy, Visual Arts, History 4.1 [1990]: 12; quoted in Chow, 53).


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
death allows the marriage plot to begin and the novel to end, but *[End Page 495]* Esther's marriage is made possible only at the sacrifice of her own body and her mother's." 59 However, the novel's final unfinished sentence--"they can very well do without much beauty in me--even supposing . . ." (_B_, 935)--turns our attention once again towards Esther's body, as it is called forth by her recollection of her husband's remark to her that "don't you know that you are prettier than ever" (B, 935), even as she makes a half-hearted and even coy attempt to hide the very body she has just


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
determine that there "'ain't any Shepardson about him'" (107), _Huckleberry Finn_ routinely presents characters with the problem of how to interpret texts. In this case, the text is Huck's physiognomy and clothing. The Grangerfords interpret Huck's appearance as Huck interprets Buck's riddle--formalistically, supposing the meaning of a text to be transparent in its form. If a speech act resembles a question, it is a question; if a boy doesn't look like a Shepardson, he is not an enemy. When Huck early on has trouble *[End Page 270]* understanding Tom's adventure games, or when he later has difficulty


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
between Englishman and Malay to De Quincey's neighbors, where none has previously existed. Hospitality is extended to cover beings with whom no prior covenant has been signed, indeed to a being whose very existence is in doubt, just as translatability is invoked to cover a language whose sound patterns provide the only reason for supposing that it is a language at all. What better text than the _Iliad_, the epic that tells the tale of the imposition of Greek hegemony, for De Quincey to use? His language is, in short, a language untranslatable, being a language of pure ritual, and a language that


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
only by the outline of an impossible narrative of escape. The singer sings of this before an audience whose interest in the song derives from its own utter remoteness from the particular case it opens. Of course such a song is really a personal ad the wrong way round, for instead of supposing that an extraordinary object might have a being, and calling upon it to manifest itself, it acknowledges its actual existence and the reason why it must stay hidden. And in knowing this it knows also why a woman is uniquely like a fox, and a man specifically like a sparrow; and under what particular


evinced



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
become synonymous with national character. Yet the fantasy that the Far West would remain in some sense open, multinational, and even gloriously irrational had been compelling to European Americans--and it has remained so, as evinced by the enduring popularity of commercial adventure narratives like Richard Henry Dana, Jr.'s _Two Years before the Mast_ (1840),which essentially founds the Anglo myth of California asthe continent's open door to economic, cultural, and psychosexual regeneration.


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
proponents did not view the actual king of England as legitimate. Advocated by Jacobites and non-jurors, adherents of the ousted Stuart dynasty who refused to take the oath of loyalty to William of Orange, and subsequently to the House of Hanover, this apparent obsequiousness evinced an ineluctable revulsion from the status quo. The non-jurors suffered many deprivations because of this willful submissiveness and disloyal loyalty. Clergymen were deprived of their livings, among them many excellent scholars; refusers of the oath were


ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
Morgan's attention to the opposing nationalist beliefs of the two Lords Arranmore is considerable. The elder "Lord Arranmore's peculiar endowments," we are told, "were knowledge of the Irish language and customs, and his popularity with the lower orders" (O, 365), and he evinced a vehement Catholicism, partially out of regret for his conversion to Protestantism when younger because of the suasive force of the penal laws and the culture they created. When anticipating his death, he uses heavily antiquarian language: "when the hour comes, now so near, when the last of the chiefs of Arran,


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
figuration of motivated resistance--her refusal to marry Grimes is cast in the form of a martyr's refusal to convert to the heathenish faith, here, Tyrrel's uncivilized religion of envy, jealousy, and cruelty. Appropriately, Tyrrel is "astonished" at the "spirit" evinced by Emily (55)--an implicit notation of her "sublime" effect on him. Emily's reaction to Tyrrel's diabolical hints is echoed later when Falkland rises from his [End Page 878] humiliating defeat by Tyrrel before the assembly: "Mr. Falkland's mind was full of uproar like the war of contending elements, and of such suffering as casts


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
20. David Hume, Essays: Moral, Political and Literary (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1963), 203. 21. Hume, 213. This passage is actually a revision of Hume's emended footnote, the original of which evinced a more committed participation in the discourse of polygenesis. The footnote originally began: "I am apt to suspect the negroes and in general all other species of men (for there are four or five different kinds) to be naturally inferior to the whites. There never was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white, nor even any


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
contemporaries of Pope. By using eighteenth-century versification to mobilize his "antient" diction, Rowley produced poems which Thomas Warton considered as "smooth and mellifluous as Pope and Mason, and yet more obscure and inexplicable than Gower or Chaucer."97 That mismatch evinced a chronological oxymoron which persuaded Malone that Rowley was a "fictitious ancient" (_CO_ , 27), enabled by Chatterton's syncretic method of composition to "troul off whole verses of Shakspeare, Dryden, and Pope, in the middle of the fifteenth century" (_CO_ , 30). Yet whereas Rowley's versification


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
place. Clearly _Moby-Dick_ emerges from a context in which, due to the volatility of contending economic and cultural ideologies, the boundary *[End Page 1043]* between human and nonhuman evinced greater permeability than would subsequently be admitted. Indeed, Melville's novel bears witness to forms of mediation—or, in Latour's term, translation—that prove considerably more radical than those identified so far, which remain at the level of


humanizing



ELH 66.1 (1999) 157-177
'Tranced Griefs': Melville's Pierre and the Origins of the Gothic
Robert Miles
---------------
it can no longer make connections between signifier and signified: within its own area, the phantom casts a semantic dead zone. Previously, I mentioned that Marsh draws a contrast between the Latin, de-humanizing conquest of America and the more civil appropriations of the New England Goth. In fact, the antithesis is stillborn in Marsh's text, for it cannot bear up under the great unmentionable of the American past: that its claims to legitimacy rest upon squalid rapine. It is the buried secret of American


ELH 67.3 (2000) 819-842
Playing at Class
Karen Sánchez-Eppler
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middle-class associated with childhood, along with the pathos of lacking most of the material conditions that made such charming childhoods possible. For these reasons images of [End Page 820] street-children proved a popular means of representing and humanizing all that was troubling but attractive about urban spaces. These ambiguities express the instability, the cultural uncertainties, of the assignation of class identity to street-children. Distributors not producers, independent agents (however exploited), their labor is not characterized by the


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 167-197
Wordsworth's Visionary Imagination: Democracy and War
Brian Folker
---------------
Such self-sufficiency marks the individual as fully participant in moral humanity, and as Wordsworth's criticism of the English generals implies, entanglement in structures that defer or alienate the process of judgment away from the individual are pernicious and ultimately de-humanizing. At one point he defines a political party as "a spiritual Body; in which (by strange inconsistency) the hampering, weakening, and destroying, of every individual mind of which it is composed--is the law which must constitute the strength of the *[End Page 188]* whole" (316). The first victims of this


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
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one displacement of an English cultural association that passes through the Erewhonian alembic only to return in a more glorious and admirable form: the perfected cult of the gentleman. "The example of a real gentleman is, if I may say so without profanity, the best of all gospels; such a man upon the stage becomes a potent humanizing influence, an Ideal which all may look upon for a shilling" (168). But even here the tendency to forms of hypocrisy survives, albeit elevated to genteel discretion, for the high Ydgrunites secretly withdraw their religious and ethical identifications from the public


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
despite their declarative tone: do they represent a radically transformed viewer who now identifies with and recognizes the monstrous woman as human, or do they allow the viewer to escape that dangerous dissolution, to escape recognizing Medusa's otherness, her real threat, by humanizing her? The poem, I believe, does not resolve these questions. What happens in stanza 2 is not so much the breakdown of masculine discourse as it is Shelley's questioning of male power grounded on the image of the victimized woman. The transformative moment in which the poet becomes an object written on

Significantly, after the claim to humanize and harmonize the strain, the poet's attention is deflected away from Medusa's "dead face" to the activity of her serpentine hair; in fact, though the poet claims her beauty to be humanizing, Medusa is least human in the third stanza. This diversion suggests Shelley's resistance to the humanizing impulse and his desire to imagine Medusa outside of patriarchal logic. The poet's reflections now become caught up in the energy and "unending involutions" ("M," 3.21) of the serpents.

the poet's attention is deflected away from Medusa's "dead face" to the activity of her serpentine hair; in fact, though the poet claims her beauty to be humanizing, Medusa is least human in the third stanza. This diversion suggests Shelley's resistance to the humanizing impulse and his desire to imagine Medusa outside of patriarchal logic. The poet's reflections now become caught up in the energy and "unending involutions" ("M," 3.21) of the serpents. These snakes that "curl and flow" ("M," 3.19) with life, "as it were to mock / The torture and the death within" ("M," 3.22-23), are less


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
that which has human shape and that which gives shape to humans. . . . People thus give form to non-humans, but are themselves acted upon and given form by non-humans.40 Alongside its anthropomorphic humanizing of the whale, Melville's novel invites the reader to recognize a zoomorphic animalizing of the human, radically locating the nonhuman, the inhuman, and the inhumane within Enlightenment humanism's own most crucial and privileged category. Taken together, these processes represent a


implicate



_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
This is clearly a potentially productive reading, especially for what it reveals about the development of both US historiography and the genre of historical romance. However, when a New Historicist (like myself) reads in this way, seeking to implicate the text in ideologies proper to its historical moment, what is missed is what I now believe is the preface's more important theoretical point, which concerns not the unique historicity of fictions set in the past, but the fictive qualities of history proper. A slight shift of emphasis—attending not to the nouns ("investigation,"


ELH 66.1 (1999) 87-110
"Monumental Inscriptions": Language, Rights, the Nation in Coleridge and Horne Tooke
Andrew R. Cooper
---------------
poetry of 1798 it is possible to see "Fears" and "France" not only as representing Horne Tooke's materialist theory of language, but also as the site where that radical discourse is revealed to be in concert with a conservative discourse most readily available to us in Burke's Reflections. Moreover, the poetry's intertextual tensions implicate the political and discursive instability of Horne Tooke's own attempt to propound a radical theory of language at a time when conservatism was the dominant discourse. Consider the following definition of rights to be found in volume two of Diversions: BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE


ELH 66.1 (1999) 111-128
Seeing Romantically in Lamia
Paul Endo
---------------
Lamia masochistically consents: BLOCKQUOTE Lamia seems to harbor some secret that refuses the imperatives of self-interest. Such secrets are the very foundation of romance: they are the heterogeneous, subterranean forces that implicate the subject in its own self-deception. The desire to be charmed must already be present; magic is the conjuring of a pre-existing inclination. Lycius's predisposition to thoughtlessness and trance--he is so susceptible to self-absorption that he almost


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
out that because "the impeachment failed on a literal level does not preclude the possibility of its wider symbolic success," and that achievement was only made possible by the conversion of "the legal space of the trial into a rhetorical arena that was designed to implicate each member of the audience in its catalog of the Indian sublime." 68 Both Sheridan's understanding of politics as subordinate to theater and his rhetorical skill ensured that this conversion would take place.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
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I. Being/doing: How _The Wanderer_ Works ---------------------------------------- These days, to compare an eighteenth-century novel to a conduct book is to implicate the novel in the disciplinary regulation of femininity, a project of Foucaultian proportions that contributes to the production of Foucaultian subjects. Thus Nancy Armstrong states of the "conduct-book authors" Burney and Austen: [End Page 967]


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
Brontë herself? *[End Page 211]* Need my suggestion that _Shirley_ partly offset deep suffering (the loss of three siblings) spawn only psychobiographical conclusions? 40 According to Hazlitt, we must implicate all fiction in this difficulty, seeing our impulse to participate in these virtual worlds less as a means of escaping hatred than as a way of confronting it, reminding ourselves of the pleasure we gain from watching others suffer in fiction, and thus why we--with


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
because he is concerned about how the authorities would view his failure to come forward earlier. By contrast, Rogue's self-interestedness, if not his blackmail activities, is entirely proper, given that he is innocent of the crime in which Headstone seeks to implicate him. The novel also effectively demolishes the argument that ends justify means, showing that there can be no reliable way to ascertain whether one's intentions to do good will in fact result in a beneficial outcome. Good intentions evidently will not suffice, for Riah's sense of morality and self-sacrifice


intimate



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 230-253
Book Review ~~~~~~~~~~~ Whose Dickinson?
Cristanne Miller
---------------
that neither production can be understood outside the materiality of the poet's daily life ( QUOTE ). Hart and Smith take a feminist biographical stance closer to a sentimental reading of the poet than to other particular theoretical approaches in their insistence that a particular intimate relationship is key to understanding QUOTE and her productions--although their position also participates broadly in cultural readings of the poet. Mitchell, in contrast, reads the manuscripts and historical embeddedness from what is more closely a Marxist perspective, while maintaining--more explicitly than


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 659-684
Free Carpenter, Venture Capitalist: Reading the Lives of the Early Black Atlantic
Philip Gould
---------------
the achievement of slaves such as Smith who labored for their emancipation: QUOTE (152). The necessity to demonstrate individuality within the cognitive contexts of the market serves to reconfigure humanity back into property. Succumbing to the epistemological trap endemic to slave capitalism, Smith commodifies even the most intimate of familial relations. Consider the account of his son's death: BLOCKQUOTE


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
this broad line of inquiry, I read the text's attention to the (ostensibly) black beggar's racial identity as an epistemological quandary, one that dramatizes and foreshadows the novel's later considerations of what is and is not knowable. This brief episode exposes the intimate relationship in antebellum America between knowing race and knowing benevolence, even as it establishes, quite literally and materially, the questions of identity and trust that dominate the rest of the novel.


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
historians--including three of the four under review in this essay--is not surprising in itself. By focusing on the exigencies of everyday rural and urban life, the rise of extra-political means of social control, and gradual shifts in the significance of domestic and intimate affairs, such writers follow Irving's lead by bridging the political ruptures marked by the onset of the Revolution and the ratification of the Federal Constitution. Simon Newman, for instance, begins his study by describing it as an attempt to expand this QUOTE (xi). Like their important predecessors in the field

than repeating Irving's assessment of democratic republicanism as yet another form of QUOTE Shields forces us to rethink the politics of colonial gender-formation in two ways. First, he suggests that the emphasis within the clubs and salons on the importance of personal and intimate speech ought to make us skeptical about our axioms concerning the equation of print publication and political power--for either [End Page 326] men or women. Given the general avoidance of print as a means of literary dissemination within these societies, the QUOTE to publish can be reconceived as a QUOTE


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 212-241
The Religion of Art in the City at War: Boston's Public Poetry and the Great Organ, 1863
Mary Loeffelholz
---------------
of history is a history mediated by Hawthorne's fictional tale of seventeenth-century Boston. Fields's small aside about the tale QUOTE reminds her audience of the literary bonds uniting them, indeed underlines for a moment how the entire performance occasion of the QUOTE aims at scripting civic bonds as artistic bonds. On a more intimate level of address, we may imagine Cushman, the actress on stage reciting Fields's lines, who is also a frequenter of Fields's salon and a friend of Hawthorne's, bowing (as it were) toward Fields and her party in the audience; in the political imaginary of the QUOTE mid-nineteenth-century civic space and the space of the salon thus

Howe's vigorous denunciation of the Great Organ and the ceremony surrounding it suggests at the very least that she had more than Annie Fields in her sights. Unnamed in her review but almost certainly among the targets of her scorn was the Fieldses' [End Page 220] good friend Holmes, intimate of their salon at 148 Charles Street, whose lengthy article on the organ, titled QUOTE appeared in the November 1863 Atlantic Monthly. Holmes pronounced the organ's unveiling QUOTE ; in his account, as in Fields's QUOTE it is as if the New World's providential nation were rediscovering itself by its own efforts,

Union armies have been eloquently explored in recent criticism, as well as in nineteenth-century accounts of their heroism. Black soldiers earned title in their bodies by exposing them to fire; they affirmed self-ownership by enlisting in the Union army and thus immediately surrendered what they had affirmed in their submission to the intimate bodily disciplines of military life. (Moreover, as Kirk Savage points out in his study of Civil War monuments, free white soldiers under military discipline in both the Union and Confederate armies also experienced in their own ways the paradoxes of freedom imagined as bodily self-ownership.) 17 For Emerson, it seems fair to


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
pressure from many complicated historical and psychological factors, just as one's decision as to where to maintain or seek citizenship is not simply a rational choice about possibilities for political or economic freedom but one conditioned by numerous factors that one cannot control, such as where one was born and where one's intimate ties are located. In this regard Hester's return is especially important because she returns no longer primarily defined by relations of status that so governed the women of her time; that is, the status of lover, mother, or wife. On the contrary, with her


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
In this spirit, a number of recent works have pointed to new possibilities for enriching and historicizing the transnationalist studies currently available in the Americanist field. Much of this work follows in the footsteps of Paul Gilroy, who explores an intimate relation between slavery and modernity by turning to the writings of several nineteenth-century African-American intellectuals working within the transnational formation that he terms the QUOTE QUOTE Carolyn Porter suggests, QUOTE (506). Werner Sollors, too, advocates for a QUOTE in the formulation of American


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
Ochs," above a letter refuting a number of details in the Times article; this letter is signed "S. L. Clemens" (9). However, immediately after this letter is an address "To the Unborn Reader," followed by a series of prefatorial remarks inviting the future reader to witness "an intimate inside view of our domestic life of today" (1). The value of the ensuing narrative, according to Twain, inheres in its "authenticity," in the fact that its characters "are not inventions . . . [but] are flesh and blood realities" (2). And, quite obviously echoing the preface to his autobiographical


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
become her travel book to the _Union Magazine_ (Zagarell xxi; Osborne 91, 104). Like other women writers traveling in *[End Page 63]* the 1840s, such as Catharine Maria Sedgwick and Margaret Fuller (Vance 2: 116; Reynolds, _Revolutions_ 56), Kirkland already had an established audience, which she addressed with the semi-intimate, egalitarian, and informal voice of the trusted public "friend" that characterized the print personae of antebellum women editors (Okker 23); Kirkland promises to "tak[e] the reader with me through the medium of sympathy" (1: v).


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
Neither the appropriation of another's suffering nor the consequent inauthenticity is particular to the remarkably earnest Garrison. Rather, both were central to the allure and the anxiety caused by antebellum reform in the US. Appeals to the sufferings of a "group" to which one did not belong--the poor, alcoholics, criminals, sex workers--increasingly supplied the intimate pain that entitled more privileged citizens to engage in public debate with an authorized moral authority. Taking one's authenticating intimacy from a group by definition alienated from one's social identity both generated and forestalled claims to authentic interiority. To be sure, these reformers


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
"old quilted rockin'-chair" (420), she asks her to occupy her occupation, her productive place within her universe. The effectiveness of the scene depends on material intimacy, on evoking the intimate relation between the human body and physical artifacts. Such intimacy had been dramatized by the famous Scandinavian folk exhibits of the late nineteenth century, which captivated their American spectators and became a curatorial standard. In the exhibits, as Mark Sandberg describes them, small objects were arranged in a scene

down here, for if the "landmark pine" still seems to be a part of the world of Dunnet Landing, the circus animals certainly do not. And yet, given that the point of the story is precisely that Mr. Elijah Tilley _does_ talk to the narrator, the account is meant to confer "new value" on the intimate conversation she manages to have with him at his house that evening. But though Elijah Tilley first enters the scene coming softly "out of his dark fish house, as if it were a burrow," he keeps "the afternoon watch" together with the narrator more as a human statue, silent as he knits and forgets his visitor (472). However much

lives in Mrs. Todd's house "as if it were a larger body," she assumes the woman's memories to the point of making them her own; the collection of sketches that comprise the novel read as an incorporation of recollections that suffuse the narratorial voice with the tone of intimate local knowledge. 9 Like the title character of "The Queen's Twin," a Dunnet story that Jewett didn't include in _The Country of the Pointed Firs,_ the narrator of the novel lives her life vicariously. Abby Martin, "born

though to find there the ghost of the general himself. If Gaston Bachelard is right to designate chests as "veritable organs of the secret psychological life," the means by which we image and imagine intimacy (74-89), then the display as described in _Harper's_ might be said to insist on a kind of intimate knowledge one would never have gotten from the general himself. The history in things here far exceeds expectation, as the writer finally fantasizes a kind of contact with the dead.


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
own trajectory should belong to Anita Hill. Berlant links Jacobs's metaphorical use of the ear and discursive penetration to the Hill-Thomas Senate hearings as she describes her own fantasy to "enter a senator's body and to dominate it through an orifice he was incapable of fully closing, an ear or an eye. This intimate fantasy communication aimed to provoke sensations in him for which he was unprepared, those in that perverse space between empathy and pornography that . . . [are] constitutive of white Americans' interest in slaves, slave narratives, and other testimonials of the oppressed" ("The Queen" 475). Tying the dynamics of the hearings, so to


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
and heroines whose self-sacrifice and suffering rose out of the pressing exigencies of the war, romance provided a sense of belonging and therapeutic completeness. Intensified by the novel's historical verisimilitude, the reader's identification was meant to annex private feeling to the national imaginary, transforming the reader's most intimate emotions into a broadly ritualized expression of a larger collective membership. Thus, as a kind of implicit contract, nineteenth-century romance held out the promise, as Berlant suggests, that "inspired art can produce a transformative environment toward which the fallen social world can aspire" (638).

contract and that the Union was dissolvable when the interest of the parties diverged and one or both withdrew consent. Dramatic increases in contract litigation and divorce after 1800--and their gradual appropriation as the regnant themes of American romance--helped redefine social relationships at the most intimate levels of society, broadening the role of contract law as a regulatory force in the domestic, as well as the political, domain. 28 Crucial to understanding reunion romancers' invocation of seventeenth-century political theory is that they sought not to trace the Constitution's meaning


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
Franks's plantation incites his peripatetic travels stoking rebellion throughout the slave states. The novel thus yokes the deeply personal with the political and does so in a way that offers a direct riposte to nineteenth-century racist beliefs concerning slaves' supposed inability to form emotionally intimate ties. Indeed, the only thing that Henry had recognized as a compulsion for remaining in slavery was not fear of his master but love for and commitment to his wife. As Blake combatively informs Franks, "I'm not your slave, nor never was ... ! And but for my wife and her

naïveté represents whites' habitual blindness to the crucial roles people of color have historically played in the Western Hemisphere's economy. Moreover, as Lori Merish astutely writes, the judge clings to the notion of the cigar as an implicitly white commodity and is therefore horrified by the symbolic recuperation of Cubans' intimate relationship with the cigar that stems from the production process (276). And similar to the earlier scene in which Ballard's wife and Colonel Franks mix notions of civility and political economy as they discuss slavery, Delany uses Ballard's foolishness subtly to protest


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
an international trading mart, the scene of lawless exchanges rather than future agrarian settlement, because of his early experience among merchants and his general skepticism about US national culture. 10 Brought up in the New York City of Astor, Irving had intimate trading connections. His older brother and brother-in-law were both fur traders near Albany, and as a young man Irving clerked for the New York lawyer Josiah Ogden Hoffman, who brought him to the North-West Company of Montreal. Irving's dislike of "commonplace civilization" in the US is well known, but perhaps more interesting


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
5. Bill Brown, e.g., writes that "If there is one occupation and preoccupation that makes the sketches cohere as a novel, just as it solidifies the relationship between the narrator and Mrs. Todd, it is the gathering of plants" (201). He suggests that plants, for Jewett, epitomize the regionalist vision of intimate, organic links between people and place: "nature comes to saturate bodily life....Which is why the metaphorization of the Dunnet villagers themselves as both flora and fauna seems so artless: it simply reads like the rhetorical effect of the narrated fact of intimacy between


ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460
Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue
W. David Shaw
---------------
codes. 1 Because the speakers in such monologues are pulled two ways at once, their incapacity to pursue wholeheartedly any single course of action makes them unsuited for their roles. Far from alienating us, however, the indecision and vulnerability of Browning's Andrea del Sarto or his lover in "Two in the Campagna" often make us oddly intimate with them. Since the essence of a deception is to mask the truth, a liar has to possess the truth he is hiding before he can lie. In bad faith, by

greatest intimacy with him. Andrea and his wife are simultaneously close to each other and remote. The parenthetical aside, "--forgive now--" (13), framed by dashes, sets the weakly conciliatory but intimate domestic tone. The illusion of intimacy is shatterd, however, by the chain of friends and lovers that intrude betweeen them. Andrea is forced to please, not just his wife's friend, but her "friend's friend," in a vista of receding obligations (5). Smooth run-ons mime the ease and quietude of their married life. But that

Does the preposition "behind" have a spatial or a temporal meaning? Is Andrea referring to the great canvases that are literally "behind" them, lining the walls of his studio, and which Lucrezia could see if she bothered to turn her head? Or is he alluding to the more intimate pleasures of the marriage bed, which appear to have receded into a lost paradise for both of them? The bad faith and casuistry that abound in many Victorian and modern


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
ideological . . . directions and values." 69 Wegg is a perfect embodiment of corrupted authoritative discourse. He owns the texts in which he trades. He establishes his stall "by imperceptible prescription" and "never [varies] his ground an inch" (44; 1.5). He claims intimate connection with the house on the corner and invents the identities of its inhabitants. He enacts the same proprietary control over the texts that he sells, the poetry he recites, and the tome that he reads. He is, perforce, hybrid himself, part wood and part human, but his ideological consciousness, like his face, has


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
scandalous tales, rich tapestries, fin-de-siècle flowers, and yellow press. In the now famous chapter eleven of Dorian Gray, we are given an inventory of the resultant objects of Dorian's evolving passions for collecting, which lead from the spoils of empire to the substance abuse of opium dens. In its intimate relation to imperialism, Dorian's collection lends itself, as Eve Sedgwick has noted, to an Orientalist reading. But as Sedgwick also observes, this display of imperial booty denies the very logic of Orientalism it might seem to invoke in its simultaneous occlusion of any singular Occidental sexual and national

rejection of use itself, but rather of an instrumental use-value that can only relate to objects in terms of mere utility. What is thus liberated from the drudgery of use-value is a different valorization of use, which, in its refusal of mere utility, maintains the integrity of objects and, crucially, makes possible an intimate relationship to them. Relations of nonidentity function in The Picture of Dorian Gray on a number of different levels. In terms of defining the national body, as

speaks is not sustainable within the evolving relations of Dorian's story or its eventual culmination. His progression towards an ever greater narcissistic identification with his portrait ultimately denies the kind of distinctness between subject and object that makes possible an intimate relationship to objects. To recover that relation of intimacy without the [End Page 188] domination of the object by the subject: that is the utopian promise of Wilde's collection. Still caught between the utopian and the present, the Age of Dorian stages a dialectic of contradictions, a dialectic which does not so much offer


ELH 67.2 (2000) 617-653
Fiction as Vivisection: G. H. Lewes and George Eliot
Richard Menke *
---------------
Deronda, while the other anatomizes the strange courtship and unhappy marriage of the egoistic Gwendolen Harleth. My comments on the novel will concentrate on Gwendolen and on Eliot's treatment of her story, for it is in this narrative that the relationship between fiction and vivisection is the most intimate and most paradoxical. 51 In one early chapter of Middlemarch Lydgate's failing physiological experiment frames his sensationally abortive love affair with Laure. In the following chapter, his desire to use the "disciplined power" of imagination to penetrate the obscure workings

Veil." The telepathic and scientific narrative devices that outline Bertha's thoughts and the inadequate science Lydgate uses to interpret Laure and Rosamond have given way to a still more intimate version of the relationship Eliot and Lewes found between physiology and the representation of consciousness. For the narrative of Daniel Deronda uses the association between the two not to assess the deficiencies of a superficial science (as with Lydgate) or even to


ELH 67.3 (2000) 801-818
Dangerous Acquaintances: The Correspondence of Margaret Fuller and James Freeman Clarke
Barbara Packer
---------------
experiment in conducting friendship across gender lines. 1 Could a sensitive young Harvard student innocently carry on a candid correspondence with a brilliant young woman to whom he was not engaged? Could a brilliant woman reveal her intimate thoughts to a young man without fear of compromising her reputation? Could both of them discuss life, self, ambition, sensibility, and moments of despair with one another as if the obvious differences between them did not exist or at least did not matter? When Margaret Fuller visited the Emersons in 1837 she spoke on the subject of


ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
Irving was a bachelor. In a sketch called "Bachelors" he wrote, "There is no character in the comedy of human life that is more difficult to play well, than that of an old Bachelor." 1 Reinventing that role was the project he took on, more or less consciously, from an early age. As a young man, he belonged to an intimate circle of bachelors ("Cockloft," they called it) with whom he wrote Salmagundi; when the others married, he wrote with unusual passion about his abandonment. He then came to regard his writing career as an alternative to marriage. As an old man, he maintained himself at

one's ancestors or as the point at which founding fathers begin. The repainting of the sign has been a simple change of caption. The face of one George will do for [End Page 789] another, and the paternal image reproduces itself under a new name. For Irving, the superficial naming of the portrait is an intimate self-reference; he was born just five days before George III officially acknowledged the cessation of arms that Yorktown had made inevitable, and his christening commemorated the event. In a story Irving frequently told, and encouraged others to retell, his Scottish nanny carried

Both from the standpoint of the family's moral vision for adults and from the standpoint of what Marx called "the poetics of the future," Irving can only imagine life outside of the intense patriarchalism of Bracebridge Hall by imagining the development of intimate cultures outside the family, mediations that he is nevertheless tempted to depict as surrogacies. Irving's writings show how reproductive narrative exerts itself, often successfully, against a lot of half-articulate discontent. But it also shows that some

In our own day, with more and more forms of surrogacy challenging the forms of reproductive ideology--from public schooling, to the social movement form, to lesbian parenting, to queer culture--the strenuous attack in the name of family values has targeted an extrafamilial intimate culture that we are still learning how to have. Perhaps we will learn to think of it as something other than surrogacy, to see in these conditions a future in which reproductive narrative will appear as an archaism.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
Ronald Paulson elaborates on Kelly's theory: "What emerges is the libertine dilatoriness of the playwright and the sense of excitement and risk, but contained within a shrewd professionalism and an intimate knowledge of his actors, for as he was perfectly aware, they were up to the challenge and he was really not taking a risk." 16 I would argue that while the case ofPizarro is extreme it is also


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
part of Falkland, Caleb, and Tyrrel. The despotism of God is, moreover, arrogated by Caleb when at moments of supreme indignation and in the scene of reconciliation with Falkland he employs the intimate thee and thou to address his antagonist. The thou is here the thou of the Biblical God confronting man the worm with His omnipotence and man's insignificance in the scheme of things; in Caleb's language, the usage is therefore one of calculated insolence--putting down Falkland by arrogating to himself


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
into Dickens's interrogation of liminality, the ways in which we find the boundaries, thresholds, and margins of the novel violated or threatened by that which remains, to draw upon the epigraph from DeLillo, the unnamed, that which eludes naming. Secondly, I will consider how these sites share, among other things, an intimate connection with the sense of smell and thus with death and sex, as I am convinced, along with Hans J. Rindisbacher, that "no discursive evaluation has been capable of severing the link of this sense [of smell] with its most archaic origins in sexuality and death." 8 And,


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
thought, a knowledge of all that is occurring throughout the land, making, in fact, _one neighborhood_ of the whole country." Even in 1860, on the eve of the Civil War, George Prescott proclaimed that "its network shall spread through every village, bringing all parts of our republic into the closest and most intimate relations of friendship and interest." By uniting men (implicitly white men) of different regions together through a bond of "friendship and interest," the telegraph "emphatically" rendered the nation "ONE PEOPLE." 12

often used to describe the telegraph's province, referred not simply to business transactions, but, as the _Webster's Dictionary_ of the era euphemistically phrased it, "Familiar intercourse between the sexes." This sexual aspect of the telegraphic union, its ability to unify the nation in "closest and most intimate relations" through a "subtle fluid," is underlined by the frequency and popularity of anecdotes about couples who married over the telegraph. 18 Uniting the nation into one great body, by annihilating space and time and the bodily boundaries insured by the separations of geography and


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 835-860
Eros and Isolation: The AntiSocial George Eliot
Jeff Nunokawa
---------------
So exacting, because the effectively unblinking eye of society is trained to observe proprieties that only get started with the expectation that we will stay on the right side of the law, proprieties that prescribe as well the most intimate and intricate leanings of body and mind. The "details of dress, bearing, physical and verbal manners" that Pierre Bourdieu assesses as the rudimentary vocabulary of "an implicit pedagogy, capable of instilling a whole cosmology, an ethic, a metaphysic, a political philosophy," are also


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
of the domestic and market economies creates the vicious circle which forms the novel's plot--Ruth loses her job because of her "improper" conduct; she is seduced because she is helpless without the means and position provided by a job; she is again fired when her sexual history becomes *[End Page 198]* public--this intimate connection allows Ruth's sexual transgressions to become a critique of the market economy as a whole, while the novel's gestures towards alternative economies also destabilize its domestic ideology. Ruth's most profound transgression is thus not her violation of Victorian


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 89-115
William Cowper and the "Taste of Critic Appetite"
Priscilla Gilman
---------------
impartially. But the direction of the change in Cowper's construction of the "few who are judicious" is importantly away from the circle of friends and toward the outer reaches of the unknown. While before the ideal reader had been conceived on the model of friendship--as an intimate and confidant--now the ideal reader, though still narrowly defined, is conceived on the model of the critic, as a stranger. Indeed, Cowper's recommendation of Franklin's critical credentials--"his entire unacquaintedness with me"--may serve as a kind of motto for his evolving ideal of audience and


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
Literature," 101-2. 51. Moulton, _Modern Study of Literature_, 458. In Moulton's taxonomy, "tokens" are mechanical symbols for ideas, so taken for granted by long use that they are "lifeless." Vital metaphors intimate the affective reasons that words initially became associated with ideas, as when "vast" implies in _Paradise Lost_ the emptiness and foreboding of the desert rather than merely "very large." Nevertheless, even if "vital," the linkage of metaphor to idea remains conventional (458).


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
purposes in _Impressions_. To derive these conceptual dynamics, in turn, I'll call on Eliot's contemporaries--J. S. Mill and Newman initially, F. H. Bradley and Friedrich Nietzsche later on--and on the writers who most influenced her, Ludwig Feuerbach and Baruch Spinoza in particular. A further aim of the following pages, then, is to intimate, if in only the most provisional of fashions, the remarkable reach of this perfectionism in the Victorian period. Finally, following out my intuition that the dynamics at work in such perfectionist writers remain uneasily active in our own intellectual and especially pedagogical enterprises, I will conclude by


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 875-901
Poe in Love: Pedophilia, Morbidity, and the Logic of Slavery
Peter Coviello
---------------
meaningful for Poe not merely as the absence or cancellation of life: only rarely does death simply descend in his tales, as though it were a lightning bolt from the heavens. Far more frequently, death unfolds, in maddeningly partial and progressive stages. And to say that death unfolds is of course to intimate that death, properly conceived, actually _lives_ in the bodies of Poe's creations, and has therefore an unnervingly animate presence in the body that in most instances cannot be readily distinguished from the functions of life--which is one reason why what are taken for corpses in Poe tend

these figures is a relation to the logic of slavery which compels Poe's obsessive white male narrators to make violent use of the distinctions of gender, the better to substantiate the distinctions of race. And that gendered violence in turn unsettles the possibilities of intimacy and of intimate exchange. Nor is Poe's move to make gender ratify race a particularly idiosyncratic one. We might remember, in this regard, the populist movement for the full enfranchisement of free white men that gathered momentum across the 1830s and 1840s, a movement which coupled the opening of the

October 1849, the day of Poe's funeral. In his slanderous and enduring biographical sketch (which came out in the New York _Daily Tribune_, and which Griswald signed "Ludwig"), he notes typically of "The Raven" that it "was probably much more nearly than has been supposed, even by those who were very intimate with him, a reflection and an echo of his own history." Quoted in _Recognition_, 33. Two of the more celebrated studies which followed Griswald's psychobiographical line were Joseph Wood Krutch's _Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius_ (New York: Knopf, 1926), and Marie Bonaparte's


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
reaches beyond the common imaginings of Sensibility's sociable energy. Usually relegated to matters of human suffering and erotic excitation (both of which certainly receive adequate attention in _Sentimental Journey_), the circles of Sensibility--of the forms between which it establishes charged connections and intimate relations--expand exponentially in Sterne's hands, in this and other important episodes of his journey. The hallmark of these relations, by which such varied forms come


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
Woodville's invitation to stay for the night, but the following morning appears much disturbed and informs his host that he must leave on urgent business. He eventually admits that the real reason for his departure is that he had been visited by an apparition, a spectral woman with a "diabolical countenance" and "a grin which seemed to intimate the malice and the derision of an incarnate fiend." 15 As the other rooms had been occupied before Browne's arrival, Woodville was forced to reopen the allegedly haunted chamber, but Browne's unexpected visit, the nobleman later confesses, also "seemed the most favourable opportunity of removing the unpleasant rumours

carefully sustaining a sense of ambiguity concerning the most important facts. Key descriptions, for example, are purposefully vague; the tantalized reader is left to speculate--to imagine, that is, but also to engage in a sort of imaginative, interior spectatorship-- what the spectral woman's "diabolical countenance" or the unfathomable "grin which seemed to intimate the malice and the derision of an incarnate fiend" might actually look like. The central image in the story is slightly out of focus, somewhat like a blurry photograph in which one can just barely discern the outlines of a person or object: "Upon a face which wore the fixed features of a corpse were


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 209-227
Hannah More and the Invention of Narrative Authority
Emily Rena-Dozier _University of Chicago _
---------------
enough to distribute money indiscriminately, but true virtue necessitated first ascertaining where and how money would do the most good. As she noted, "[Scripture] cannot literally mean that we should _give_ to all, as then we should soon have nothing left to give: but it seems to intimate the habitual attention, the duty of inquiring out all cases of distress, in order to judge which are fit to be relieved" (_S_, 2:61). While one might quibble over whether Scripture did indeed require that we "_give_ to all," More was quite certain that "habitual attention" and inquiry were more significant


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom_ (New York: n.p., 1898), 312-13. 41. The historian Walter Johnson has shown, through his analysis of white Southerners daydreaming about slaves in their diaries and personal correspondence, the intimate dependency of slave owners not just upon slave labor but also upon the idea that slaves were commodities, accouterments or augmentations of white selfhood. Johnson, _Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market_ (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1999). See esp. chap. 3, "Making a


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
vicissitudes of globalizing industry that were enacted on the "factory floor" of the whaleship: an epochal shift from mercantile to industrial capitalism, an ensuing redefinition of the relationship between labor and capital, and the unpredictable effects of intimate and extended interaction amongst a radically "international, multiethnic, multilingual and especially multiracial labor force."3 Moreover, the catastrophic fate of the _Pequod_, suggesting the transience and fragility of these economic and social transactions, uncannily anticipated the collapse of the sperm whale

The rhetoric of calm, transparency, and immediacy pervading this passage seems to guarantee its verisimilitude: here, of all the descriptions of whales offered by the novel, it appears to promise the reader a clear view of the intimate natural life of the animal, devoid of literary or symbolic coloration. *[End Page 1053]* Of course this is far from being the case. As Vincent has argued, the passage draws closely upon descriptions of nursing whales in


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
deprived of the ordinary sources of autobiographical pathos, or a narrator working harder to make do without the literary resources a rich personal experience provides. De Quincey's hero lives instead on intimate terms with strangers. As a runaway he occupies a makeshift bed for weeks with a forsaken child about whom he knows little, but whom "I loved . . . because she was a partner in my wretchedness" (_C_, 20). Ann is the very type of the stranger, the human being "that chance might fling my


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
about by letters, or recalled after noticing a certain facial expression. When first introducing the Captain, Mary says, "I never shall forget the dismay felt when a certain Captain Brown came to live at Cranford, and openly spoke about his being poor—not in a whisper to an intimate friend, the doors and windows being previously closed; but, in the public street!" Within the space of a paragraph, Mary repeats four variations of this comment about the Captain's lack of shame regarding his circumstances. Toward the end of the passage (before the final iteration of Cranford's perception


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
commodities. Although his system of information exchange seems to belong to the expansion of techniques of publicity characteristic of the emergent public sphere, and to be devoted to the enhanced circulation of goods and money, what he really secured was an extraordinarily intimate and conspiratorial connection between thieves and their victims. The determination of value reached by these two parties had nothing at all to do with commensurability, for the goods they were pricing had ceased to be circulating commodities, and appeared more like nonpossessed possessions or the


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
act of writing makes public the bodily constraints and private degradation of enslavement through the recording of those experiences. Regarding Harriet Jacobs's _Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl_, Sánchez-Eppler contends, "The strained relations between the public record of slavery and the intimate whispers of sexuality are reenacted in the scene of writing" (_TL_, 93).16 For Jacobs, the scene of writing must mediate between the embodiment of her private, female body that has been degraded and violated within the context of slavery and the "bodiless" claims of

or not such a crossing would remain cloaked in the trappings of death—writing, as Gilbert would have it. The real issue, however, is that such a quandary is necessary only because both Gilbert and Cohen work from the assumption that absence is anathema, a space to be feared for its intimate association with subordination and, ultimately, death. "Brooklyn Ferry" suggests something completely different. As the poem proceeds, Whitman gradually displaces the negative connotations of absence, transforming absence into a space open for possession from outside the text. Moreover,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
In a group portrait of opera superstars from the mid-eighteenth century, Jacopo Amigoni places the castrato, Farinelli, at center stage, with the soprano Castellini at his right hand (see figure 1). Amigoni indulges artistic license by placing himself in the most intimate relation to Farinelli—leaning over him as if whispering into his ear, hand on his right shoulder—but it is the figure furthest away, to the rear on the left margin of the painting, who could lay greatest claim to Farinelli's confidence, as well as to an almost equal share of his fame. The librettist Pietro

III. ---- John Hoole cut a figure amongst the late-Georgian literary set as a translator of the Italian poets.34 He was intimate with Johnson *[End Page 979]* himself, and friends with Burney, Joshua Reynolds, and Richard Glover; but the writers of the succeeding generation, Wordsworth's peers, were not charitable to his posthumous reputation as a man of letters. Walter Scott called his translation of Tasso a


enslaving



_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
One might class these critical interventions with the misnamings Hortense Spillers has outlined in "Mama's Baby, Papa's Maybe" both as historical reflections _and_ contemporary evocations of "the provisions of patriarchy, here exacerbated by the preponderant powers of an enslaving class [which] declare[s] Mother Right, by definition, a negating feature of human community" (80). 2 Most readers of African-American literary traditions, and certainly those familiar with the historically contextualized work of scholars like Barbara Christian, Ann duCille, Frances Smith Foster, and


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
in the US. One of Benjamin Franklin's final published works is an attack on legalized slavery in the US that satirizes supporters of slavery by presenting the proslavery views of an Algerian pirate: in the voice of (the fictional) Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim, he argues for the economic necessity of enslaving Christians (1158). 19. For a broader historical background on the Ottoman empire, the North African states, and the tradition of Barbary captivity narratives in relation to Europe, see Clissold; Colley, _Captives_;


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
Jefferson's grandiloquent prose. Differences of ethnicity, religion, culture, and region, as well as the difficulties of communicating across vast distances, complicated unification. The founders espoused equality but delimited citizenship by institutionalizing racial oppression—enslaving African Americans, removing Native Americans, and thus deeply complicating foundational notions of liberty.1 From such divisions and contradictions emerged a peculiar nationalism whose contemporary vehemence ofexpression seems rooted in its problematic origins. About US national disunity Walker


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
more than its relevance for his own troubled times. According to Hazlitt, _Coriolanus_ voices the stark idea that "the insolence of power is stronger than the plea of necessity." This apparently is the reason Coriolanus's loyalty turns on a dime, explaining why he makes "a plea for enslaving" his own country. Indeed, this moment of betrayal--piquant, because it follows a celebration of Coriolanus's allegiance--points up the rancor that fascinated Brontë. She recoiled from Hazlitt's conclusion, however, separating Moore from his propensity to copy Coriolanus and thereby improbably converting


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
The telegraph was imagined to unite the nation into one body, a body that Thoreau warned would be a mindless slave to Southern slave power. Far more often, however, the telegraph was described not as enslaving a million men in Massachusetts, but as enabling a *[End Page 810]* disembodied Euro-American mind both to conquer the natural power of electricity and to enslave the bodies of blacks and other "tropical" races. Moderates on both sides of the slave question equated the telegraph's enslavement of the dangerous power

Moore's description of the telegraph as "fetter[ing] the hoary potentate of storms on his very throne . . . [to] do the weak bidding of man" (_T_, 15:109). Again and again, in fact, both Northern and Southern commentators drew upon the idea of the telegraph as enslaving the mysterious power of electricity: "The invisible, imponderable substance, force, whatever it be . . . is brought under our control to do our errands, like *[End Page 814]* any menial, nay, like a very slave"; "It holds the terrible slave [electricity] toil in the empire of a master." 26 The telegraph was

27. Joseph Henry (1859), quoted in Czitrom, _Media and the American Mind_, 4; "Morse's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 133. 28. Abolitionists used this link between enslaving men and nature to argue that the South had become dependent upon slavery because of its lack of technology. In 1854, for example, Theodore Parker pointed out that "[w]hile South Carolina has taken men from Africa, and made them slaves, New England has taken possession of


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
treatment of Huck, or even in Buck's offer to instruct Huck during the riddle episode. Feeling subject to sundry "regulations" imposed by others, Jim instinctively confirms his sense of self by imposing his authority on someone else. Given Twain's view of how acculturation proceeds (by enslaving persons to habit and myth), it makes sense that the narratives circulating in this novel involve aggressive exercises of power. The legal fiction of slavery and the bilking escapades of the King and Duke are only the most blatant examples of this pattern, which begins when the notorious "Notice" by "THE AUTHOR" threatens to


suturing



American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
Faubert's text, along with six full pages of citations from L'Autre monde exemplifying QUOTE ( QUOTE [37]). Of course, Faubert might have chosen from any number of examples of nineteenth-century racist thought to illustrate the prejudice that he argues should unite rather than divide Haitians. Yet suturing passages from this particular work around the text of his play, and making special reference to it in his introduction, allows him to position his inscription of Haitian national history precisely within the theater of the Americas that he invites readers to imagine as the site of his drama. QUOTE may be, as Faubert puts it, QUOTE a nation witnessing in the


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
effect, and a series of arbitrary découpages unlinks continuity in the quest for mise en scènes whose sole goal is the moment of stimulus. The subject who searches for [End Page 432] the moment of exquisite pleasure creates incompatible subject positions in a parody of suturing. This asyntactical mobility recalls a notable description of the play of the utopian image in Michel Foucault's Theatrum Philosophicum. Foucault suggests an impossible return of the image when in a review


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
77. Peter Brooks, Body Work: Objects of Desire in Modern Narrative (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1993), 73-74. 78. The suturing of dead and living parts is, of course, paradigmatic in Dickens. He was especially fascinated by wooden legs. See V. R., "The Wooden Legs in Dickens," Notes and Queries 171 (1936): 74-77; Dorothy Van Ghent, "The Dickens World: A View from Todgers's" Sewanee Review 58 (1950): 419-38, reprint, in The Dickens


ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
21. Coleridge, "Principles," 371; emphasis in the original. 22. Victor's method of selecting the most beautiful parts and suturing them together parallels another "mechanistic" process in vogue during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries: the mode of anthologizing beauties. Volumes of "Beauties" were produced from recycled parts, which could be culled either from a single poetic corpus or from several corpora (as in the case of The


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
Making the nation one people was not simply imagined in political terms, however, but, as Morse's "nerves" suggests, in terms of creating a national body. Other technologies such as the steam engine, the railroad, and canals were similarly described as suturing the nation together. But the telegraph tended to evoke more potent, specifically bodily metaphors because its medium, electricity, was a "subtle fluid . . . [of whose] essence or substance, we know nothing." 13 While "[t]he mysterious workings of the telegraph [were] but little known to the public," other


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
deeper. 15. See W. J. T. Mitchell, "Ekphrasis and the Other," in _Picture Theory_ (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994): 151-81. Mitchell writes, "ekphrasis [is] a suturing of dominant gender stereotypes into the semiotic structure of imagetext, the image identified as feminine, the speaking/seeing subject of the text identified as masculine" (180-81).


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
eighteenth-century European agrarian philosophy through Thomas Jefferson. The Mississippi River was the West that Twain returned to, again and again, because it was water and not land that could ever be settled. The river was a carrier of economic desire and troubled commodities that flowed beyond continental spaces, suturing the U.S. to global networks of capital. Reading the _Adventures of Huckleberry Finn_ (1885) against the unfinished novella _Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy_ (1897-1899) transforms Twain's classic river novel into a profound, postnational critique of white mobility on


historicized



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 719-727
Escaping from the Pirates: History, Literary Criticism, and American Copyright
Laura J. Murray
---------------
property. The story of modern authorship Rose tells is one of converging interests and contingencies. But if the author is surrounded by history in this account, he is not entirely historicized.1 David Saunders has charged that poststructuralist-inflected efforts to tell the story of the modern author are in fact hyperhumanist rather than posthumanist: "The effect of depicting the history of authorship in terms of the formation of the subject is to transform the local conditions and imperatives of a particular publishing


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
revisionary account of American literary history associates Poe, for example, with an essential Southern proslavery bigotry ("Antebellum" 42–62). Yet, as Terence Whalen has suggested in his discussion of Poe's "average racism" (111–46), a fully historicized understanding of Poe's work reveals the insufficiency of contemporary political labels and the difficulty of pinning down his beliefs about race—to say nothing of his shifting opinions about class, gender, economics, region, or nation. As Joan Dayan, Teresa Goddu, and others have suggested, the implications of


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
of real historical import, giving a manly authority to a female genre while simultaneously co-opting an apparently feminine voice to bring feeling to history. 16 If the Kailyard falls within the literary tradition of Waverley, it attaches itself to the traditional reading of the national tale as a de-politicized and de-historicized form that through Scott has been elevated to legitimate value. Portraits of the Highland are therefore drawn to be innocuous national tales rather than history; unmediated images of true social and cultural life, not politically contested representations. The national character of the Scottish folk figure in the Kailyard describes the


ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
scale used by Paine's followers, with arbitrary, feudal power at one end and universal emancipation and the recognition of the right to self-determination at the other. On this spectrum, colonizer and antiquarian-inspired colonized lie at the same end, debating only the question of who holds the feudal power. This spectrum is historicized. All feudal systems are primitive, and systems based on constitutional guarantees to individuals are, for Morgan, the future--and compatible "with the best interests of society." III.


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
and British forces who tried to put down the revolt and recapture the colony. Commentators on Toussaint were often sympathetic and overtly admiring, but they tended to lift the man out of his culture. In Wordsworth's sonnet "To Toussaint L'Ouverture" the black general is to an extent de-politicized and de-historicized and equated with natural forces: BLOCKQUOTE Toussaint's actual heir was the black general Jean Jacques Dessalines, who became Emperor Jacques I of the independent Haiti in 1804. Significantly Wordsworth does not ventriloquize Toussaint as he had Dorothy in "Tintern


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
ubiquitous force working to contain female autonomy. 9 Inderpal Grewal and Caren Kaplan have productively destabilized these types of "universalized Western model(s) of women's liberation." As they note, "there is an imperative need to address the concerns of women around the world in the historicized particularity of their relationship to multiple patriarchies as well as to international economic hegemonies." 10 The concept of "multiple patriarchies"--patriarchy functioning within specific historical, political, and economic sites--is particularly useful here, for


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
1979), critiques the essentialism with which he formerly approached the question of homosexuality in Whitman's poetry in a way consistent with the line I have been taking here. He writes: "While I can no longer think of Whitman as _the_ gay man, a concept that I now see must be much more fully historicized than I was prepared to do in 1975, I still see Whitman as a challenge to a set of cultural values that includes homophobia as well as a terror of the body. . . . Whitman still continues to challenge our assessment of our sexuality and the ways we organize it. He still refuses the tyranny of the family and compulsory heterosexuality" (_Continuing Presence_, xxi).


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
observe that the early Wordsworth's willful transformation of narrative into allegory is said to be effected through the vehicle of time: "time," claims Liu, "reified finally as an 'idea' and ideology," is made "necessary as the obscure *[End Page 1040]* allegorization of narrative." 40 Thus "time" in this way becomes for Liu the (negative) linchpin for his historicized and historicizing account. In his "Before Time," the introduction to his book's part 2, "Violence and Time: A Study in Poetic Emergence," he observes the remarkable unanimity within the modern critique of Wordsworthian time, footnoting what appears to be a representative sampling of figures and

apocalyptic (Abrams), that which would foreground the historical elements of Wordsworth's poetry (Thompson), and later deconstructive critics who would find meaning in Wordsworthian figurative language (de Man). These traditions are recast in this model to privilege Wordsworth's antithetical reference to the real, in Liu's words, as "historicized figuration." 16. Perhaps the most forcefully leveled criticism of Liu has been aimed by Liu at himself, both in the work in question and in subsequent publications. See, for example, his "Local Transcendence: Cultural Criticism,


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 151-169
Walking on Flowers: the Kantian Aesthetics Of _Hard Times_
Christina Lupton
---------------
their heads, making it clear that these abstractions follow from the conditions of the concrete social and economic reality shaping the subject. When Marx proposes a return of the objectified world to the alienated subject, it is by situating both the categories of subjective and objective within a historicized, economic process. In these terms it is quite explicitly wrong to imagine that either Sissy or Stephen could transcend the conditions of the reality in which they live simply by seeing these conditions differently: *[End Page 164]* BLOCKQUOTE


Echoing



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
organic process, proclaiming that "in the moral world, when good seed is planted, good fruit is inevitable . . . when you plant, or bury, a hero in his field, a crop of heroes is sure to spring up" (Writings 119). He portrays the North as a single body through which Brown’s influence, metaphorized as blood, might flow. Echoing Brown’s own insistence on blood as a medium of collective meaning, Thoreau proclaims that Brown’s "acts and words" have "quickened the feeble pulse of the North, and infused . . . generous blood into her veins and heart" (135). Figuring the blood Brown sheds as a source of collective well-being, Thoreau, like many of Brown’s defenders, imagines the martyr’s


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
embodies the republic and, as an icon, enables incipient citizens to join in a national imaginary. Like Kirkland, Rachel is also an "artist" (1: 132) who bridges immutable and historically transformative, republican values. Echoing her contemporaries' appraisals (Brownstein 172-77), Kirkland compares Rachel to a classical "statue" and views her declamation as spoken "naturally" (1: 131-32). Such conjunctions of art and nature, canonical drama and popular expression, as well as monarchical and republican France (both of which she represented in different phases of her career), were made possible


ELH 66.3 (1999) 707-737
Historical Space in the "History of": Between Public and Private in Tom Jones
George A. Drake
---------------
landscape, he reads only his distance from Sophia and Paradise Hall. But the Man of the Hill has generalized his own distance from humanity by severing humanity from the natural world. His habitual strategy is not avoidance but detachment; as a frequent traveller he has not so much been a hermit as a solitary. Echoing Defoe's Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, the Man of the Hill claims that he "could hardly have enjoyed a more absolute Solitude in the Deserts of the Thebais, than here in the midst of this populous Kingdom" (T, 8.15.483). 10 Jones, on the other hand, sees his separation as merely a local rupture; he is as averse to solitude as Fielding himself.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 167-197
Wordsworth's Visionary Imagination: Democracy and War
Brian Folker
---------------
III's seemingly innocuous attempt to temper the virulence of the public's hostility to the treaty provokes Wordsworth's anger as much as does the treaty itself. To imply as the king has that the people's verdict requires validation from a formal board is to place the vital operation of individual conscience in fetters. Echoing his earlier characterization of moral necessity, Wordsworth insists: BLOCKQUOTE It seems to Wordsworth, then, that the war in Iberia is a unique


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 501-523
Sexual Politics and the Aesthetics of Crime: Oscar Wilde in the Nineties
Simon Joyce
---------------
recognition that crimes are committed as a result of "starvation, and not sin." Punishing criminals is therefore counter-productive, and the mark of a debased society: "_a community is infinitely more brutalised by the habitual employment of punishment, than it is by the occasional occurrence of crime_. . . . The less punishment, the less crime." 20 Echoing an argument which was simultaneously being worked out in response to the Ripper murders by Leftists like H. M. Hyndman of the Social Democratic Federation, William Morris, and George Bernard Shaw, Wilde insisted that since most crimes arise out of economic hardship and are therefore mainly directed against property (which

horribile quod non nominandum est_" (a variation on "the love that dare not speak its name"--here, the horrible crime which is not to be named); in the second, a character in Nancy Mitford's _The Pursuit of Love_ (1945) is told not to mention Wilde's name by his father and is told by his mother only that whatever he had done "was worse than murder, fearfully bad." Echoing Lord Henry's comments about murder and secrecy, he is further asked, "And darling, don't talk about him at meals, will you?" Name and crime coincide, then, as synonyms which both need to be suppressed, since they so directly conjure each other. 34 *[End Page 512]*


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
A Study of James Macpherson and the Poems of Ossian_ (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1988); Whibley, "Gray and James Macpherson," in appendix L of _C,_ 3:1223-31; and Matthew Wickman, "The Allure of the Improbable: _Fingal_, Evidence, and the Testimony of the 'Echoing Heath,'" _PMLA_ 115 (2000): 181-94. 34. See _Poems of Gray, Collins, and Goldsmith_, 210-14. 35. On Gray and Evans, see Snyder, 1923; Whibley, in appendix M of


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
years during which Melville wrote his novel, were the years of the doomed compromise between opponents and proponents of slavery. The oceans provided a space in which these contending currents met and mingled.1 Echoing contemporary politicians and apologists, _Moby-Dick_'s narrator rhapsodizes about the contributions made to America's economy and the dissemination of its influence by the vast whaling fleet which, at the apogee of the industry, spanned the planet.2 The tensions aboard the _Pequod_, condensed into the


defamiliarizing



ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
III. ---- Scholars of the national tale have noted its engagement with the defamiliarizing shock of cultural difference, a shock that Ina Ferris has recently argued produces "destabilizing energies" which "place certain forms of metropolitan reason under pressure and loosen their configuration." 36 But The O'Briens offers a rare twist: the defamiliarizing shock is experienced not by an English stranger, but a former native who is, moreover, the last of

Scholars of the national tale have noted its engagement with the defamiliarizing shock of cultural difference, a shock that Ina Ferris has recently argued produces "destabilizing energies" which "place certain forms of metropolitan reason under pressure and loosen their configuration." 36 But The O'Briens offers a rare twist: the defamiliarizing shock is experienced not by an English stranger, but a former native who is, moreover, the last of an ancient Irish family. And that shock is neither educational nor conciliatory, but marks, viscerally, O'Brien's alienation from his national history and the people it defines. While Morgan's early novel, The Wild Irish


ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
language: a "syntactic turn or 'deviance' from the eroded and expected in daily usage," to quote Steiner again. 8 In his effort objectively to isolate the "literariness" of literature, for example, Viktor Shklovsky came up with the technical device of ostranenie--"estranging"; "defamiliarizing"--a characteristic that has the virtue of [End Page 540] doubling as apperceptive and/or affective on the one hand and formal on the other. 9 As it happens, the concept of defamiliarization is nothing other


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
activity of experimental reading becomes a subject not exclusively for scientific reflection, but rather for aesthetic perception itself. Through the use of the book, Coleridge indicates, in terms we often associate with Kantian thought, how the project of philosophy effectuates and completes itself in the aesthetic domain. 45 It is in defamiliarizing the activity of reading that one is allowed to experience a simulation of the many conditions--of physiology, psychology, and environment--that make a conventionally aesthetic experience possible. Perhaps it is that the failure to read the book under controlled conditions will persuade us, as Reid's


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
national author were shaped by a third realm beyond national boundaries: the routes of transnational travel, enabling and enabled by the changing borders of imperial expansion." I simply don't think that it is necessary to go outside of the continental U.S. to find this "third realm." My interest in defamiliarizing the continental claims of the nineteenth-century U.S. requires a rereading of the continent, particularly the West, as never quite as clearly domestic as it appears in nineteenth-century expansionist and frontier rhetorics. See Amy Kaplan, "The Imperial Routes of Mark Twain," in


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
The passage points to a poeticity at the root of De Quincey's hallucinatory perception that the familiar English house is being visited, and that explains the unease with the picturesque. The Malay stands for the potential of a representation, however apparently anodyne, to be taken over by a defamiliarizing spirit. Certainly nothing is more extrinsic than the intrusion within a seamless narrative of events and descriptions tied to and perhaps derived from *[End Page 884]* the written frame. The Malay's "visit" brings home to De Quincey how little his language and memory are his


constituting



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 230-253
Book Review ~~~~~~~~~~~ Whose Dickinson?
Cristanne Miller
---------------
edition. 5. Here is an instance where Hart and Smith assign individual numbers to each stage of a correspondence that Johnson and Franklin combine as constituting a single poem and its context. 6. In contrast, other annotation is obviously tentative or factual: for example, the apparatus for L63 begins, QUOTE and includes the information that QUOTE (101).


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
Taney in the Dred Scott case would use similar metaphors to deny citizenship to anyone of African [End Page 201] descent--free or slave. Since in a republic there is only one class of citizens, Taney argued, QUOTE implanted on blacks had so QUOTE them that they were excluded from the sovereign body constituting the nation (416). In an effort to undo the damage done by Dred Scott, the Supreme Court after the Civil War ruled that the Thirteenth Amendment forbade not only slavery but also all QUOTE of slavery. The difference between a badge and a stigma is significant. A badge can


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
Romancers employed the language of family to diminish historical arguments for secession, attempting to defuse partisan passions by transfiguring them through a sacred idiom held apart from the crass or corrupting world of business and politics. As an affect-saturated institution, romancers believed that family evoked our deepest feelings, constituting an emotional zone beyond the rational ken of the political. Essentially, reunion romancers attempted to light a backfire that would draw upon and consume the emotional resources fueling the firestorm of postbellum sectionalism. Political animus came, at least in theory, to be experienced as an emotional conflict at the


_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
The relay between leisure and labor that closes the circuit of consumption and production in Maggie's act of class mimicry is repeated in the case of Pete. Pete's borrowed "aristocratic" identity appears to lend him mimetic substance through a self-constituting act achieved entirely within the realm of consumption. Pete's subsequent actions, however, reveal not traditionalist working-class bravado but a crippling lower-middle-class anxiety that stems from his position as a new kind of white-collar worker. Pete represents a marginal class poised


ELH 66.2 (1999) 461-487
Railway Novels: Sensation Fiction and the Modernization of the Senses
Nicholas Daly*
---------------
16. Linking Walter Benjamin's notion of shock and Heidegger's term Stoss, Gianni Vattimo argues that shock describes the "essential oscillation and disorientation constitutive of the experience of art" in the twentieth century, thus constituting a radical break with older, more "harmonious," modes of experience of art. See The Transparent Society (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992), 45-61. Benjamin, of course, in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936), argues that film is the first


ELH 67.3 (2000) 717-741
Franklin and the Revolutionary Body
Betsy Erkkila *
---------------
IV. Embodying Franklin ---------------------- The process of constituting both Franklin and America as the low bodily Other of the British imperial imaginary was carried on historically in Franklin's famous scene in the Cockpit of the Privy Council in 1774, when he was publicly shamed by Alexander Wedderburn as the secret agent and most visible American representative of


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
1033] attempts to establish the rights and obligations of individual family members, and to write into the law the consequences of improper behavior, or of breaking the contract. 25 The court's self-appointed obligation to protect children's rights, to serve their best interests, radically redrew the parameters constituting the family. If affection based on contract rather than biology were to organize domestic life, judges needed to imagine individual members in terms of whose rights and what rights were protected and relinquished in the contract. If parents could make contracts "relinquish[ing] custody of the child . . . by


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 501-523
Sexual Politics and the Aesthetics of Crime: Oscar Wilde in the Nineties
Simon Joyce
---------------
of a distinctive commercial culture within which the new music halls featured prominently, the more reformist emphasis of the new unionism, the beginnings of a marked working-class conservatism and patriotism (articulated especially in support of the Boer campaign), and the powerful appeal of "respectability" among the working poor. 46 Of course, we should not see this as constituting an epochal shift that entirely eradicated those political and cultural associations which had been attached in particular to the poor in London's East End throughout the nineteenth century. Nonetheless, Stedman Jones's analysis usefully anticipates the very different image of that region which


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
face-to-face with the other. There the I comes to be responsible for the other that both constitutes and menaces it. Levinas explains the double relation: "the subject is hostage," and also, the "subject is host" (or guest, _hôte_).5 Levinas's subject in crisis, his subject constituting itself as ethical in the face-to-face, provides a promising avenue for approaching the relations of the subject to the other in autobiography. For Levinas, the I determined as self-knowledge is deprived of its origination in the encounter with the other. That is as much as to say that a Levinasian autobiography


formulates



_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
[then]... seize upon the forts and the arms and the munitions of war, and raise the cry 'to your tens, oh Israel, and to the God of battles be this issue'" (_Congressional Globe_ 14). 18. In _On the Citizen_ (1642), Hobbes formulates his idea of "negative freedom": "But once a commonwealth is formed, every citizen retains as much liberty as he needs to live well in peace, and enough liberty is taken from others to remove the fear of them. Outside the commonwealth every man has a right to all things, but on the terms that he may enjoy nothing. In a


ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
While as large a proportion are bad or trivial as in any other tradition, much fine verse remains to be recovered. The few twentieth-century readers of these poems have been prone to privilege the surface wit at the cost of the sub-surface emotion; as one classic study formulates it: "Even when the verse is actually spoken from the perspective of the I, the feeling remains in the background." 25 While not inappropriate to its immediate pretext, the work of the facile German Anacreontic poet Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, this judgment sells many other poems short, such as the two


ELH 66.4 (1999) 965-984
Fathoming "Remembrance": Emily Bronte in Context
Janet Gezari
---------------
of remembrance, and like Freud, she is alert to how memory threatens that survival. Her poem "Remembrance" turns on the axis of this dense psychological contradiction. Freud formulates the threat memory poses most clearly in his "Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis": BLOCKQUOTE


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
immediate response to the staged play, may not please the larger, shadowy reading public. After revealing his concerns in the polemics of the preface to The Rivals, Sheridan formulates his attack on print thematically in The School for Scandal, where he defends theater as the honest, unpretentious, virtuous medium of communication. The play reflects a thoroughgoing wariness of print. Both the scandalmongers and their potential victims recognize printed rumors as more threatening than


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 223-243
Industrial History, Preindustrial Literature: George Eliot's _Middlemarch_
Jessie Givner
---------------
"in the abstract," while the man who understands the "essential facts" can actually _make_ the railway. Eliot's distinction between concretion and abstraction, mapped onto her distinction between simply _describing_ the railway and actually _making_ one, is crucial, for it places her vision of history within a broad tradition that formulates history through a distinction between constative and performative, descriptive and active language. Eliot's literary / historical, constative / performative mapping suggests an


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 141-165
William Blake's Androgynous Ego-Ideal
Tom Hayes _Baruch College and The Graduate Center_ _City University of New York _
---------------
O. Brown's discussion of "an androgynous mode of being" (Brown, _Life Against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History_ [New York: Vintage Books, 1959], 310), in support of this contention, but Thomas R. Frosch notes that "the connection with polymorphous perversity is not a Blakean one, as Brown formulates it . . . and the polymorphous sexuality which Albion reassumes is one outside the capacity of either the mature or the infantile body" (_The Awakening of Albion: The Renovation of theBody in the Poetry of William Blake_ [Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1974], 203 n. 19). Bersani and Dutoit suggest that "the androgynous subject was not seen as belonging by nature to


regenerate



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
that financial relief was blended with "a judicious mix of moral exhortation" (Lubove 3). The fundamental belief of organized charity was thus in the power of the moral exemplar to regenerate character. In this project of moral suasion, the friendly visitor had to make an impression by, in effect, performing middle-class identity. Letters, handbooks, and articles in the movement's journals provided a fund of advice on the requisite techniques for cultivating what Francis A. Smith termed


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
experience therein depicted is to be redeemed in the future. In his sensitive reading of Coleridge's poem, for instance, Reeve Parker has argued that the significant movement of the poem tracks "from the willful and superstitious solipsism of a depressed sensibility . . . to the apprehension of a regenerate companionship" in Hartley and the world of nature. 48 Following the logic of Parker's argument, we can say that the boy's superstitious cast of mind prefigures the solipsistic "musings" of the speaker in the opening of the poem ("F," 6), and thus both represent states of mind that must be replaced by the apprehension of a companionship founded upon a more

Described in this manner, "Frost at Midnight" offers a straightforwardly diachronic solution to the problem it presents: the sound education that was wanting in Coleridge himself will be realized in Hartley, who will come to have a more solid grounding in common sense. The poem reaches its conclusion when the speaker's consciousness reflects an awareness of this "regenerate companionship," in Parker's words, and so learns to rejoice in it. Parker is certainly correct to discern the most significant movement in the poem as one *[End Page 133]* of consciousness towards this apprehension. Yet "Frost at Midnight" is also, and just as obviously, an exploration of the mechanisms of

"self-watching." 50 In Parker's reading of the poem, and in many readings since, it is precisely this state of "self-watching" that represents the tyranny of the solipsistic mentality over the consciousness of regenerate companionship. Indeed, there has been considerable critical consensus that the poem depicts the process by which one overcomes self-consciousness, or at least attempts to do so. 51 Yet this interpretation fails to account for why Coleridge's poem would itself be represented as a toy of the self-watching mind, a reflection on the activity

turn to Hartley in the final movement of the poem, Coleridge wishes to indicate the ultimate necessity of socializing these "[a]bstruser musings" ("F," 6). Yet while, on the one hand, "Frost at Midnight" seems to advocate abandoning the preoccupations of the "self-watching subtilizing mind" for the consciousness of a regenerate companionship, on the other, the poem suggests that it is only within and through such self-observation that one may establish those more permanent connections in the first place. 52 My argument, then, is that it is not by overcoming so much as by intensifying

The conditions that Reid elaborates for the illumination of common sense--the activity of attentive self-observation, resulting in the violation of commonsensical perception--have proven similar to those which Coleridge imagines as the condition of a regenerate apprehension of community in "Frost at Midnight." In both cases, self-observation is meant to lead beyond itself to the firm faith in a common sense. Yet I have been arguing that we can best understand *[End Page 136]* "Frost at Midnight" and other poems of this kind not as efforts to overcome self-consciousness so much as attempts to


authoring



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
no merit and find no relish in works not highly spiced with vice, crime, or disorderly passion" ("Use" 519). Even Jonathan Swift, whom Brownson claimed to admire, given that Swift's "genius was great, his patriotism praiseworthy, and he [was] one of the most elegant writers in the language," is deemed a purveyor of "smut" for authoring works such as _Tale of a Tub_ ("Yankee" 92). Making judgments like this, according to Brownson, indicated not that he did not have a sense of humor but that serious critical responses were required when confronting fiction's increasingly broad power within modern culture and morality. So it is that he could claimthat, far from being overly prim or


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
resources. In Eugene's case there is a call for an intercessor, for someone who realizes how lost he is and who can act as his partner in the work of reconstituting the narrative line of his life. This can only be Jenny, who knows all about the wrecked self buried within Eugene and who is richly empowered as an authoring figure not only among the few who know her but in the narrative text that celebrates her. Through the dialogic relationship of Jenny, Mr. Dolls, and Eugene Wrayburn, Dickens is forging with extraordinary intensity a Bakhtinian architectonics that counters the architecture

Dolls, and Eugene Wrayburn, Dickens is forging with extraordinary intensity a Bakhtinian architectonics that counters the architecture of the dust mounds. The entire architectonic of the world one projects out of one's own inner affirmation and self-sensation must always be radically restructured by the authoring or co-creating that the other performs as the self's indispensable partner. 58 But this partnership [End Page 781] cannot be a fusion. One must be able to live in the other's consciousness but also to return to one's own dialogic position in order to sustain the authoring--and

always be radically restructured by the authoring or co-creating that the other performs as the self's indispensable partner. 58 But this partnership [End Page 781] cannot be a fusion. One must be able to live in the other's consciousness but also to return to one's own dialogic position in order to sustain the authoring--and answering--activity that constitutes the architectonics, or orienting framework, of perceived meaning. Jenny Wren is Dickens's supreme example of this activity. Jenny has,

Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text by page number, followed by book and chapter number since there is no standard edition of the novel. 3. Issues concerning reading, authoring, performative relations, and the text as figure in Our Mutual Friend have been much discussed. See especially: Robert S. Baker, "Imagination and Literacy in Dickens's Our Mutual Friend," Criticism 18 (1976): 57-72; Stanley Friedman, "A Loose Thread in Our Mutual Friend," Dickens Studies


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
Nations depend on discourses of affect to construct and inspire a sense of unity and commonality while simultaneously naturalizing the social divisions that make nations possible. Kailyard narratives, in like form, erase differences as they erect them, authoring myths of racial and cultural distinction while reinforcing divisions of inequality and histories of subordination. Thus, it is important to see emotions as a constructed regulatory home wherein the historical tensions between fictions of nation and its appeal to natural formations of gender, race, and class are mediated


ELH 66.4 (1999) 831-861
Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott, and the Gothic Drama
Michael Gamer
---------------
correspondence [End Page 852] amply documents his dislike of theater managers and his constant refusals after 1802 to write for the theater. 58 What this same correspondence also makes clear, however, is that his hesitation comes from his negative expectations concerning the kind of public exposure to which authoring a play will subject him: BLOCKQUOTE


isolates



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
observation that one's participation in the national rituals that he describes--even the most QUOTE and QUOTE of those rituals--can never be fully imaginary (unless one envisions a solitary and passive newspaper or novel reader who does little or nothing with the information s/he takes in). Just as my example falsely isolates both Newt and myself from the social and rhetorical contexts in which we light our respective sparklers, analyses of nationalism that reduce it to the realm of the imaginary neglect its real, local, unpredictable effects. More often, Waldstreicher argues, nationalist


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
Dimmesdale contemplate in their meeting in the forest. The two bonds even have structural similarities. For instance, just as Hester's new bond with her husband can be maintained only because he has taken on a new name, so Hester counsels her lover, QUOTE (198). More importantly, the secrecy in which both bonds are made isolates everyone involved from the human community. As such, both are in stark contrast to the bond created by the civil ceremony of marriage whose public witness links husband and wife to the community.


ELH 66.4 (1999) 831-861
Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott, and the Gothic Drama
Michael Gamer
---------------
assumes legitimate drama to be authored by an individual playwright, pantomime carries with it a much stronger tradition of collective and corporate production. The difference between these two conceptions of production is similar to what Jack Stillinger in Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius isolates as the difference between drama and film: "In plays the 'author' is . . . as with . . . the rest of the written genres--the principal named writer of the work; while in films . . . the 'author,' to the extent that there has been a need for one, has more often been identified


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
What is striking about this passage is the covert erasure of middle-class professionalism (at least insofar as professionalism is understood to include the Victorian state). The depersonalizing and pejorative term "officialism" effectively isolates "gigantic blunders" from the "energy and self-reliance" of "the men of the nation." Not only does it deprive the English middle-class professional of individual subjectivity, it further excludes him by identifying him with the un-Englishness of "officialism" on the Continent, and the un-Englishness (un-middle-classness) of upper-class "Old Corruption"


ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
residing in the poetic," in the Romantic as in all previous periods, has yet to abandon it. 4 But what does it mean to say that poetry or a poem or a poet is difficult, or too difficult? And to this question, let me add a more eloquent one from George Steiner's essay "On Difficulty" in order to highlight the paradox that it isolates: "How can the language-act most charged with the intent of communication, of reaching out to touch the listener or reader in his inmost, be opaque, resistant to immediacy and comprehension?" 5


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
VI. Rome and the Rule of the Aesthetic -------------------------------------- Indeed, Hawthorne begins his repudiation of the aesthetic in his preface to _The Marble Faun,_ where he isolates art in the foreign world of Rome. Hawthorne firmly localizes the Romance in Rome, taking particular care to exile the twilight of Romance from the "common-place prosperity" and "broad and simple daylight" of "our stalwart Republic." Italy, he claims, rather than the United States,

According to Hawthorne, the Negro does not belong in America precisely because the Negro, like an aesthetic object, inaugurates a tension between the *[End Page 275]* literal and the figurative, the material and the transcendent, the interior and the exterior. By linking the Negro race to the aesthetic, Hawthorne isolates the danger of the Negro as fundamentally analogous to the danger posed by the aesthetic. Indeed, by rendering Black slaves as analogous to aesthetic objects,


impedes



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
another McMillin finds the entire body of Emerson studies--from Moncure D. Conway to Stanley Cavell--misguided or worse, but his particular bête noire is "biographical or subject-centered criticism," which, "in conquering the nature of atext, limits textual movement, curtails interpretive vision, and impedes a participatory, engaged reading--all in the name of the author and by virtue of the perceived meaning of his or her person" (97). To illustrate his thesis McMillin does not address Emerson's modern biographers--Gay Wilson Allen receives a paragraph, Robert D.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
What acute observers see at such interesting moments is a form of hatred that, despite springing up between individuals, is not reducible to them. _Shirley_ dwells obsessively on the way this hatred not only impedes contact, but also is a pretext for it, as if the conditions promoting intersubjectivity, and thus sociability, were in the novel inseparable from a desire to destroy all remaining chances of communication. "Misery generates hate," the narrator insists, referring to the unemployed weavers' limitless contempt for

their happiness? _Shirley_ answers this question by viewing marriage relative to a larger dilemma about being a citizen, with responsibilities to others, nagging doubts about what constitutes a desirable group tie, and a host of unspoken expectations that impedes the autonomy of individuals. Partly because interpersonal enmity glides so easily into community warfare, the novel often implies that group ties aren't worth the effort. *[End Page 212]* To stress this point, the narrator begins the novel in 1812, close


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
what is known as _culture_." 36 Literary discipline "bring[s] into action almost every faculty of our minds" precisely for the reason that literature *[End Page 276]* might seem an unlikely arena for scientific method: its manifestly impressionistic quality, which impedes its quantification. This aspect of literature was not an obstacle to systematic study but furnished its occasion. 37 Under the influence of Hippolyte Taine's 1863 _History of English Literature_, Anglo-American literary scholars adopted an evolutionary view of literature. The evolutionists viewed literature as the expression not


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
The connection between the I's state of deprivation and his reliance on the other can be variously understood, resulting in two distinct narrative structures. It can be thought as causal. The I may live with strangers because it cannot rely on itself. Its recourse to others, meanwhile, further impedes it from developing its own resources. Thus, in trying to borrow against his paternal inheritance, the young De Quincey dissipates his money on a vain journey to find a friend to stand him surety for the loan. What is true of the hero is also true of the narrator, whose dearth of

Picturesque. Irregular variety is its life.32 The picturesque involves a struggle to attain a complete idea, with the main idea to be attained less that of an object than of what impedes totalization in an object. It implies a complex, diverse material, having "the infinite divisibility of matter," and too many parts to fit into some general plan.33 Or, the idea we have of it is too general, too abstract—an outline or a silhouette—to account for any but the largest divisions. The


travelling



ELH 66.2 (1999) 461-487
Railway Novels: Sensation Fiction and the Modernization of the Senses
Nicholas Daly*
---------------
of locomotion keeps persons in a state of great nervous excitement," so much so that many who travel by rail "have been obliged to give it up in consequence of the effect on the nervous system." 38 Evidently, Mrs. Merridew's remark in Collins's later popular success The Moonstone that "Railway travelling always makes [her] nervous," would have been readily understood by contemporary readers. 39 The rapid series of jolts experienced by the railway traveler were seen to have deleterious physical effects, as the traveler's body was forced to absorb the "small regular concussions" produced by the

too. Preparing to describe the multiple settings of his Armadale, Wilkie Collins visited, among other places, the Isle of Man, Great Yarmouth, and Naples. (Like Dickens, Collins was not a keen rail traveler. As Catherine Peters notes, "[t]he man who so often used trains in the plots of his novels hated travelling by them.") 64 The time-consciousness of the sensation novel is emblematized by the role that "telegraphic messages" (the latter an offshoot of the railway) play. 65 Thanks to the new networks of communication, not a


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
of the mid-nineteenth century, Bowen's was an itinerant and eclectic museum that stood somewhere between the highbrow cabinet of curiosities of Peale or the American Philosophical Society and the [End Page 754] decidedly lowbrow entertainments of the circus. 35 It is the ephemeral nature of travelling museums such as Bowen's which most explicitly links it to the literary magazine, which, like the dime museum, sought to balance Peale's drive for a fixed Linnean order with the popular demand for eclecticism and variety. As Brown defined his own policies in the Literary Magazine: "Useful


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
landscape in such theoretical terms, Eliot sharply reminds us that he is most likely calculating the amount of wood to be harvested from such a tree. 23 For both Adam and the travelling horseman, the second pause--the pause occasioned by natural objects--is a pause of analysis. In each case, the pauser engages in a highly specialized connoisseurship, with its own terminology and assessment criteria, that is appropriate to his class position. The first pauses, on the other hand--to admire


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
prochronism in Rowley's poems—knitted stockings—is in this respect not an authorial error but a synecdoche of Chatterton's modern antique achievement in becoming a fifteenth-century poet in the eighteenth century.71 The possibility of time travelling in this manner had long been familiar to cultivated readers who engaged in dialogues with the dead when studying the classics. Jeremy Collier records the _pre_posterousness of such encounters when remarking that "by _Reading_ a Man does as it were antedate his Life, and makes himself contemporary with the


entombed



ELH 66.4 (1999) 1033-1051
Alive in the Grave: Walter Pater's Renaissance
Jeffrey Wallen
---------------
Heloise is less fortunate, and Pater writes that the "opposition into which Abelard is thrown . . . breaks his soul to pieces" (R, 6)--to say nothing of his body, castrated by Heloise's relatives. He communicates with Heloise only through letters; they are re-united and re-entombed in 1817, as part of an effort to make the new, out-of-the-way, Père Lachaise cemetery a fashionable place to be buried. Throughout the book we will see instances of Pater's fascination with blood and corpses, and these elements disturb any vision of "that unity of culture in which 'whatsoever things are

grave"--the life that remains, the vitality of human interests and passions that is "the essence of humanism" and central to the Renaissance, is here framed by the grave (which is figured by "his actual work" that "has passed away," rather than by the death of his body--he is entombed by his own writings!). We might interpret this passage as suggesting that amidst the "death" of Pico's works (their failure to provide a satisfactory solution to the tension between pagan and Christian), there is still available for us the vitality that produced them, the animating spirit that seeks to reconcile the

the "triumph of Christianity." 22 They are now "unfortunate emigrants," and Apollo, suspect "on account of his beautiful singing," (R, 24) is believed to be a vampire, and the last words Pater quotes are "But they found the grave empty" (R, 25) (the villagers had gone to drive a stake through the body of the entombed Apollo, recently executed for being a pagan god). The Renaissance, for Pater, may consist of a rediscovery, even a bringing back to life, of a Greek spirit--"the care for physical beauty, the worship of the body" (R, xxii)--but life is now also an experience of exile


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
a civil servant, anticipated Smiles when he opined that "the qualities of 'self-reliance, self-possession, promptitude, address, resource, hopefulness and courage,' shown by the most successful graduates of the two ancient universities, were 'gifts ill-suited and even inconvenient to one who is entombed for life as a clerk in a Public Office on Downing Street'" (quoted in Jill Pellew, The Home Office, 1848-1914: from Clerks to Bureaucrats [London: Heinemann, 1982], 9-13). 34. Quoted in Perkin, Professional Society, 83.


ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
conversation with Crayon that Rip has with the villagers. "The Mutability of Literature" is also one of the sketches that is most skeptical about the claims of culture to perpetuity. Crayon begins the piece by describing the library room as a "literary catacomb, where authors, like mummies, are piously entombed." Soon, he says, all these books will be "lost, even to remembrance. Such is the amount of this boasted immortality--A mere temporary rumour, a local sound . . ." (S, 855).


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
constituted by racial fear, may require the presence of that which it denies. That Poe's "beautiful woman" must also be dead and therefore available for melancholy ("the most legitimate of all the poetical tones") is a measure of his need to preserve her intact as his own strength; internalized and entombed she is safe as his property in perpetuity. 38 Of course, the subplot of my cultural narrative also requires that a black be in the psychic crypt to preserve both the purity and the relevance of the icon to which it gives birth. By this reading Poe's Pallas/Minerva has a Southern complexion; she is "wise" to the fact that the integrity of her


obfuscate



ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
the more spiritual and less class-conscious hermetic, the hieratic relates difficulty directly to the poet's negotiation with, and for, a real or potential audience. In one sense all poetry is hieratic or hermetic, which is only to say that it more or less self-consciously selects its own audience. With the strictly obfuscate, however, exclusiveness becomes part of the meaning or point of the poem: "there are many misteries contained in Poetrie, which of purpose were written darkely, lest by prophane wits, it should bee abused" (Sir Philip Sidney). 22

"there are many misteries contained in Poetrie, which of purpose were written darkely, lest by prophane wits, it should bee abused" (Sir Philip Sidney). 22 As well as being willfully obfuscate, Pindar's poetry is also relatively obscure. All poetry draws upon and often explicitly alludes to knowledges or beliefs or contexts of varying degrees of familiarity. "Zeus" would elude some readers, for example, "the holy bird of Zeus" more. And without editorial mediation, how many of us

mysterious and unintelligible language," comparable with Wordsworth's "talent for enveloping a plain and trite observation in all the mock majesty of solemn verbosity." 29 Working variations on the single theme of poetic difficulty in Wordsworth, Jeffrey dismisses line after line and poem after poem as wantonly obfuscate and thus an insult to the reader or the reading public: "it is often extremely difficult for the most skilful and attentive student to obtain a glimpse of the author's meaning--and altogether impossible for an ordinary reader to conjecture what he is about." 30

which poems like Queen Mab and The Revolt of Islam can be seen as part of a continuum which included the political missives to the nation that Shelley distributed by sea, in bottles, and by air balloon. 59 The other mode of poetry was difficult and obscure, if just this side of obfuscate: "My purpose has hitherto been simply to familiarize the highly refined imagination of the more select classes of poetical readers with beautiful idealisms of moral excellence," he wrote in his Preface to Prometheus Unbound, a poem for which he at one stage envisaged as few as half a dozen readers.


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
directly upon the play. Quick characterizations of early twentieth-century Irish nationalism--characterizations that set the outmoded, idealistic, and puritanical nationalist against Synge the modern, realistic, radical artist--hold some truth, but such historiography tends to obfuscate important complications that underpin both sides of the nationalism/Synge [End Page 1012] dialectic. What Declan Kiberd claims about the Playboy rioters holds equal validity for the Shadow's critics: "those who disrupted the performance were no random collection of hotheads, but some of the


annihilating



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
described by Roger Caillois which, "falling victim to a strange contagion, give up trying to stand out" (Hollier 11) and become "a branch among branches, a leaf among leaves" (Caillois 12). The end of mimicry is "assimilation to the surroundings," surroundings which become alien and annihilating (Caillois 27). Indeed, for the "dispossessed souls" of Crane's narrative, urban space itself becomes "a devouring force" (30). While Maggie plummets downwards through the city's zones of prostitution to be engulfed by terminal darkness, Pete mimes the stages of intoxication from "benevolence"


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
of civilization, as most extensively illustrated in American racial science, to describe technology's role in the march of progress. While earlier advances in transportation and communication, such as canals and the postal service, had been celebrated, like the telegraph, for annihilating space and time, the telegraph alone made communication independent of embodied messengers. Because electricity was understood as both a physical and spiritual force, the telegraph was read both as separating thought from the body and thus making the body archaic, and as rematerializing thought in the

sexes." This sexual aspect of the telegraphic union, its ability to unify the nation in "closest and most intimate relations" through a "subtle fluid," is underlined by the frequency and popularity of anecdotes about couples who married over the telegraph. 18 Uniting the nation into one great body, by annihilating space and time and the bodily boundaries insured by the separations of geography and history, the telegraph conjured up images not simply of the nervous system, but of blood and semen, of a flow of all sorts of bodily fluids. Through its subtle fluid, telegraphic commerce created a

paradigms of race posited it in terms of either space (geographical determinism as biological essentialism) or time (cultural difference in terms of progressive, civilizationalist history), the telegraph's annihilation of space and time threatened to annihilate the very determinants of racial difference. By annihilating space and time through the medium of a spiritual yet physical fluid, the telegraph was imagined to make not just geographic boundaries fluid but also bodily and, specifically, racial boundaries fluid. Frederick Douglass suggests this collapsing of racial distinctions through


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
a traumatic loss that culture must undergo as it enters modernity. But since the terms of his protest are consistent with modern culture's myth of its own progress, his novel demonstrates that negative romance is this culture's privileged way of marking out its limits. The romance of the impossible, far from being anomalous or irrelevant, discloses the annihilating wish that modern culture ceaselessly invokes and renounces as it renews its commitment to the ethos of history. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
accordance with *[End Page 408]* Adams's imperialist, militaristic ideal.10 Twain's classic writings of the 1870s through 1890s predict and defy this kind of late-century embrace of conquest abroad, highlighting the emptiness of military honor and the potentially annihilating consequences of territorial war against the creativity of essentially commercial, speculator-trickster figures who reopen their small lives to alterity and possibility, figures like Tom Sawyer or Beriah Sellers in _The Gilded Age_. Yet by the end of his life, Twain could satirize the Adams-Roosevelt ideal without fully


legitimating



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
Pursuing the first option, Eureka reasons that if structure is itself given to hegemony, then the only way to actualize equality is to annihilate structure altogether. Whereas cosmology typically serves a maintenance function, legitimating social order by its homology with cosmic order, Eureka suggests that any social formation, any structure in which conjunctive relations can be formulated, is only an approximation of extreme, ideal states (union or equality). Absolute unity lies outside the reach of institution

the conditions of intellectual and social life under the historically inscribed process of secularization that contributed to shifts in the meaning of oneness, the nature of the transcendental term (whether the One is read as QUOTE or QUOTE ), and thus the conditions for legitimating social and/or theological formations. The crisis to which Poe is responding is one of authority. Although the nation's founding documents had transferred the foundational power wielded by theology, or at least the responsibility of wielding it, to political and social structures (Ferguson 415-25),

literary culture both distinctively national and concerned with social as well as aesthetic matters, is carrying forward concerns articulated by the Wits 50 years earlier (Parrington ix-xlviii). At the same time, Poe transforms those concerns by exploring the idea that the efficacy of literary texts intent upon legitimating, supplementing, or revising social organization lies in their attention not to explicit political practices but rather to the relation of particulars in the abstract. Poe is talking about not so much founding literary culture itself as founding a certain notion


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 496-508
South of the American Renaissance
Thomas M. Allen
---------------
serve as legitimate objects of study. In addition, bringing such writers back into print made it possible to offer undergraduate and graduate courses in these fields. For these sound reasons, the republication of neglected writers has almost always served a foundational purpose in legitimating self-consciously political, often insurgent academic fields. What, then, are we to make of the quiet effort currently underway to bring back into print an extensive selection of the writings of


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 407-436
_Slaves in Algiers:_ Race, Republican Genealogies, and the Global Stage
Elizabeth Maddock Dillon
---------------
American prodigal son requires alteration in order to be extended to the American daughter. Rather than cutting the tie to England, then, Rowson's American daughter affirms this tie as a necessary element of her virtuous, republican identity and subtly deploys racialization as a means of legitimating both British parentage and American women's virtue.17 Critics of the theater in the 1790s imagined England as the corrupt and tyrannical enemy of a fragile American people; Rowson displaces this image by describing Algerians and Jews as corrupt and tyrannical threats to American women. By


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
whiteness represented an effort to "cleanse" and preserve the middle-class home against uncertain boundaries of class, gender, and race. The Unilever Company slogan put it simply: "Soap is Civilization." 27 The polished order of the kitchen reinforces the purity of the [End Page 1062] domestic space while legitimating Bell's worth as its tender. Yet the enormous work it would take to sustain the ideal level of whiteness is of no real concern to the narrative. Kailyard women contentedly fulfill virtually impossible expectations because to maintain home is to maintain the origin of family, history, and nation.


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
Ruth's resistance to exchange links her to the spinsters in the Benson household, and the economy of hoarding that dominates it in the later sections of the novel. Meanwhile, her excessive productivity (of an illegitimate child, whom she declines to transfer to his father's legitimating possession) corresponds to the various forms of extravagant expenditure that equally threaten the novelistic economy. Ruth's unorthodox refusal to be commodified is mirrored in the


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
Tradition_, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983). In his introduction, Hobsbawm defines the concept (in part) as ritualized practices "which seek to inculcate certain values and norms of behaviour by repetition, which automatically implies continuity with the past" (1). On this last point, More is inconsistent, sometimes legitimating the manners and habits she fabricates as a restoration of "good old" practices, at other times proposing the more frank revisionism that Tom expresses here.


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
During the antebellum period, as the moral and political attacks upon slavery increased and as the threat of a free Negro population was emerging as a possibility, the notion of the Negro's self-evident and self-incriminating physical ugliness surfaced as a particularly effective strategy for legitimating the nonpersonhood of the Negro. In _Negro-Mania_ (1851), for example, John Campbell explains that BLOCKQUOTE According to Campbell, who is less interested in legitimating the

particularly effective strategy for legitimating the nonpersonhood of the Negro. In _Negro-Mania_ (1851), for example, John Campbell explains that BLOCKQUOTE According to Campbell, who is less interested in legitimating the institution of slavery than in refuting claims for Negro equality, the universal truth of aesthetic categories—embodied, as one might expect, in the figure of the woman—makes clear the inevitability of existing racial divisions.34 The beautiful and the


universalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
since they seemed to follow an American model of iconoclastic republicanism, elite Americans also wanted to preserve Europe as a source of icons and instruction in consolidating national identities through images. 1 This double demand on Europe accorded with US antebellum nation construction, where elites were moving from the early Republic's universalizing public discourse toward more cultural, visual, and privatized forms of expression as a means of nation building. As Michael Warner claims, "although the nation-state was a product of the eighteenth century, the national imaginary was a product of the nineteenth" (120). Even as writers, artists, and


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
Translated to the racial context of antebellum America, Smith's observation has conflicting implications. On the one hand, it suggests a way for whites and blacks to merge through the imagination, suggesting an affective "sameness" once the burden of marked bodies is removed; in this sense, sympathy is consistent with other universalizing ("we're all the same under the skin") forms of liberal humanism. On the other hand, it turns racial difference inward, naturalizing it as the product and sign of individual affect. By making the knowledge of civil behavior implicitly a racialized knowledge, sympathetic whites closed the borders between sympathizer and

Garrison's citizenship-without-nations might usefully be *[End Page 39]* called, building on Etienne Balibar, the citizen-form. 13 Garrison's construction of the citizen-form provided the illusions Balibar attributes to the nation, universalizing the state by making citizenship the result of divine wisdom, while individualizing the state by asserting the reflection of divine will in personal affect. Garrison's divorce of citizenship from the nation begins with his public stand against institutional and political organizations (a somewhat paradoxical stand given the vast nationalizing

church, and state--here becomes the precondition first of white sympathy and then of its definitional corollary, civil entitlement. To love the unappealable name of the Father is to accept the sins of whiteness. In the _Address,_ Garrison sutures the universalizing and irresistible imperatives of divine law to the social work of nineteenth-century citizenship and labor: "I beseech you fail not, on your part, to lead quiet and orderly lives. Let all quarreling, all dram-drinking, all profanity, and violence, all division, be confined to the white people. Imitate them in

The location of racial injustice and of citizenship's rights and responsibilities within the interiors of citizens' bodies, as I've suggested, had consequences: naturalizing, individualizing, and simultaneously universalizing republican values; placing the causes and consequences of racial inequality beyond the reach of structural transformation; and providing white Americans with a sense of interior "depth" that made identification (and typically appropriation) of black suffering a requisite of public authority. The degree to which the interiorization of racial


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 496-508
South of the American Renaissance
Thomas M. Allen
---------------
nineteenth century can be construed as less a generic struggle between the novel and the romance, as scholars such as Nina Baym and John McWilliams have maintained, and more a struggle to define the relationship between the specificity of heterogeneous American places and the universalizing force of national narrative. Of equal importance to the differences between Simms and Hawthorne, then, is how Simms joins Hawthorne in staging the imaginative process through which local legend gets transformed into national history.


ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
little that is left of the shopkeeper to how much his demise encompasses. The treatment of the word all captures this shift, as the narrator transforms it from a token of the paucity of Krook's solid remains--"this from which we run away . . . is all that represents him"--into the bearer of a universalizing claim: "The Lord Chancellor of that Court . . . has died the death of all Lord Chancellors in all Courts, and of all authorities in all places under all names soever" (my emphasis). The incompleteness of material sublimation thus seems to heighten the urgency of


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
The "soft" limitlessness of utopianism, however, may be brought down to earth by reviewing the historical resistance of the anti-sublime image in terms of what Haraway calls "situated knowledge." 51 In this sense beauty is not an offshoot of the ideology of perspective but a form of situatedness that rejects universalizing claims. It is significant that even in eighteenth-century terms Burke's Enquiry expels the slim evidence of situatedness that held brief sway in an important earlier work, Addison's Pleasures of the Imagination. Without claiming the Whig essayist for the merits of the perversions


ELH 67.3 (2000) 717-741
Franklin and the Revolutionary Body
Betsy Erkkila *
---------------
in Eighteenth-Century America [Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1990], 82). See also Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1991). Whereas Warner emphasizes the abstract, universalizing, and disembodying effects of print culture, I want to focus on the ways the struggle to regulate the body and public space underwrites and enables the emergence of a bourgeois public sphere and a republican print discourse of reason, liberty, and disinterested truth. If


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
Warburton. The Friend, however, glosses Warburtonian orthodoxy as "slanderous vulgarity," and "Warburtonian arrogance" (CW, 4.1:29, 30n). I will return to the full import of "Warburtonian arrogance" at a later moment; but what needs to be emphasized for now is that the apparently more universalizing gestures of The Friend are accompanied by refusals of universalization. Coleridge argues not merely against Warburton's particular brand of Anglicanism, but against the more general attempt to imagine any uniformity in religious belief. As Jerome Christensen remarks on the journal's


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
central to almost every nineteenth-century novel plot: realist fiction may create and valorize the interiority which allows for difference, but its gnomic premises and conclusions reincorporate that difference into comfortably general maxims. From Jane Austen's "truth universally acknowledged" to Wilkie Collins's universalizing description of an object of desire ("Think of _her_, as you thought of the first woman who quickened the pulses _within you_ that the rest of her sex had no art to stir"), love plots in nineteenth-century novels repeatedly concede that the logic of


reifying



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 814-822
New Origins of American Literature
Grantland S. Rice
---------------
debates and pamphlets circulating around the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia; and American fiction . . . inaugurated with the publication, in 1789, of the ‘first American novel’" (3). Some historians will point out the methodological shortcomings of isolating and reifying discrete cultural "discourses" from such narrow sources as the writings of two intellectuals and three or four works from one politically charged historical moment. But I am sympathetic to Gardner’s method. New Historicist exercises in metonymy are very often productive when the virtues of illumination


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
ofreading" (see ch. 6, esp.122-25)? Or are there only different degrees and kinds of "use," all of them deficient when measured against an ideal of inclusiveness and balance, but some of them deliberate, some nearly unconscious; some fertile, some impoverishing; some overriding or reifying a text, others encouraging a vital immersion in the life (not simply the words) of the text? 1


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
vis-à-vis the populations of the colonial centers and the colonies was enabled by colonial difference rather than any autochthonous, teleological expression of a uniquely Western cultural heritage lacking in the colonized rest. One must tread carefully between reifying the history of colonialism as a master narrative that produces identical social relations across the globe and dismissing the transnational nature of colonial relations altogether, particularly as the latter position is usually cast within the US as American exceptionalism. The very difference


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
seen, and as a result "they judge from particular [End Page 906] instances, that may happen to have occurred to them, of the stature, the figure and the features of a whole nation." Furthermore, by gazing through "the prejudices of ideas and habits contracted in their own country," these chroniclers insist on reifying difference and therefore remain blind to the universal commensurability of all peoples implicit in the subtleties of individual physiognomies. 30 While Smith's treatise, in the words of his twentieth-century editor,


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
reality of oppression in British society; its political resonance made it hard to avoid. On the other hand, the image also locked its employers into a binary opposition which reinforced its own oppressive structure. To use the image was, in a sense, to repeat the oppression and to risk the possibility of reifying those oppressive relations. Moreover, Shelley recognized that the opposition of male power to passive female object was not only entrenched in representations of political conflict but also inherent in the artist's relationship to his object.15

the face, the one dissevered from her body? Was it even possible to use gender differently as a sign in the specific context of 1819 political representations? That is, given the dominant metaphor of victim and victimizer, was it possible to make use of the figure of the victimized woman in a way that was not reifying, not apotropaic, and not affirming the victim as victim? Was it possible to represent victimization without appropriating the *[End Page 186]* victim?51 These are the very questions that Shelley was exploring in 1819 and feared he could not answer.

reaffirms the depth of the violation of the political protestors at Manchester and forecasts the potential violent uprising of the oppressed. In this act of ventriloquism, however, Shelley recognizes the necessity and danger of retaliation and articulates it through the agency of her voice. In contrast to Cruikshank's reifying representation of woman as victim, Shelley's words underscore her power. Moreover, Shelley's repetition of Beatrice's words foregrounds a crisis of representation—the very issue at stake in the reform movement—that is both political and

the pun makes clear how near *[End Page 198]* Shelley's task is to the patriarchal one, it also creates a critical difference. Unlike the poet, neither bat nor eft nor Perseus risks being turned to stone. And, in light of stanza 2, it is this moment of transformation that reveals the possible choice of reifying or transforming one's view of the victimized woman. The poetic mirror that Shelley uses is not reflective but refractive. Its transforming powers enable him to see the "thrilling vapour," and it reveals the "woman's countenance" athwart this revolutionary force as a


summarizing



ELH 67.2 (2000) 539-564
A Recent History of Poetic Difficulty
William Christie
---------------
twentieth-century derivatives which makes poetic difficulty inevitable: ostranenie, with the device of impeded form, "augments the difficulty and duration of perception." 12 In his novel The Great World, for example, David Malouf offers a declaration of faith in poetry that begins by neatly summarizing this poetic world at once different and the same as "our other history, the one that goes on, in a quiet way, under the noise and chatter of events": "To find words for that, to make glow with significance what is usually unseen, and unspoken too--that, when it occurs, is what binds us


ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
(Tarrytown: Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1957). 36. Pochmann, xxiv. See also Williams, vol. 1, chap. 4. The legend was well established in Irving's lifetime, and we find Edward Everett summarizing it in his obituary for Irving: "Irving, who would as soon have marrried Hecate as a woman like the Countess of Warwick [Addison's wife], buried a blighted hope, never to be rekindled, in the grave of a youthful sorrow" ("The Death of Washington Irving," in The Pulpit and Rostrum 10 [New York, 1860]:


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
historicizing account. In his "Before Time," the introduction to his book's part 2, "Violence and Time: A Study in Poetic Emergence," he observes the remarkable unanimity within the modern critique of Wordsworthian time, footnoting what appears to be a representative sampling of figures and summarizing their method--and the modern method generally--elsewhere: "The unthought continuum of everyday being is 'broken in the middle' and _then_ time is thought as the explanation, mitigation, and denial of the difference history makes." 41 By Liu's account, time in recent Wordsworthian criticism has served as "explanation," "mitigation," and "denial" of historical

26. Rodolphe Gashé, "'Setzung' and 'Ubersetzung': Notes on Paul de Man," _Diacritics_ 11.4 (1981): 48. 27. Gashé, summarizing de Man, 47. 28. Liu, _Wordsworth_, 35; de Man, "Rhetoric," 207. 29. See Liu's reading of _The Prelude_'s Simplon Pass episode (_Wordsworth_,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
10. Francis Jeffrey, _Edinburgh Review_ 11 (1807): 231. 11. Judith Page, _Wordsworth and the Cultivation of Women_ (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1994), 2. Page here is ironically summarizing the work of such critics as Marlon Ross, who places Wordsworth's image of the poet as "Hannibal among the Alps" (from his 1815 "Supplementary Essay") at the center of British Romanticism and its "world of aggresive desire and conquest" (38). No poet before Wordsworth, Ross argues, "associates the achievement


punning



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 212-241
The Religion of Art in the City at War: Boston's Public Poetry and the Great Organ, 1863
Mary Loeffelholz
---------------
The slave's pathos-- QUOTE the poem calls him--helps sharpen Emerson's indictment of the slaveholders, but nothing about the captive's suffering is heroically willed. He is QUOTE but not until QUOTE arrives to lead him will he QUOTE for freedom. As the poem's punning title underlines, the slave's QUOTE and QUOTE seem unable to rise on their own to the condition of QUOTE In musical terms a voluntary means in general a free or improvised virtuoso piece, often more specifically performed on an organ and prefacing a longer


ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460
Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue
W. David Shaw
---------------
play in "My Last Duchess": they alert us to the subterranean motives, to the artifice behind the offhand tone, and to the bad faith of a seductive speaker. Aware that the wife he cherishes has been bought at a high price, he jokes that she is "very dear, no less" (32), smugly confident that the punning rebuke will fail to register. Though Andrea is the admiring celebrant of his own Madonna, the architect of his own triumphalism, BLOCKQUOTE he is also his own harshest censor: "All is silver-grey, / Placid and


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
not forget that this combination leaves "i" inappropriately high and dry, unless the man who is in us is taken as also in "I." I offer in my defense two pieces of literary evidence. Poe was fond of punning, both in French and on the first person pronoun; witness his play on "Dupin" in "The Purloined Letter" (1845), in which the detective tricks the Minister D-- by substituting a facsimile for the missing missive. The substitute is carefully forged by Dupin who, we are assured, "imitat[es] the D-- cipher, very readily, by means of a seal formed of bread." 27 First


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
conservative British rule by radical reform as sexual violation. The cartoon emphasizes the need to protect Britain's subjects, here figured as a woman, from politics and reformist movements portrayed not just as revolutionary violence but as rape. The female victim thus signifies reform's violation of the social order. The punning on the word "liberty" allows a slippage from radical liberty as a fight against oppression, to the taking of social liberties as a transgression of social boundaries, and, finally, to sexual liberties.

further reveals the cartoon's ambivalent politics. The ancient regime was associated with masks and masques, and the mask became a symbol of corruption; the Revolutionaries saw themselves as unmasking the corruption.39 Shelley, in fact, situates his _Mask_ in this tradition of masking by punning on "mask" and "masque."40 The cartoon, though, associates the values of the French Revolutionaries with the conservative side by implying that they unmask Death, and it aligns *[End Page 182]* radical reform with corruption and deception. But, again, the image is ambiguous: what does it mean to

But is it? What kind of lie is this if the poem claims overtly that it lies? Within the first five lines, the repeated and contradictory use of lies ("It lieth" and "it seems to lie" ["M," 1.5]) makes the reader self-consciously *[End Page 195]* aware of the object's lie, of its position. This punning suggests that this victimized woman is not what she first seems. Critically, Shelley never transforms Medusa into a woman; it is never "she," but a "woman's countenance," a mask. Much as Radical Reform wears a mask over his death-like face in Cruikshank's cartoon, much as Murder wears a mask like


conceptualizing



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 719-727
Escaping from the Pirates: History, Literary Criticism, and American Copyright
Laura J. Murray
---------------
maintained that there could be no common-law property in a manuscript 'after the author shall have published it to the world' " (23). This was not piracy, but republicanism. McGill claimed wide implications for her case study: "The arguments in Wheaton v. Peters demonstrate that neither the Lockean nor the republican model of authorship is capable of conceptualizing private ownership in an era of mass production, suggesting that the discourse of authorship develops not congruently *[End Page 720]* but at odds with changes in the conditions of production" (25). McGill was right that _Wheaton v. Peters_ "suggests" an asymmetrical development of authorship discourse and


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
wide range of state activities--for example, the building of roads and docks, and the establishment of hospitals and schools--in the absence of appropriate market and/or voluntary provisions. 46 As I shall attempt to demonstrate, mid- and late-Victorian culture is riddled by rifts between incompatible entrepreneurial and professional modes of conceptualizing middle-class and national identity--both acknowledged and unacknowledged. IV. David Copperfield and the Representation of the Gentleman -------------------------------------------------------------

his own). In this way Garth represents Eliot's symbolic attempt to professionalize all business among the middle classes, supplanting an ethos of capitalist competition with one based on meritorious service. 64 In Eliot as in Dickens, a professional mode of conceptualizing male middle-class identity thus operates largely by implicit analogy rather than opposition to a domestic ideal that is more typically attributed to women and the home. Both novels thereby indicate the need to supplement Armstrong's critical account of domesticity, by paying sustained attention to the


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
constellation of characters; they moreover problematize easy evaluations of the characters as oppressors or victims, and--as I will show--they neatly link up with key concepts of the aesthetics of the sublime. The prevailingly imaginary nature of character pairing in the novel--that is, the conceptualizing of the two figures as each other's alter egos--as I will demonstrate, relies on a combination of the rhetoric of the sublime with [End Page 859] the rhetoric of sympathy or sensibility. 19 I will begin with a consideration of the sublime and then return to the specular relationships in the novel.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 223-243
Industrial History, Preindustrial Literature: George Eliot's _Middlemarch_
Jessie Givner
---------------
In Eliot's connection between the two figures of breeding, breeding machinery and breeding coins, we can also see a point of divergence between two different measurements of history and money. Unlike Riggs, Caleb Garth is incapable of conceptualizing either business or money because he cannot think figuratively; his mind does not exchange land into monetary value. Nor does it translate labour into the figure of breeding coins: BLOCKQUOTE We are reminded of Caleb Garth's literal, concrete ties to the land much


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
purpose of transforming social systems—requires that they present agency in terms of individual actions that not only escape systemic dictates but also are able to govern outcomes.36 The turn to embodied practices as revelatory of underlying social regulation seems promising as a way of conceptualizing a nonindividualized and nonintentionalized agency, especially in conjunction with the apparently norm-destabilizing effects of Derridean iterability, but, as we have seen, both performative theory and French cultural theory end up importing individual intentionality and positional


adventuring



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
blood (253). Transformed by Indian hating into hazards to themselves and their families, white men reverted to the primitive cultural level of their former adversaries while white women worked through domestic influence to mitigate the most unsavory aspects of masculinist imperial adventuring.30 Although not effective in every instance, _Ramona_ suggests that domestic influence could nonetheless powerfully affect the degraded moral consciousness of even the most hardened white men. After Aunt


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
shame the easy voyager of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean; they have rounded the Cape of Good Hope and braved the angry seas of Cape Horn in small wooden ships; they have brought up their hardy boys and girls on narrow decks; they were among the last of the Northmen's children to go adventuring to unknown shores. More than this one cannot give to a young State for its enlightenment; the sea captains and the captains' wives of Maine knew something of the wide world, and never mistook their native parishes for the whole instead of a part thereof; they knew not only Thomaston and


spectating



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
Wise imagines the community of Northern sympathizers as yet another violent mob that, like the lynch mob, must be kept at [End Page 657] a distance from the prisoner. What he doesn’t understand is that the space between Brown’s body and the spectating community may incite, rather than suppress, a potentially inflammatory sympathy. Although "The Death of John Brown" turns its attention away from Brown’s corpse and toward the display of military power, this distance may urge the viewer to work harder to imagine Brown’s death. As I have argued, sentimental representations of suffering rely on the


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
their life and particular art or industry," as Boas put it (qtd. in Jacknis 110). This means, of course, that as artifacts were disengaged from one typology, the human figures were represented within another: as weavers or soldiers, hunters or bakers. They mediated the relation between spectating subject and material object with the presence of a producing type. They demonstrated that the cultural aura of an object is transmitted by a point of contact, however ghostly, between one human and another.


actualizing



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
motivates this rejection is not so much King George's tyranny but the fact that, within a hierarchy like that of the British Empire, tyranny is not so much a crime as an unpleasant fact. The Declaration's unwillingness to tolerate hegemonic social formations is immediately checked, however, by the difficulty of actualizing relations in a way that is consistent with the equality proposition. The proliferation of a national structure in the Articles and the stratification of that structure in the Constitution convey an increasingly strong conviction that the state cannot be run, that

We come now to the second trial of Poe's experiment, in which he grapples with the volatile character of the material and struggles to calculate the minimum requirement for hierarchy, the point at which the structural mediation of relations has not yet foreclosed the possibility of ever overcoming mediation and actualizing immediacy. Eureka, like the Constitution, wrestles with the paradox that equality in relation cannot be practiced unless instituted between persons, unless compromised by the very social formation that actualizes it. 20 Poe expresses this paradox as a natural law:


disavowing



American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
wide variety of overlapping historical resonances absent from its original performance as a celebration of Ogé's participation in the early phase of the Haitian revolution. As Trouillot has pointed out, QUOTE and nurturing QUOTE was a primary recourse of the mulâtre elite in securing their hegemony while disavowing the very color prejudice that sustained their insularity-- QUOTE (Silencing 105). Himself a member of this elite, Faubert sought in Ogé a historical methodology that would provide precisely such an alibi on the home front while challenging the worldviews of a white readership outside of Haiti. Indeed, Faubert's uses of history strategically shape the meanings of

realities and sources of Haitian history while also embracing the varied contexts of its narration. There are QUOTE Faubert writes in the introduction: QUOTE (29-30). Faubert's warning speaks not only to contemporaneous Haitian [End Page 417] readers who might condemn Ogé but to those international readers of Haitian history who were disavowing Haiti's independent nationhood throughout much of the nineteenth century. The con-tingent unfolding of political events, he argues, appears entirely different when examined within alternative historical and literary frames.


Laboring



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
American ideologies. 2. Several years before his conversion to Roman Catholicism, Brownson had caused a political firestorm with the publication of his remarkable essay "The Laboring Classes" in the July 1840 number of the _Boston Quarterly Review._ Stimulated by the Great Depression of 1837 and writing with an eye toward the impending Democratic versus Whig presidential election of 1840, Brownson's proto-Marxian essay predicted violent insurrection by the working classes. Aspartial remedies to the crisis among wage laborers, he went on to

----. "Guevara on the Veneration of Images." _Brownson's Quarterly Review_ Jan. 1850: 39-60. ----. "The Laboring Classes." [Rev. of _Chartism_ by Thomas Carlyle.] _Boston Quarterly_ July and Oct. 1840: 358-95, 420-512. ----. "The Literary Policy of the Church of Rome." _Brownson's Quarterly Review_ Jan. 1845: 1-28.


foreclosing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
health--from which "proper" feelings (gratitude, docility, ambition, but never rage or resentment) emanate. Once social relations became the domain of interior forces--sympathy and character, phobia and human nature--reform came to be limited to initiatives (medical, moral, and domestic) aimed at standardizing human nature toward a set of fixed social virtues, foreclosing social analyses of structural ills and diminishing the value of cultural difference. In suggesting the normative work of civil inclusion, then, I am not attempting a cynical argument in which power is all-pervasive and irresistible. Rather, I want to suggest that part of what makes power


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
Luis-Brown argues that "while _Squatter_ is concerned with carving out a space for Californios in whiteness, _Ramona's_ protofeminism enacts a reformist project upsetting racial norms and establishing the personhood of Indians" (828). In contrast, Anne Goldman views _Ramona_ as foreclosing a historicist critique of US policy towards Indians and Californios in its adherence to the Anglo-American romance conventions of *[End Page 459]* "vanishing" Others, while _The Squatter and the Don_'s heterogeneous generic nature (mixing romance, legal discourse, and political polemic) at least allows for


rage



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
challenge: how can one feel for strangers over great distances? Or, to put it [End Page 644] another way, how can one feel the pain of a suffering body when the body itself is absent? In keeping with her inability to deliver up the body of the suffering slave, Stowe renders Tom’s death without graphic detail. His death blow is delivered in one sentence: "Legree, foaming with rage, smote his victim to the ground." In the next, Stowe tells us that "[s]cenes of blood and cruelty are shocking to our ear and heart. What man has nerve to do, man has not nerve to hear" (415). At Tom’s deathbed, Stowe again turns our attention away from his physical suffering and toward the redemptive sorrow of


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
civility as well. Such politics, I have argued, follow an affective circuit from compassion to empathy to inclusion, the trajectory of which is to pull the suffering other into a state of normative plentitude--the state of civil health--from which "proper" feelings (gratitude, docility, ambition, but never rage or resentment) emanate. Once social relations became the domain of interior forces--sympathy and character, phobia and human nature--reform came to be limited to initiatives (medical, moral, and domestic) aimed at standardizing human nature toward a set of fixed social virtues, foreclosing social analyses of structural ills and diminishing the value of cultural


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 348-357
Perpetual Emotion Machine
Michelle Burnham
---------------
ask two final questions--about anger and about the related concerns of gender and money--raised, largely by their peripheral status, in these books. We learn in one early interview conducted by the narrator Jonathan Dunwell that Rugg was known by his neighbors for his fits of "ungovernable" temper, his "rage" and "violent passion" (570). It is in part this anger (and its attendant royalism) that prevents Rugg, despite the apparent pathos of his desperate homelessness, from becoming a sympathetic figure, at least until the very end of his tale. By ending _Cato's Tears_ with a discussion of


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mattison framed the epidermal and epistemological uncertainty Picquet's image reproduced in an era when viewing (and classifying) unidentifiable bodies was all the rage. _The Octoroon_ appeared in the wake of Boucicault's hit play (of the same name) in the US; it opened to full houses in Great Britain in 1861, the year after Craft's _Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom_ was published. Boucicault's wife, Agnes Robertson, a "white" woman, played the tragic Zoe on both continents. The transracial


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
When the political tides change and usher in Jacksonian ideologies of grass-roots democracy, a similar change occurred in the broadening sphere of print culture, resulting in a perilous invitation to mob rule and anarchy, so that "when the people became indocile, disloyal, restless,--when literature became the rage,--when all the passions were stimulated into fearful activity,and all questions, sacred and profane, were wrested from *[End Page 451]* the schools and brought before the multitude,... new modes of meeting the enemies of religion [became] indispensable" ("Catholic Press" 277). Brownson's book reviews, for all their sophistication, were thus intended to


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
of the Far West. Numerous references to beaver hats and buffalo robes in fashionable magazines like _Harper's_ and _Godey's Lady's Book_ attest to the wide metropolitan appetite for these natural resources. Beaver hats, which became less fashionable in the 1840s when the silk hat was the rage in Paris, nevertheless continued to signify a gentleman's virility later in the century, when Harvard freshmen who dared to wear beaver were "rushed" or swept across Harvard yard by elder classmen anxious to protect their status ("Tom Brown at Harvard" 267). The rakish hero of a saccharine romance in


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
Premature Burial" awakens in terror, believing that he has been buried alive, only to realize that he has been snoozing aboard a ship on the James River; his panic attack prompts a vow to read no more English graveyard poetry and no more frightening "bugaboo tales." Afflicted by stupidity, rage, drowsiness, and nightmares, the bibulous narrator of "The Angel of the Odd"—apparently a resident of New York—encounters a fantastic imp of perverse mischance, revealed at last to be a projection of his own inebriation.14 As in "The Sphinx," a tale composed two years later,


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
to evoke and retrieve himself, while Wrayburn uses his as a distancing device. The voices of these two young men collide as we recognize that Harmon is climbing out of the same abyss of non-being that Eugene is helplessly approaching. But also colliding in and with their utterances is the inarticulate rage of Headstone. Headstone's interior dialogue is, appallingly, missing. Its place is taken by a grim body language that obliquely discloses the surrender of his whole self to manic narcissism. He is self without otherness and, as a direct consequence, language is balked within him and he


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
friend Philip's home to see his own wife and children grouped about the hearth with Philip, once the "slighted suitor of old times," now "Lord of his rights": BLOCKQUOTE Enoch suppresses his cry (of anguish? of rage? of thwarted desire? of vengeance? The poem, no more than Enoch, does not and cannot, according to its own emotional structure, say). He relinquishes his claim to his identity as husband, father, and provider and, confiding only in his landlady, dies a resigned and tranquil death exalted and sanctified by

undisciplined feeling. I feel so much because I must feel so little. The entire plot of The Heir of Redclyffe, for instance, consists of the hot-tempered Sir Guy Morville's exhausting and violent suppressions of feelings of rage and vengefulness in response to the continuing provocations of his cousin and rival, the upwardly mobile, perfectly controlled, Philip Morville. In this High Anglican version of status anxiety the aristocratic Sir Guy must acquire the sobriety and self-discipline of the self-made man through repeated renunciations of


ELH 66.4 (1999) 965-984
Fathoming "Remembrance": Emily Bronte in Context
Janet Gezari
---------------
tears. In this respect, Brontë's imagery of changing states has a function that Peter Sacks, in his study of the English elegy, attributes to two of the elegy's formal conventions that figure in "Remembrance," repetition and questioning. According to Sacks, such devices free the energy locked in grief or rage and keep the expression of grief in motion. 22 Tears are the sign of this vital grief. Does seasonal change correspond to and reinforce a human pattern?

35. Jahan Ramazani, Poetry of Mourning: The Modern Elegy from Hardy to Heaney (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994), 4. Ramazani notes, "Sometimes punishing themselves, thereby avenging the dead and deflecting hostility inward, at other times modern elegists turn their rage outward, attacking and debasing the dead" (5). Andrew Elfenbein, Byron and the Victorians (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995), 142-43. Support for this reading comes from an analysis of the character of the poem's speaker (identified in the manuscript as R. Alcona) that relies less on her self-presentation


ELH 66.4 (1999) 985-1014
The Way We Read and Write Now: The Rhetoric of Experience in Victorian Literature and Contemporary Criticism
Timothy Peltason
---------------
well-known to require illustration. His reliance on the instructive power of exemplary lives constitutes both the method and the argument of On Heroes and Hero-Worship, as well as the immense biographical studies that succeed it. One way to trace the upsetting loss of balance in Carlyle's writing, as it descends into the hateful rage of his later works, is to mark the shift of emphasis from the conviction that heroes are exemplars to be imitated to the far less attractive conviction with which it is perversely intertwined, the conviction that the beauty of life is not in being a hero but in submitting to one. The rightness of submission is [End Page 995] hardly an experienced


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
Satan; while others (monster) simply refer to the subhumanly evil. God's divine vengeance (God as the principle of awe, terror, and wrath) crushes man, who is no more than an insect on the face of this earth: hence the references to blasting, insect, and vermin. Divine wrath is a paroxysm of rage, but also of madness--thus there is a connecting point with madness here (paroxysm of rage, paroxysm of madness). 36 God as destiny is also responsible for unexplained and mysterious events; hence the cluster fatality and calamity (which links with tragedy in the theatrical arena). The field of reference

God's divine vengeance (God as the principle of awe, terror, and wrath) crushes man, who is no more than an insect on the face of this earth: hence the references to blasting, insect, and vermin. Divine wrath is a paroxysm of rage, but also of madness--thus there is a connecting point with madness here (paroxysm of rage, paroxysm of madness). 36 God as destiny is also responsible for unexplained and mysterious events; hence the cluster fatality and calamity (which links with tragedy in the theatrical arena). The field of reference SUBLIME also includes a sub-area in which martyrdom and the sublime

Godwin critiques the concept of Christian divinity as figured in the God of punishment and terror: violence and ferocity in this novel tend to be cover-ups for guilty secrets. If God is as divinely benevolent as described in the Scriptures, He should have no need for divine rage, nor should the novel's figures of corrupted divinity, Falkland and Tyrrel, need to be in the grip of paroxysm and insane frenzy. The term sublime is applied in the novel to several people, to

designations does Caleb go on to praise the "benevolence of his actions," his "integrity," and adds [End Page 868] that his household (not Caleb himself!) "regarded him upon the whole with veneration as being of a superior order" (7). Falkland then surprises Caleb at his trunk, evokes a reaction of thunderous rage in the course of which Falkland calls him a "spy," "villain," and "wretch" (8), and this leads into Mr. Collins's narrative about Falkland in chapter 2. Collins, we should note, does not once use the term sublime in reference to Falkland but exclusively applies the label to Mr. Clare;

BLOCKQUOTE Mr. Clare, in his work, inspires sublime "transport," but he himself is unaware of his own superiority. His major influence consists in convincing people without producing resentment or displaying rage. [End Page 869] Clare, unlike the terrible God of vengeance, that is, unlike Falkland, astonishes without thunder. 46 In fact, Clare is an idealized picture of Edmund Burke, without Burke's characteristic rage--a feature given to Falkland in the novel. 47 Clare's

convincing people without producing resentment or displaying rage. [End Page 869] Clare, unlike the terrible God of vengeance, that is, unlike Falkland, astonishes without thunder. 46 In fact, Clare is an idealized picture of Edmund Burke, without Burke's characteristic rage--a feature given to Falkland in the novel. 47 Clare's persuasiveness derives from inspiration and sympathetic influence on his listeners: "Mr. Clare carried it home to the heart"; "the countenances of his auditors . . . sympathised with the passions of the composition" (26). 48 When Clare reads Falkland's poem, he

can become fatal if the masters by their "machines" give another "turn" to this oppression, crushing the already weak and unfortunate subjects as the torturer presses his victims to death. 72 These terms evoke precisely the negative connotations associated with divinity in the novel: Falkland in his rage wants to "crush" Caleb like an insect and "grind" him "into atoms" (284). The term "machine" again is quite relevant in the context; in the novel "engine" and "machine" have been used in reference to "instruments" of torture or metaphorically in reference to the malignant strategies of Gines--a telling name.

face [End Page 885] their ruin with fortitude and equanimity: foremost of all Mr. Clare, Brightwel, and the two "wretches" that are "pressed beyond bearing"--Emily and Hawkins. Despite their sublime qualities, Falkland and Mr. Raymond face their respective calamities with rage and indignation, and Caleb indulges in the same paroxysms of indignation as Falkland. A less heroic form of virtue may be noted in Mr. Collins, Falkland's steward, whom Caleb admires and reveres and therefore wishes to engage in reciprocal sympathy (309-11). Caleb desists from involving Mr. Collins in his troubles, and he does so

claiming that he knows nothing of the "passions" of the world (106), and he represents his passions as harmless curiosity or as mere sympathy with Mr. Forester (142). Passion--like enthusiasm--is indeed very negatively connoted in the novel, and it leads to all sorts of other evil deeds born of envy, jealousy, and rage. See also the reference to Falkland's and Tyrrel's "temper" (28). 50. Note the blasphemous--by eighteenth-century standards--accusation of God in this exclamation.

Liminality in the Literary Prison," Textual Practice 13 (1999): 43-77, and "The Topos of Carceral Transcendence in the Literary Tradition" (under consideration). 59. See 8 ("rage"; "tolerably composed"); 129 ("stubborn patience"; "horror and despair"); or 136 ("even in frenzy I can preserve my presence of mind and discretion"). 60. As has been noted before, Caleb's curiosity has decidedly sexual


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
flourishes as hatred in her novels, while isolating Brontë's protagonists and downplaying their fraught relationship to society. The hostility that Kucich views as productive self-antagonism, given its antirepressive character, also sequesters Brontë's protagonists, turning their aggression into politically impotent rage. Brontë is adept at explaining why her protagonists try to shun other people. In her fiction neighbors are frequently real or potential enemies who thwart happiness more often than encourage it. Moreover,

Life as a War ------------- "The rage to improve the world," Peter Gay writes of Victorian philanthropy, was "usually called benevolence," but was in practice closer to "what Freud called a reaction formation--a defense mechanism that converts aggressive feelings into their opposite and thus masks them." "The most determined anti-aggression," he

persuasively against this type of approach in _Charlotte Brontë and Sexuality_ (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984), when insisting: "There has been a marked tendency to diminish Brontë's work into a mere personal expression of despair over her early traumatic experiences, whether of sexual conflict or of loss, and of rage at her role as a woman in a patriarchal society. . . . I have deliberately avoided approaching Brontë's work as if it were a personal statement to be plumbed for its unconscious meaning" (ix). While noting that Lyndall Gordon's recent biography alludes to

Maynard, a conviction that psychological factors such as fantasy and hatred ultimately are irreducible to biographical concerns. In _A Room of One's Own_ (1929), by contrast, Virginia Woolf famously (and quite uncharacteristically) claimed otherwise, influencing many later critics when arguing that Brontë wrote "in a rage" when "she should [have] writ[ten] calmly"; that "she [was] at war with her lot"; and that "anger was tampering with the integrity of" her fiction. Woolf, _A Room of One's Own_ (London: Panther, 1984), 67, 70.


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
not lose sight of the endemically nineteenth-century belief that social struggle is the primary agent of history. However, these perceptions do not fuel in Butler a radical political rage. If the satiric strands of Erewhonian ethnography had any reformist proclivities, they ultimately surrender to a vision wherein social inequity is inevitable and must be accepted. Moreover, they beget an antihumanist materialism according to which human cultural behavior is a blind enactment of the law of


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
victimized woman confirms male power, the nonviolent man disrupts that model. Instead, the Men of England's passive looks disarm the violence of other men: "With folded arms and steady eyes, / And little fear, and less surprise / Look upon them as they slay / Till their rage has died away" (_MA_, 344-47). Finally, the poem affirms that disruption by valorizing women as the final judges of men's actions: when those in power again plow down the passive resisters, "every woman in the land / Will point at them as they stand" (_MA_, 352-53). In a sense returning the women to their active role in the


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
indigenous populations in the Philippines and the Congo, complement *[End Page 407]* a more ambivalent interest in another form of empire that was commercial and not driven by colonialist or European-style bids for territorial domination. Twain's anti-imperialist rage interacts quite curiously with his lifelong obsession with U.S. business culture to produce a conflicted, insider's critique of market capitalism as it was expressed in the slave trade on the Mississippi River and in the market for precious metals in the Far West. The peculiarly double, regional and global,


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
social standing and his father's displeasure. Unfortunately, Lizzie's brother, Charlie, who is trying to better himself, wants Lizzie to marry his unappealing teacher, Bradley Headstone. Headstone feels so strongly about Lizzie that he frightens her: his passion turns into jealous rage against Wrayburn, whom he attempts unsuccessfully to murder. Lizzie leaves London in order to protect Wrayburn from Headstone, ultimately rescues him from Headstone's attempted drowning, and finally becomes his wife. Rogue blackmails Headstone with the knowledge of the attack, but when Headstone tries


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 691-718
Minstrelsy Goes to Market: Prize Poems, Minstrel Contests, and Romantic Poetry
Erik Simpson
---------------
They'll rouse again. (48-49) In this story, Wallace's death inspires revenge: six Londoners kill Edward I out of rage at his injustice. As in other Wallace stories, criticism of England's past government here serves as a means by which to praise England's merits in the abstract. The warning against conquering Scotland, however, could function either as an endorsement of the Union (because it was not a military conquest) or as a dark hint of future violence.


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
New Bedford whaler commanded by Captain John DeBlois, who described the offending whale as an "artful beast" and a "crafty monster," attributing to it a high degree of intentional agency, expressed in humanized terms: "turning on his side, he looked at us, apparently filled with rage."23 To what should this profusion of effective attacks by animals upon human industry—or at least, this proliferation in _accounts_ of such attacks—be attributed? Philbrick offers the


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
language of the vocal thing, which always measures humans against the standard of humanity and finds them wanting. Peachum calls Lockit a dog, Lockit calls Lucy a spaniel, Lucy calls Macheath a brute, and Macheath calls the prostitutes beasts. Depending on the degree of rage, these epithets are more or less particular. Lockit gives a speech full of platitudes about humans as animals of prey, but when he calls Peachum a dog, he means something different (_B_, 2.20.137). When Lucy compares the imprisoned Macheath to a rat, she is feeling more particular than sententious; but when Macheath


subduing



American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
16. Matthew Jacobson argues that during and after the era of the famine migration, US imperialism QUOTE of whites even as QUOTE (204). He suggests that the Irish were unevenly incorporated into whiteness, and that "'Anglo-Saxondom' itself was an unstable and hotly contested terrain. The 'Anglo-Saxon' mission of subduing the continent and reaching across the Pacific thus both destabilized and shored up immigrants' whiteness: it excluded them (as the wrong kind of citizens) from the glories of national destiny, and yet conferred upon them (as citizens nonetheless) the fruits of white-supremacist


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
of Old Grannis and Miss Baker in _McTeague_" (82). 11. Presley's project reflects Norris's own interest in "the last great epic event in the history of civilization...I mean the conquering of the West, the subduing of the wilderness beyond the Mississippi"; in "A Neglected Epic" he laments that despite its heroic and epic qualities the frontier has produced no literature beyond "the dime novel" (1202).


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
male/female and home/marketplace, domesticity is, nonetheless, a critical marker of national well-being. In this respect, Laing's entrepreneurial writing of domesticity closely approximates that of Harriet Martineau. Both writers represent domesticity as a vital constituent of national and class identity, while either subduing--or, in Martineau's case, vigorously contesting--the gender implications that usually accompany it. Indeed, Martineau's works, including Society in America and Household Education (1848), her chief contribution to the conduct book genre, attempt to overturn the "unproductive," "irrational," and "un-Christian" notion of


Revitalized



_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
Davis, Phebe. _Two Years and Three Months in the New York Lunatic Asylum at Utica_. Syracuse, 1865. Dayan, Joan. "Legal Slaves and Civil Bodies." _Materializing Democracy: Toward a Revitalized Cultural Politics_. Ed. Russ Castronovo and Dana D. Nelson. Durham: Duke UP, 2002. 53-94. "A Dialogue between Two Southern Gentlemen and a Negro." _Opal_ 2.5 (1852): 151-53; 2.6 (1852): 178-82.


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
——. _A Rumor of Revolt: The "Great Negro Plot" in Colonial New York_. New York: Free Press, 1985. Dayan, Joan. "Legal Slaves and Civil Bodies." _Materializing Democracy: Toward a Revitalized Cultural Politics_. Ed. Russ Castronovo and Dana D. Nelson. Durham: Duke UP, 2002. Devine, Joseph. "The War of Jenkins' Ear: The Political, Economic, and Social Impact on the British North American Colonies." Diss. U


rending



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
white violence breeds black revolution. As _Blake_ draws to a close and politico-racial tensions mount, Ambrosina Cordora, daughter of a upper-class, revolutionary, Cuban woman, is stopped on the street by an American shopkeeper who, "[s]natching up a horsewhip" and "seizin her by the breast of the dress rending it in tatters," beats the you woman mercilessly (311). Fuming with anger after this symbolic if no literal rape, Ambrosina declares, "I wish I was a man, I'd lay the city in ashes this night, so I would" (313). Just a few lines later, the book ends with the working-class cook, Gopher Gondolier, going o


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
_Opal_ must have occasionally compounded the pain of his situation—as editor he seeks to express, rationally, the logic of the institution that has denied him his freedom because he is subrational. This quality is especially pronounced when read against his shadow career of scribbling, clothes rending, and self-mutilation, in which he appears to be materializing the torment of his condition at moments when he cannot abstract himself into the _Opal_'s pure ether. For him, Asylumia is at once a utopian space in which all the trials of social belonging are left behind and, in its self-conscious fictionality, a reverse image of the confined space he actually inhabits. For


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
the habit that produces it. Cause and effect would merge in a logical loop wherein the loss of desire is a condition of its emergence. Habit represents a strange presence indeed, if it somatically remembers what is interminably lost. But that seems to be Coleridge's conclusion, which may explain his heart-rending desire for a world without habit, without loss, without opium: BLOCKQUOTE


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
In Bamford's description, the "women, white-vested maids, and tender youths" are beaten down and stabbed, their pleas ignored. Whatever their reasons for being at the Manchester gathering, the women are here represented as victims of brutal male aggression. Any normal human would respond to their "piteous and heart-rending" cries; the failure to forbear and the "indiscriminate" violence reveal the monstrosity of the yeomanry. In contrast, the women's innocence, highlighted by their placement next to the "white-vested maids" and "tender youths," renders the violence more devastating and the


massacring



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
Mikhail Bakhtin declared famously about medieval peasants, and for the sake of his plot Horsmanden will let the sound reverberate. The narrative's opening requires the sensation of three slaves dreaming of burning the city and then reveling in it, a folkloric image bent on massacring the city's white people. 2. War and Conspiracy: Patriotism ---------------------------------

peacefulness of the community gathering as families in faithful worship, but the movement of the three slaves divides the scene into black and white. Sunday was the day colonists feared vengeful slaves would choose for insurrection, and the three advancing black figures appear bent on massacring the white people, defenseless in the church. The inaugural motif of a peaceful city about to be attacked by fanatics masked in blackness, servitude, and feigned loyalty forecasts the conclusion of the courts that the religious fanaticism of Spanish Catholics had directed the slaves down Broadway that


secede



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
sympathy, which leads inevitably toward abstraction, and the impotence of the state to halt this process. Indeed, the government failed to discipline the radical sympathies of Northern abolitionists or the insurrectionary aspirations of secessionists; providing a rallying point for the antislavery community, Brown’s execution only aggravated Southerners inclined to secede. During war, however, the state derived its authority from the escalation of violence rather than the ability to control it. As "John Brown’s Body" suggests, the state was ultimately fortified by the logic of sympathy that initially posed a threat to the rule of law: Brown’s martyrdom prefigured a


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
above the signature an additional qualification, is there a court of justice in the civilized nation that will not hold... the compact a fraud?" (_Congressional Globe_ 13). On these grounds, Wigfall declared the national contract "voidable," granting that "according to the law of nations, each one of these States has the right to secede." 17 But, as Reconstruction would teach De Forest, redacting social contract through the formula of commercial contract came at a heavy price. While commercial contract explained political obligation in clear terms, it obviated social ties not easily articulated with the *[End Page 289]* rational calculus of fiscal exchange. Loyalty,


backfires



_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
explains, I think, the narrator's use of the odd term _unthought_; it refers to Hope's prelinguistic reaction to the sight of her Indianized sister. When that reaction becomes concretized, described, put into language, Hope's position—her belief in an unchangeable nature or identity—is undermined. Consequently, her strategy of restoration backfires: "The removal of the mantle, instead of the effect designed, only served to make more striking the aboriginal peculiarities; and Hope, shuddering and heart-sick, made one more effort to disguise them by taking off her silk cloak and wrapping it close around her sister" (239). What Hope wants here, but fails


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
Not coincidentally, perhaps, a subsequent exercise in antinationalist fabulation, "Some Words with a Mummy," incorporates the not-quite-subliminal message "all a mistake." Here, a scientific experiment backfires on Anglo-American savants eager to confirm their own racial and cultural superiority by unwrapping an Egyptian mummy named Allamistakeo. In _National Manhood_, Dana Nelson has delineated the tale's many implications for the rise of white, democratic manhood, scientific fraternalism, and race theory


othing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
social sciences._ Fredric Jameson has argued that conspiracy thinking amounts to "the beginning of wisdom" insofar as it signals an attempt "to think a system so vast that it cannot be encompassed by the natural and historically developed categories of perception" (_Geopolitical_ 3,2); beyond that, "[n]othing is gained by having been persuaded of the definitive verisimilitude of this or that conspiratorial hypothesis" (3). But even this redemptive assessment understates the achievements of conspiracy thought, which often constitutes a vernacular attempt to think through a great conundrum


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
interrupting the movement of the story with news from the "present." For instance, at several moments the narrator pauses to draw comparisons between "the girls of today" and her heroine, Hope. At one point, realizing that Hope has yet to be "formally presented" to her readers, the narrator begins to correct this oversight by remarking that "[n]othing could be more unlike the authentic, 'thoroughly educated,' and thoroughly disciplined young ladies of the present day, than Hope Leslie" (126).18 Now as a single instance, it might be easy to dismiss this comment as a conventional—perhaps even awkward—authorial intrusion, but as I will show, the accumulation of


localizing



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
Mitchell 891; see Rydell 58). Hazelius was hardly alone in exhibiting mannequin tableaux, but the specificity of the scene and the narrative force of the grouping established the Scandinavian contribution as the ideal to be achieved, and established the life-group as the mode of localizing culture while bringing artifacts to life. For the Atlanta exhibit of 1895, and working for the Smithsonian, Boas himself created a display to supplement those "scientific" exhibits celebrated by Goode. He exhibited life-size Indian figures, "clothed in


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
requires and exaggerates heterogeneous and unevenly developed places, and the process of uneven development constantly positions and repositions different places as relatively marginal or central within a larger global field. Dea Birkett provides a notable example of this dynamic interplay between globalizing and localizing forces by describing how increased air travel—a phenomenon commonly associated with globalization's *[End Page 38]* tendency toward "time-space compression" (Harvey, _Condition_ 240)—brings about a correlative decline in shipping that increases the isolation


Discussing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
If the lack of civil virtue signified by their emulative desire threatens to deny black Americans access to public authority, their very exclusion opens a space of authenticating identification for the sympathetic abolitionist. In the course of the _Address,_ Garrison increasingly names himself among the persecuted. Discussing the widespread change in public opinion regarding slavery, Garrison tells his audience, "Scarcely any credit belongs to myself... . To you, much of the applause belongs. Had it not been for your cooperation, *[End Page 47]* your generous confidence, your liberal support, as a people, I might have been borne down by my enemies" (_Address_ 23).


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
10. Newman documents the imperial underpinnings of nineteenth-century white feminism, showing how the question of US white women's rights were formulated within a discourse of civilization and its racial hierarchies. Discussing the British Raj, Antoinette M. Burton states that for nineteenth-century British feminists "empire was an integral and enabling part of 'the woman question'" as the "civilizing responsibility . . . affirmed an emancipated role for them in the imperial nation- state" (139).


diffusing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
intellectual and moral character of the people, is a work no less necessary and commendable... [;] this is the aim of the author and the artist. Magazines... constitute in a country like ours, a powerful element of civilization... . [P]eriodical literature... [is] the best possible means of disseminating information, and diffusing the principles of a correct taste" (qtd. in Osborne 88-89). Here, the work of the editor, writer, or artist is to shape readers' national subjectivities through shaping their sensibilities. Kirkland saw this work as congruent with *[End Page 61]* middle-class American womanhood (she always insisted that her work be


Underscoring



American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
For Faubert, this mode of reading took on strategically international parameters. Proposing in his foreword QUOTE (19), he offers an inter-American tableau that recontextualizes the mulâtre-noir divide within Haiti by implicating the racial politics of its neighbor to the north. Underscoring the play's overt thesis that QUOTE concerning color prejudice, he defends his central claim in a passage that offers a revealing commentary on the play's larger transnationalist project: En effet, soyez le génie et la vertu mêmes en personne, sous une peau noire


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
Northern propaganda that promoted the war as a family struggle to preserve the sanctity of a nuptial union. Northerners argued that secession fraudulently breached an irrevocable consent. Underscoring the marriage contract's sacred "until-death-do-us-part" clause, they claimed the authority of divine ordination cemented national vows. Drawing on the same tradition of political analogy as the reunion romance, one writer summed up the long-standing Northern position in "The Philosophy of the American Union," published in _The Democratic Review_ in


Raising



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
slavery from the opposite direction, O'Conor also worried aloud to the judges that if _Lemmon_ weren't overturned, "the non-slaveholding States could pen up all slaveholders within their own States as effectually as the slave is himself confined by the rule applied in this case" (580). Raising this specter of white slavery, O'Conor is warning the court that acknowledging what Evarts mordantly termed the arbitrary and "artificial relation" that makes humans into property could logically lead to white Southern slave owners being held as slave property (598). O'Conor's narrative of


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1984. Romero, Lora. _Home Fronts_. Durham: Duke UP, 1997. Sánchez-Eppler, Karen. "Raising Empires like Children: Race, Nation and Religious Education." _American Literary History_ 8 (1996): 399-425. Schurz, Carl. "Present Aspects of the Indian Problem." _North


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
closely engages the immediate famine conditions of 1795, narrative assumes a more heterogeneous form. 4 The ordered plot of the first part--circular in structure, focusing on the spiritual development of an individual, and punctuated by scriptural quotations and pious reflections--gives way to a less coherent series of separately titled episodes: "The Roof-Raising," "The Sheep Shearing," "The Hard Winter," "The White Loaf," "The Parish Meeting," "Rice Milk," "Rice Pudding," and "A Cheap Stew." The first of these programmatic incidents opens with a perfunctory gesture towards Tom's life and narrative continuity--"Some years after he was settled, he built a large

There can be no more compelling expression of the way moral principle trumps historical process in More's fiction. Far from offering a reliable guide for human conduct, the pattern of inherited transmission so venerated by Edmund Burke threatens to "mislead" past, present, and future generations alike. 12 The "Roof-Raising" and "Sheep Sheering" episodes that occur in the early phases of the second part of the tract are suffused with Farmer White's iconoclastic determination "to break through a bad custom," and in each case the communal traditions of "ribaldry, and riot, and drunkenness," associated with the agricultural calendar, give way under his strong hand to more


mollifying



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
11. California was crucial to the Compromise of 1850, and Nebraska figured centrally in the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. Engineered by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, the 1850 Compromise attempted to maintain the integrity of the union by mollifying both anti- and proslavery exponents. Under its terms, Texas surrendered its claim t vast amounts of southwestern land but was offered $10 million as compensation. The compromise also arranged for the organization of t New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah territories without mention of


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
interest, she was also keenly aware, even at this early stage in the development *[End Page 203]* of American literature, of the gender politics of literary production. Nelson ventures that these asides, ostensibly deferent, "might" be "less sincere than calculatingly rhetorical" (194). I would state this more strongly: more than just a mollifying rhetorical stance toward male authority, they are subversive of it. 21. For a more extended discussion of how the novel "defines liberty from a woman's perspective," see Zagarell 238-39.


liberalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
identity, "Priestcraft" and "Reform" (205). While such traditional religious ceremonies as the feast of the Bambino included carrying an image in an "idolatrous" ritual, processions in support of republican reform replace such an "idol" with a text (204); Romans demonstrating *[End Page 74]* their appreciation of a liberalizing edict, Fuller observes, carry "a banner on which the edict was printed" (136). A similar replacement of image with text occurs in an unusual genre painting of Rome by Kirkland's contemporary, Martin Johnson Heade, who depicted public


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
That such films should emerge during the term of a president who, during his first campaign, told suffering black citizens "I feel your pain" is perhaps not surprising. The resurgence of a liberal politics of feeling seems to have necessitated as well the return of sympathetic incorporation, which has in turn accompanied (and, *[End Page 53]* in its liberalizing cast, made more palatable) the undoing of juridical and economic measures (affirmative action, welfare and labor opportunity, political representation) that arose from a public understanding of civility as a matter of economic and political rights, not of "right feelings." Without that understanding, we will probably


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
technological transformations in the sphere of publishing, along with the philosophical transformations wrought by Unitarianism and transcendentalism and voiced preeminently by Emerson himself. This familiar--although lately contested--narrative of American literary values, aesthetics, and praxis works usefully to chart voices of increasingly secular and liberalizing disposition during the nineteenth century, but it is a story whose dimensions are less than adequate for explaining the links between American literary nationalism and pro-Catholic discourse that are emphasized by Brownson. In particular, the traditional emphasis on a national literature featuring modes


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
Critics locate the value of _Huckleberry Finn_ in the way its irony destabilizes what Raymond Williams called structures of feeling, making immanent criticism possible. 25 A comparable emphasis on indirection--and also on its liberalizing effect--lies at the foundation of modern literary studies. Richard Ohmann, Michael Warner, Wallace Douglas, David Shumway, and Gerald Graff have astutely examined the emergence since about 1860 of our discipline. 26 Though, as Graff details, generalists and classicists resisted modern language

In this novel, then, literary discipline is unrelievedly regulatory; there is only following "regulations," no meaningful recombination of them. The best available response to literary discipline is aggression disguised as fiction. Twain thus doubts what his contemporary literary and cultural scholars called the liberalizing effects of social disciplining. Whether or not one thinks this novel is racist, I wish to suggest that this question is framed by a larger one: to what extent are the invidious distinctions that seem to accompany subjectivization tractable? Racial hierarchization, as exemplified by

ideals, and their refusal to "cherish" ancestral traditions. 89 Wheeler was yet more direct, asserting, in a rare sentiment for the period, that because of the "mingling [of] bloods and temperaments" in the U. S., "American . . . is not at all a word of race." The most fundamental liberalizing effect of literary discipline, therefore, would be to supersede the idea that society should be organized around divisions of caste or race. 90 Nonetheless, as hereditarians, scientific literary scholars envisioned

extent, enthralled to it. As this novel presents the situation, all personages believe they possess an idealized form of mental discipline--meaning all think themselves free from the constraints of culture--and to that very extent they are doomed to repeat narratives and precepts. No *[End Page 292]* liberalizing is possible, on this account, no recombination of extant principles in new formations; nor, therefore, can there be meaningful critique of either values or identity. For Twain, proponents of literary discipline, and recent critics of this novel, identification is a form of enslavement. The


embedding



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
("Principles" 61). By the time of the Columbian Exposition, Mason had taken much of the point. He had come to believe that objects achieve significance not by being fit along a time line but by being placed within a particular chronotope--historically embedded in a particular place and embedding people in place. The "acts of life," as opposed to language, "are in each culture area indigenous. They are materialized under the patronage and directorship of the region" (Mason, "Ethnological Exhibit" 215). Whereas language could be transported easily, there was considerable difficulty in mobilizing what he called


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
conformity deeply imbued with resolute nay-saying. Passive obedience in this connection is not a recommendation for political quietism but a description of the structure internal to the image itself that allows it to [End Page 430] resist total appropriation by the logic of power and rhetorical machinery. To demonstrate the embedding of resistance in the image no matter how labile its structure may appear is to take a step beyond an uncritical assault on all forms of representation and the monologic determination of its fate in many instances in today's world.


ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
circumstances, conducted him imperceptibly towards the crisis of his fate" (OEB, 32; my emphasis). Reeve's naturalization of supernatural agency becomes most explicit when Edmund, the wronged heir, states, "heaven assists us by natural means" (OEB, 63; my emphasis). Simultaneously, the figure of "an invisible hand" is contained by embedding it in a dream which foreshadows Philip's combat with the usurper Walter: BLOCKQUOTE In comparison to Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, the workings of the "invisible hand" become less tangible in Reeve's The Old English Baron.


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
Coming at the penultimate moment of the essay, Sterne's invocation serves to authorize--one could almost say, to author--Shelley's inquiry, and it points the way specifically to the textual source most appropriate for Romantic resuscitation, or as I will argue more specifically, his deployment of the Romantic strategy of embedding Sensibility: Sterne's _Sentimental Journey_. 10 Coming fairly early in the course of Yorick's travels through France, the episode containing this moment of feeling cited by Shelley, "In The Street. Calais," comes on the heels of Yorick's recent wooing of Madame de

this impure combination is "the ruin of thousands of our countrymen and countrywomen." 42 While this assessment might seem extreme, it is not completely off base. Knox's "disguise" is a metaphor of stealth and subterfuge that we might equally well label as embedding: "lust" or libidinal pleasure is seen here as being embedded within writing characterized as "sentimental"; rather than being pure, affection comes to be a mixed bag. Of perhaps greater significance is the first publication, in the


accentuating



ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
1993), 21. 4. G. M. Young writes in Portrait of an Age that "each stratum, in a steady competition was drawing away from the stratum next below, accentuating its newly acquired refinements, and enforcing them with censorious vigilance" (2nd ed. [Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1960], 21). 5. Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), 464.


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Seeking to improve on the Gothic with modern materials, Brooke ended up accentuating the worst of both periods: the cavernous, inhospitable past and the mawkishly domestic present. Like the cathedral reduced to a goosepie, Warwick Castle was an instance of modernization gone awry.


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
title "Story of an Apparition." 19 In rewriting and considerably expanding the original text, Scott changed the characters' names and the year of the event, and made the story, in some sense, more literary than it was in its previous anecdotal form by developing the plot and characterization, and by accentuating the elements of drama and mystery. Characteristically for Scott, the most significant revision in "The Tapestried Chamber" comes in the form of something that is stated obliquely and briefly: "Lord Woodville never once asked [Browne] if he was sure he did not dream of the apparition, or suggested any of the possibilities by which it is fashionable to explain

between optical facts and optical illusions. More than that, such theories inadvertently and invariably problematize the impulse to equate a certain kind of vision with direct knowledge of facts and truths, thus exposing the deficiencies and contradictions of a rigidly mechanistic theory of sight and accentuating the possible epistemological limitations imposed on the subject of knowledge by the physiological sensorium. Numerous writers who followed Scott's example, and who contributed far more prolifically than Scott to the ghost story's iconic cultural status in the


fleeced



American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
investigative caregiver, preferring instead the passivity of an isolated, and therefore unmanageable, donation. In other cases, the honesty of benevolent agents--who, as fundraisers, were supplicants as well as donors--was called into question. Stories abounded of charitable collectors who fleeced credulous and well-meaning citizens: the Colonization Herald of July 1853, for example, warned Philadelphians of a QUOTE disguised QUOTE who had QUOTE by pretending to collect donations for the Pennsylvania Colonization Society ( QUOTE 147). Those identified as the objects, or would-be


ELH 67.4 (2000) 951-971
John Thelwall and Popular Jacobin Allegory, 1793-95
Michael Scrivener
---------------
inevitably be sheared, sooner or later. After the introductory first stanza the song's first part, focusing on the social corruption of the country, begins with the farmer who fleeces his sheep and is then in turn fleeced by his rack-renting landlord. In subsequent stanzas the landlord himself is fleeced by his steward, his lawyer, his physician, and his priest. Even those at the very top of the social hierarchy cannot avoid being fleeced, mostly by middle-class professionals, two of whom receive an

After the introductory first stanza the song's first part, focusing on the social corruption of the country, begins with the farmer who fleeces his sheep and is then in turn fleeced by his rack-renting landlord. In subsequent stanzas the landlord himself is fleeced by his steward, his lawyer, his physician, and his priest. Even those at the very top of the social hierarchy cannot avoid being fleeced, mostly by middle-class professionals, two of whom receive an especially harsh treatment--the lawyer and the priest. Thelwall

on the social corruption of the country, begins with the farmer who fleeces his sheep and is then in turn fleeced by his rack-renting landlord. In subsequent stanzas the landlord himself is fleeced by his steward, his lawyer, his physician, and his priest. Even those at the very top of the social hierarchy cannot avoid being fleeced, mostly by middle-class professionals, two of whom receive an especially harsh treatment--the lawyer and the priest. Thelwall hated lawyers, as becomes clear in his 1801 autobiographical "Memoir," and he supplements the third stanza with a list of legal

the would-be victims of fleecers. Official ideology requires the presence of watchmen who protect the needy, and of institutions to safeguard the welfare of those less powerful. However, the song insists that the pastoral system of caring for the populace has disintegrated, replaced instead by a fleece-and-be-fleeced competitiveness. There are no benevolent pastors, and there are also no innocent sheep. The farmer of the second stanza, for example, could have been portrayed as innocent, but the song does not do that. Pastoral conventions also could generate a system of

At the center of urban and social corruption in general is the political fleecing of both the party in power and the opposition. Dismissing the Whigs as fleecers, Thelwall in the last two stanzas enacts a dramatic reversal of the song's repetitive pattern of passive submission to being fleeced. As the Whigs cannot protect the people, the constitutional system having broken down, the people must protect themselves. The tone shifts in the last three stanzas from ironic humor to earnest declamation, even republican bravado and apocalyptic hints. There is no pretense of innocent victimhood,


transact



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
gather. He speaks not a single word of English and wanders from the straits of Malacca into the opium-eater's cottage in the isolated Lake Country in the year 1816. De Quincey cannot imagine what could have brought him there: "What business a Malay could have to transact among English mountains I cannot conjecture" (_C_, 55).34 How did the Malay get to his kitchen? Why, if he has any business in the area, is he so manifestly unable to transact it, since he speaks no English? All these questions raise another: Whence comes De Quincey's certainty that his visitor is a Malay at all? Given that

Lake Country in the year 1816. De Quincey cannot imagine what could have brought him there: "What business a Malay could have to transact among English mountains I cannot conjecture" (_C_, 55).34 How did the Malay get to his kitchen? Why, if he has any business in the area, is he so manifestly unable to transact it, since he speaks no English? All these questions raise another: Whence comes De Quincey's certainty that his visitor is a Malay at all? Given that he does not share a language with the visitor, how does he know what to call him? The hero is guessing: "He . . . replied in what I

with sham by himself dealing in it to supplement his failing knowledge. There is a veritable cascade of suppositions in the passage: What business a Malay could possibly have to transact amongst English mountains, I cannot _conjecture_; but _possibly_ he was on his way to a seaport about forty miles distant. (_C_, 55) In this dilemma the girl, recollecting the reputed learning of her

I speak of giving laudanum away, I remember, about this time, a little incident, which I mention, because, trifling as it was, the reader will soon meet it again in my dreams, which it influenced more fearfully than could be imagined. One day a Malay knocked at my door. What business a Malay could have to transact amongst English mountains, I cannot conjecture: but possibly he was on his road to a sea-port about forty miles distant. The servant who opened the door to him was a young girl born and


procure



_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
writing about a nineteenth-century woman's surreptitious asylum journal, arrives at an equally sweeping but precisely opposite conclusion: "Writing in the asylum is always transgression. It is always an attempt to get beyond the asylum, to make sense out of being locked up, to reclaim an identity other than the one conferred by the system, to procure an inviolable space" (168-69). Maryrose Eannace, the only critic to examine the _Opal_ in depth, sees the journal as a "miscellany" that does not speak "in one voice" (203); ultimately, though, she focuses on the journal's "political" writings, which she sees as "writing to power" (2)—challenging the doctors'


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
meritorious act." 36 Enoch, like so many other sentimental protagonists, becomes (on his funeral bier) the icon of a fortuitousness which is made to seem, like the self-made man's success, both Providential and self-willed. His failure is a meritorious act that ensures the continued well-being of his family that it has been his aim to procure all along. The tableau of the happy family upon which Enoch gazed through the window, seemingly invulnerable in its generic fixity to the shocks of emotional and economic dislocation, is paralleled by the concluding tableau of Enoch's funeral procession, which takes death itself out of


ELH 67.3 (2000) 801-818
Dangerous Acquaintances: The Correspondence of Margaret Fuller and James Freeman Clarke
Barbara Packer
---------------
letter when he was absent in Washington during congressional sessions. Her first letter to him there, written when she was seven-and-a-half, suggests the ambitiousness of the program he expected her to follow. She dutifully reports: "I have been reviewing Valpy's Chronology. We have not been able to procure any books on either Charles 12th of Sweden or Philip IId of Spain but Mama intends to send to Uncle Henry. I hope to make greater proficuncy [sic] in my Studies I have learned all the rules of Musick but one." 4 Later she had periods of formal schooling--at the new Cambridge Port Private Grammar School, at Dr. John Park's Boston Lyceum for Young Ladies, at Miss Susan

philosophy in the two centuries leading up to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, and added encouragingly: "I think you had better read some of the Kritik. You will find it very intelligible." 44 When she complained that she lacked access to primary sources about Goethe's life, Clarke sympathized with her frustration: "I wish I could be the jackal for the lion, and procure for you all the other sources of information which you ought to have from abroad." 45 The flattery implicit in Clarke's metaphor suggests why Fuller was as dependent on him as he was on her. In a world that denied her entrance to


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 989-1019
Diy Gothic: Thomas Gray and the Medieval Revival
Barrett Kalter
---------------
conventional hierarchy of taste that placed some crafts above others, and the masterpieces of antiquity above them all. Jackson claimed that the ability to recognize quality was a surer sign of refinement than the ability to procure expensive objects. This point was common in the period, but it was invoked just as often to shore up social distinctions as it was to wear them down. A short article William Parrat contributed to a September 1753 issue of the _World_ indicates how the logic of "['t]is the Choice, and


recollecting



_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
_pre_posterous temporality differs also from "postmodern temporality," as defined in a book on "the crisis of representational time" by Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth, who regards "postmodern time [a]s coextensive with the event, not a medium for recollecting it in tranquillity."118 Yet although _pre_posterous readings are not postmodernist in Ermarth's sense, they are a postmodern phenomenon. By doing what historicists warn us against, we bring to our reading of texts written decades or centuries ago memories of their aftertexts. Our knowledge of the various futures


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
What business a Malay could possibly have to transact amongst English mountains, I cannot _conjecture_; but _possibly_ he was on his way to a seaport about forty miles distant. (_C_, 55) In this dilemma the girl, recollecting the reputed learning of her master (and, _doubtless_, giving me credit for all the languages of the earth, besides, perhaps a few of the lunar ones . . .) (_C_, 56)

as it turned out, that his attainments in English were exactly of the same extent as hers in the Malay, there seemed to be an impassable gulph fixed between all communication of ideas, if either party had happened to possess any. In this dilemma, the girl, recollecting the reputed learning of her master (and, doubtless, giving me credit for a knowledge of all the languages of the earth, besides, perhaps, a few of the lunar ones), came and gave me to understand that there was a sort of demon below, whom she clearly imagined that my art could exorcise from the house. I did not

raise his hand to his mouth, and (in the school-boy phrase) bolt the whole, divided into three pieces, at one mouthful. The quantity was enough to kill three dragoons and their horses: and I felt some alarm for the poor creature: but what could be done? I had given him the opium in compassion for his solitary life, on recollecting that if he had travelled on foot from London, it must be nearly three weeks since he could have exchanged a thought with any human being. I could not think of violating the laws of hospitality, by having him seized and drenched with an emetic, and thus frightening him


reasserting



ELH 67.2 (2000) 617-653
Fiction as Vivisection: G. H. Lewes and George Eliot
Richard Menke *
---------------
narrator's judgments and interpretations) and psycho-narration, the novel switches briefly into quoted monologue, presenting both Gwendolen's resolutions of rebellion and her pledge of silence between quotation marks, as if to ironize them by quietly reasserting narratorial distance. 71 For, if in the action of the novel Gwendolen will not revolt, in the telling of the tale her misery will be anything but self-contained and silent. Daniel Deronda celebrates the complexity of Gwendolen as an imaginary organism even as it tests her and records the highly-wrought


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
affords the possibility of assembling the scraps of domestic degeneracy--precisely that which marks the Irish as England's other--into a coherent representation of the Irish nation, a coherence grounded in patriarchal performance, the peasant familial leader reasserting his leadership so that the domestic space will no longer be constituted by "a woman only." Dan's return, however, marks a break from the expected narrative, initiating a type of performance on Nora's part that cannot be contained by Griffith's nationalist rhetoric. Dan arises with a non-heroic sneeze, and,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
(312). Cohen and Gilbert offer differing, but finally unsatisfactory accounts of this transitional phase. Cohen claims that the river "appears now like the 'I' itself, a metaphor cast over the very state of affairs that denies its identity," and Gilbert reads it as the poet "reasserting his former position of absolute mastery over the object-world."48 Coming as it does after the intense and direct address to the reader, the more immediate and obvious metonymic association would be with the reader. Opposed to the idea of poetic reversion that underlies both Cohen's and Gilbert's readings, "Flow

explicit, as in Cohen's argument, as a reassertion of the poet's active subject position. Gilbert writes, "In the last section of the poem Whitman crosses definitively into spoken utterance, abandoning the death-saturated written idioms of the middle sections and reasserting his former position of absolute mastery over the object-world" (358). 49. Iser's aesthetics of reading lends credence to such an interpretation. He claims that "throughout the reading process there


professes



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
2 - The other three books discussed here are all in one way or another biographical: Alfred I. Tauber professes to be "looking both at [Thoreau] the man and at his philosophy in order to achieve a composite" (9); Alan D. Hodder describes himself as writing a "spiritual biography" of Thoreau (xiv); and Harmon Smith traces the course of the Emerson/Thoreau friendship, with a primary emphasis on


ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460
Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue
W. David Shaw
---------------
There are insistent suggestions that in discharging the will of George's dead grandfather, Hawkyard has retained more of the inheritance for himself and his Evangelical brethren than he bestowed on the indigent heir. Imperceptibly, George assumes the parenthetical speech mannerisms that he professes to despise in the Evangelicals, a mark--he says--of their self-divided minds. 19 He is of two minds himself, uncertain whether his life repeats the hypocrisy of his Evangelical guardian or whether both he and Hawkyard are (despite their compromising names) models of benevolence. Interesting tricks of language can be found in the speaker's


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
_Shirley,_ which comes between them, and _The Professor_ (formerly "The Master," published posthumously in 1857), which Brontë in fact wrote first, in 1846. As William Crimsworth recounts his upbringing at the start of _The Professor,_ in an unanswered letter to an "old school acquaintance" to whom he professes no affection, his description of family life is littered with phrases such as "mutual disgust," "determined enmity," "persevering hostility," "gratuitous menace," and "symptom[s] of contumacity." 10 Because of the "irreparable breach" separating Crimsworth from his uncles, after


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
whole. Fielding signals his ironic distance to this representation of gentlemanly control in his chapter title, which promises to bring "the Reader's Neck into Danger by a Description." Such distrust is amplified by the comment that concludes Fielding's self-conscious description of his archetypal English manor. He professes not to know how to get the reader "down without breaking thy Neck" after he has "unadvisedly led thee to the Top of as high a Hill as Mr. Allworthy's." 33 Fielding is clearly having fun with the traditional image of the landed estate, but his playfulness is underwritten by more serious concerns. The first six books of his novel,


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
hornpipe with arduous scrupulosity," Theophrastus recalls, BLOCKQUOTE I take it as the strongest sign of Theophrastus's failure as a dancer that he did not know of it, that his arduous scrupulosity made him inattentive to his audience's amusement. Because dancing professes our body's movements as natural--as natural, say, as molting--it *[End Page 308]* exposes our solemn self-absorption with special cruelty. But suffering exposure appears the fate of each of us, pupils of whatever sort. As if to acknowledge the inescapability of such unanticipated exposures, and our inability to gauge


reasserts



_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
The story of Joanna begins not with a discussion of Joanna, but with the mention of Shell-Heap Island. It is one of those locales in regionalist fiction--like the river in _Huckleberry Finn_ (1885), or Grand Terre, the island beyond Grand Isle in _The Awakening_ (1899)--that reasserts the center/periphery structure and extends remoteness to another site. The narrator asks her interlocutors, Mrs. Todd and Mrs. Fosdick, about the place, and they begin by recounting the legends of its Indian history. "'T was 'counted a great place in old Indian times," Mrs. Fosdick says, "you can pick up their stone


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
Picquet's announcement renders null and void her interest in the yet-to-be-published narrative and undermines Mattison's legitimacy as the freedom facilitator he purports to be, placing his other interests in fuller relief. Picquet reasserts her narrative authority by both resolving the narrative crises of "libidinal and economic surplus"(the convergence of his story of miscegenation and hers of motherhood) and by placing the end of her story offstage, so to speak. She thus both sidesteps and comments upon Mattison's *[End Page 516]* self-placement as a middleman slave

it, "as physical appearance was readily represented and circulated in the age of mechanical reproduction, interior essence was posed as an elite, sacred realm only accessible to (and perhaps only possessed by) members of the privileged middle classes" (61). Mattison's language, then, doesn't grant Picquet agency as an "accomplished white lady," but reasserts his and his privileged readers' ultimate authority to describe and proscribe. Her "easy and graceful manners," "fair complexion," and "rosy cheeks" don't align her with even objectified white womanhood; in the signifying chain Mattison constructs, these descriptors situate her not as a lady but as a


ELH 66.4 (1999) 985-1014
The Way We Read and Write Now: The Rhetoric of Experience in Victorian Literature and Contemporary Criticism
Timothy Peltason
---------------
anarchist categories of the individual subject and individual experience" (PU, 286). Just a few pages earlier, however, he has described "an unavoidable experiential accompaniment of the dialectic" (PU, 284) in a long passage in which the familiar language of Victorian heroic individualism reasserts itself, in spite of Jameson's initial efforts to distance himself from it: BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
anterior readiness and asserting its immanence over even speech. Does The Wanderer imagine such an immaculate conception? Ironically, Burney's text swells up, gains bulk, precisely as it asserts and reasserts the self-evidence of the wanderer's aristocratic hexis. Burney's long novel might then signify as itself a remainder of [End Page 980] conservative history, its own excessive materiality--the extra copies from its failed second run were, indeed, discarded as waste--affirming a "readiness" that should always already have been


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 405-431
Floating Capital: The Trouble with Whiteness on Twain's Mississippi
Stephanie Le Menager
---------------
humanity. The black who is "white inside" reassures the colonizer that "they must be versions of 'us,' caught in a cycle of mimicry . . . and yet perennially unable to make the grade."34 Twain reasserts the internal whiteness of Jim in the late novella _Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy_,where Huck goes so far as to say that Jim is "the whitest man inside that ever walked" (_T_, 214). At the same time, the terms "white nigger" (_T_, 203) and "counterfeit nigger" (_T_, 211) are ascribed to the Duke, who has been passing himself

that he prefers to recognize himself in the pirate, who is implicitly synonymous with the slaver; piracy and slaving is the seat of our American pleasure. This glib, unsettling, Tom Sawyerish message reasserts itself in the last installment of the _Autobiography_ that Twain published before he died, which ends with a silly anecdote, the sort of shtick which Michael J. Kiskis notes as having found its way back into Twain's _Autobiography_ from his earlier work on the stage.54 Twain tells a


pervading



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
and domesticating black power in white fantasy by projecting vulgar black types as spectacular objects of white men's looking" (153). 10. Garrison wrote, "The retributive justice of God was never more strikingly manifested than in this all-pervading negrophobia, the dreadful consequence of chattel slavery" ("The 'Infidelity' of Abolition," _Selections_ 6). 11. Garrisonian abolition emerged during a period when, as Habermas has shown, the "public" became, throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
anterior fund of "pathos," "imagination," and "feeling" in which lie the details of her divestiture? Yet Burney rejects the interiorizing premise that would make the wanderer's performance this kind of revelation; instead, the wanderer's feelings "second, or rather meet the soul-pervading refinements of skilful art." If the first verb undoes the anteriority of feeling to art apparently solicited by this scene, the next more decisively mediates between them: feeling meets art to absorb [End Page 972] interiority in techn¯e, to transmit not "refinement" of feeling but refinement as feeling. It

this scene, the next more decisively mediates between them: feeling meets art to absorb [End Page 972] interiority in techn¯e, to transmit not "refinement" of feeling but refinement as feeling. It is, then, not some exposed cache of feeling, but refinement itself, that qualifies as "soul-pervading." Upon entering the music room, everybody in the Maples's party except Harleigh, her admirer, is stunned to find that the wanderer was playing:


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
("thoughtfully"; "subversive"), 113 ("irony"), 111 ("discard"). 10. James M. Cox, _Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor_ (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1966), 175. Cox affirms that Huck thoroughly inhabits the "conventions" pervading the novel, like the idea that one can be a "bad boy" and "a good boy." Yet in the end, Cox writes, "the style is the inversion which implies the conventions yet remains their opposite. And this style is Mark Twain's revolution in language, his rebellion in form" (169). Henry Nash Smith, _Mark Twain: The


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 875-901
Poe in Love: Pedophilia, Morbidity, and the Logic of Slavery
Peter Coviello
---------------
13. James, _Literary Criticism,_ 154. 14. Tupper writes: "Induction, and a microscopic power of analysis, seem to be the pervading characteristics of the mind of Edgar Poe." Quoted in _The Recognition of Edgar Allan Poe_, 19. 15. Dayan writes that in Poe's macabre tales, "one thing remains certain: the dead do not die. They will not stay buried. In Poe's


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
their new-born sight. Floating on their sides, the mothers also seemed quietly eyeing us. (_M_, 302-3) The rhetoric of calm, transparency, and immediacy pervading this passage seems to guarantee its verisimilitude: here, of all the descriptions of whales offered by the novel, it appears to promise the reader a clear view of the intimate natural life of the animal, devoid of literary or symbolic coloration. *[End Page 1053]*


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
leaf by leaf. If he did, no spectator could decide whether he had done so or not. Our most distinct idea of a tree is only general. We have little more than an outline. The greater and more superficial indentations of its foliage, its larger interstices of branch, its masses of shadow, and its most pervading hues, are enough for us. We are compelled to _lump_ and sloven over a million of beautiful particularities, exquisite minutenesses, which our apprehension is not microscopic enough to seize in the detail. In spite of ourselves we _make a daub of it_ even in imagination.


sympathizing



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
book could not serve as myth. Nonetheless, the fact should not keep us from recognizing that very often popular readings tend to perpetuate commonplace myths and miss how a novel or story also works on those myths. Take, for instance, the recent Demi Moore film of The Scarlet Letter. By completely sympathizing with the lovers against a harsh Puritan society it misreads the novel as much as many undergraduates do. If the book were indeed that simple-minded, it would not have had a very long reception history. Even so, by responding to this emotional aspect of the book, such misreadings do


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
Virginia legislature two days after Brown’s death Wise defended his decision to execute Brown. Wise asked, "Will execution of the legal sentence of a humane law make martyrs of such criminals? Do sectional and social masses hallow these crimes? Do whole communities sympathize with the outlaws, instead of sympathizing with the outraged society of a sister sovereignty? If so, then the sympathy is as felonious as the criminals, and is far more dangerous than was the invasion. The threat of martyrdom is a threat against our peace, and demands execution to defy such sympathy and such saints of martyrdom. . . . Sympathy was in insurrection, and had to be subdued more sternly than was John


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
aroused in him by scenes of distress. In the more socially insecure Victorian version of such sentimental situations, this structure is generally reversed--a worn and ragged exile observes a scene of domestic warmth and affection for which he or she longs in vain. The reader of such scenes might be said to take the place of the sympathizing character in the eighteenth-century sentimental text, thus permitting multiple identifications along [End Page 1027] the chain of observation. One could imaginatively (and emotionally) occupy any one or all of these positions--both insider and outsider, sympathizing spectator, desiring

such scenes might be said to take the place of the sympathizing character in the eighteenth-century sentimental text, thus permitting multiple identifications along [End Page 1027] the chain of observation. One could imaginatively (and emotionally) occupy any one or all of these positions--both insider and outsider, sympathizing spectator, desiring subject, and desired object. Such multiple identifications are made textually explicit in Enoch Arden by the repetition of the spectacle of dispossession. First Philip is portrayed as the hidden (and despairing) observer of Enoch and Annie's happiness, then Enoch looks on as Philip


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
according to Jane Tompkins, require "an extinction of her personality so complete that there is literally nothing of herself that she can call her own" (Tompkins, Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860 [Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985], 179). In sympathizing with Ellen, the reader is meant to learn the folly of self-reliance and the necessity of religious belief. Gerty's education is, of course, fundamentally Christian, but the model of sympathy she advances is not one of self-abnegation but rather self-possession. Domestic self-possession has been convincingly linked to the workings of


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
stable core, between the visible and the invisible, the particular and the transcendent. That is, Hawthorne's confusion about how to engage the sympathy he feels for the Negro ultimately reveals more about the ontological status of the object than it does about the sympathizing subject. The moment crystallizes how Hawthorne understands his divided sympathy as symptomatic of the Negro problem. This moment, in essence, aligns the Negro with the threat of the


authenticating



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
critique that authority or to express a dissenting countermemory. If the lack of civil virtue signified by their emulative desire threatens to deny black Americans access to public authority, their very exclusion opens a space of authenticating identification for the sympathetic abolitionist. In the course of the _Address,_ Garrison increasingly names himself among the persecuted. Discussing the widespread change in public opinion regarding slavery, Garrison tells his audience, "Scarcely any credit belongs to myself... . To you, much of the applause belongs. Had it not been for your

were central to the allure and the anxiety caused by antebellum reform in the US. Appeals to the sufferings of a "group" to which one did not belong--the poor, alcoholics, criminals, sex workers--increasingly supplied the intimate pain that entitled more privileged citizens to engage in public debate with an authorized moral authority. Taking one's authenticating intimacy from a group by definition alienated from one's social identity both generated and forestalled claims to authentic interiority. To be sure, these reformers brought about significant changes in American civil life, relieving suffering and remedying social policies through their moral activism. Despite their


ELH 66.3 (1999) 707-737
Historical Space in the "History of": Between Public and Private in Tom Jones
George A. Drake
---------------
setting--Jones at times seems more alone in London, where he spends hours waiting for Mrs. Fitzpatrick in an apparently unpopulated street, than he does in the country, where Fielding's scenic economy requires that someone is almost always behind the next bush, or around the next bend, or eavesdropping through a keyhole. But for Fielding the authenticating devices used by novelists like Defoe merely [End Page 720] mimic the practice of bad historians--they overwhelm with empirical evidence that obscures causality. By conducting the process of historical judgment openly, and selecting only the details he finds important, Fielding bases historical authority on his


ELH 66.4 (1999) 831-861
Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott, and the Gothic Drama
Michael Gamer
---------------
German aesthetic philosophy associated with Kant's Critique of Judgment (1781) and Schiller's Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man (1797), and in the essays of Edward Young, Edmund Burke, and David Hume. Ross locates the author's legitimacy in the authenticating practices of the British antiquarians, while Feather and Rose locate it in the legal battles over copyright that occurred between British booksellers throughout the eighteenth century. Amidst such a rich diversity of critical investigation, however, it


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
And the crux of that feeling would appear to involve the sensation of possessing, appropriating, acquiring, or owning knowledge. Meaning, in short, is yours to the extent that you've earned it. Moreover, "doing the work itself" isn't just a way of acquiring knowledge but a means of authenticating it. Some people just say they know what they know, but adherents to the labor theory of knowledge really do know that they know. They've verified it for themselves.


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
"engine" to which Catiline refers is not a gun but one of those thunderbolts manufactured for Jove by the Cyclops.59 The interesting point for my purposes, however, is not Dryden's misunderstanding of Jonson's image, but the new classification of anachronisms as faults to watch out for, not just when authenticating historical documents but also when criticizing imaginative writing. *[End Page 353]* Dryden's Objection Would Have Been Stronger, Jeremy Collier Observes in His _Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English


gravitating



ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
not in regularly descending bodies. The economist, on the other hand, resorts to the figure of "an invisible hand" to refer to the regular and natural course of the market. This inversion from "the invisible hand of Jupiter," disrupting the regular descent of heavy bodies, to an impersonal "invisible hand," which causes the "gravitating [of the nominal] . . . towards the natural price" (WN, 1:67; my emphasis), can be grasped as a naturalization of the supernatural. 7 The same process of reversal, however, simultaneously poses the threat of introducing the supernatural into the natural.

natural price" (WN, 1:67; my emphasis), can be grasped as a naturalization of the supernatural. 7 The same process of reversal, however, simultaneously poses the threat of introducing the supernatural into the natural. As the metaphor of "gravitating prices" suggests, the social science of political economy seeks to follow the model of the natural sciences in discovering hidden, regular laws behind nature's sensible appearances. This modelling function of the natural sciences seems to be confirmed by Joseph Glanvill's scientific treatise The Vanity of Dogmatizing (1661) which, a

though invisible beings" is also described in Smith's The History of Ancient Physics (Smith, The Early Writings, 117; my emphasis). 7. See also: "The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, to which the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating" (WN, 1:65). 8. Joseph Glanvill, The Vanity of Dogmatizing: or Confidence in Opinions. Manifested in a Discourse of the Shortness and Uncertainty of our Knowledge,


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
Where Wollstonecraft's polemical writings are firmly situated in the complexities of social acculturation within a compass of urbane (and urban) life, Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark occupies the borderlands, the author gravitating toward scenes of brute physical isolation, never lingering long in the company of others. 35 With their restless mapping out of geographic, cultural, and emotional terrain, the Scandinavian letters attempt to construct and articulate the unfettered female subjectivity that Wollstonecraft sees as the epistemic foundation of


edifying



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
the direct and costly experience of war did America gain a "real" past and, consequently, a "real" identity: the vision of the founders "became a reality, and we became a nation, only with the Civil War" (3-4). If, in Warren’s view, war violence gave body to founding abstractions, it in turn transformed the materiality of historical event into an edifying ideal. Although the Civil War offers ample evidence of "rancor, self-righteousness, spite, pride . . . and complacency," out of the "complex and confused motives of men and the blind ruck of event," the ideal of union emerged (108). Although this ideal remains unrealized, it [End Page 662] continues to orient and inspire the way


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
preoccupations and tropes that typify Victorian pathos: the happy home as idyllic tableau, the excluded figure who marks that home as an object of longing, the poignant temporal juxtapositions of what might have been with what is, the melancholy sense of contingency in the meting out of life's chances, the edifying deathbed scene which opens out on the possibility of the immortality of the soul. There are also, for the money, the death of Enoch's youngest child, the diminution of his trade as fisherman, the failure of his wife's little shop, the dashing of his hopes for mercantile success with the shipwreck of the cargo, and his


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
several false alternatives. They are stymied by personal and political history, bereft of credible social ideals, and still compelled--for the most part--to live among others in conditions they haven't fully chosen. Perhaps for this reason, the idea that sociability is "a bilious caprice" is strangely edifying after all. --------------------------------------------------------------------- _Northwestern University _


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
As in Lady Barker's Christchurch descriptions, the pseudo-European habitat of Erewhon proves to be a fertile breeding ground for the best of England, the best of Englishness, so much so that the narrator hits on the idea of bringing back several high Ydgrunites for edifying display to his countrymen, the implication now being that Erewhon is not, or not only, a satirical reflection of English follies, but rather a chastening demonstration of undernourished or forgotten potentials in the home culture. The disdain for English hypocrisies that seemed to be implied by the early responses to


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
feeling response of the reader for whom he writes. Sensibility, then, actually becomes the organizing principle of the collection, as the editor spreads the feeling around, diluting the potentially overwhelming moments of exquisite pleasure with a mix of amusing moments from _Tristram Shandy_ and edifying excerpts from Sterne's sermons. By the tenth edition (1787), an important change in this organizing principle occurs. In response to the "general complaint" that there was not a sufficiently varied blend of "the _utile_ and the _dulce_," this editor attempts to balance the "grave morality"


negated



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
gendered subject (in both senses of the word), Barnes poses a compelling critique of antebellum reform--"Why reform social and political structures when you can reform the woman herself?" (10)--similar to the one I am suggesting here. Although Barnes suggests that under such disciplinary reform "difference is to be negated rather than understood" (22), I argue that the goal of racial discipline is neither negation nor understanding, but internalization; and to Barnes's assertion that "to read sympathetically is to read like an American" (2), I would add that it is to read like a white American, since the end result of racial sympathy, I am contending, is not


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
Among the hazards of the Dionysian is a loss of interest in life. Hamlet is the great exemplar because the knowledge of excess that comes with the horrific image of his father's ghost renders all the world absurd: "now no comfort avails any more; longing transcends a world after death, even the gods; existence is negated along with its glittering reflection in the gods or in an immortal beyond" (B, 60). A Dionysian art intervenes to exhaust these feelings of nausea and absurdity, producing plays within plays, poems within poems. But a danger persists that the loss constitutive of such art will


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
it ("in order to become certain of [himself] . . . as a true being"). 42 To do as much is impossible, since the master's mastery depends upon the body, labor, and consciousness of the bound man. And, as Jessica Benjamin has it: "if we fatally negate the other, that is if we assume complete control over his identity and will, then we have negated ourselves as well." 43 It follows that, should the master negate the slave, allowing him no independent consciousness, he will find himself enmeshed with a dead thing (a non-conscious being). And he, having deprived himself of the very goods and recognitions that represent his lordship, will discover himself close to


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
of caste as an organizing principle. The idealism that Lowell defined was scholars' methodological attempt to preserve the category of caste, with its implied hierarchization, yet negate its consequences. _Huckleberry Finn_ doubts that the consequences can be negated and thus that literary discipline can liberalize. Characters in this novel instinctively need to assert the difference in status between themselves and others, so as to confirm their sense of themselves. Twain foresaw no end to this psychology; characters and persons are


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 171-195
The Clerks' Tale: Liberalism, Accountability, and Mimesis in _David Copperfield_
Matthew Titolo
---------------
authentic, working-class hero. In truth, Uriah's crime is not that he is a hypocrite, but rather that he is too honest about a status system which masks its hypocrisy in the discourse of natural rank, gradual rise, and small successes. His unredeemable pain reminds the smug reader that modernity, far from having negated the irrational roots of illegitimate power, is in fact built on the ruins of a more atavistic social logic. But a literary criticism that exposes this discursive double-dealing from its own cynical vantage point raises more questions than it answers. For by


birthing



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 212-241
The Religion of Art in the City at War: Boston's Public Poetry and the Great Organ, 1863
Mary Loeffelholz
---------------
QUOTE and QUOTE have not equipped her to provide (283). 21 If ideals of civic space, as distinct from national print space, fundamentally assume citizens being present and accountable to one another in their speaking, embodied differences, we might think of Howe's poem as a hopeful allegory about the making, even birthing, of an expanded liberal civic space in miniature, a making that (like the Civil War) entails destruction: the decorative gods of her salon smashed, the speaker faces the unfamiliar body and speech of her laboring QUOTE


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
generally, and the interventionist narrator, specifically, is part of a larger rhetorical framework that located the source of literary creativity in the sympathetic understanding of the maternal authoress, whose gender was the guarantee of a certain kind of insight and text-birthing capacity. 4 Eliot's masculine incognito--her own repository of secrecy--posed a serious problem for this guarantee of feminine sympathy and maternal insight and, as I will argue, became a projection for several narratological problems with which she grappled throughout her career.

As several recent studies have documented, the eighteenth century saw a radical shift in the techniques, practices, and culture of childbirth. 37 Through the end of the seventeenth century, childbirth in England had remained a nearly exclusively female domain: the laboring mother would be brought to a darkened birthing chamber, where she would be attended by a midwife and a circle of her women friends ("gossips"), who would help her through the birth and care for her during the lying-in period afterwards. There were no men allowed in the chamber--either during the birth itself or throughout

but disappeared among the English upper classes and the lower urban classes, replaced by the male _accoucheur_ or obstetrician. This extremely rapid change in practices of childbirth was nothing short of a revolution, since for centuries the mere presence of a man in the birthing room had been a harbinger of death which laboring mothers (and their friends and attendants) had feared and avoided above all else. As Hugh Chamberlen, one of the seventeenth century's most famous publishing "man-midwives," himself put it: "Where a man comes one or both [the mother or the child] must necessarily die." 40

most famous publishing "man-midwives," himself put it: "Where a man comes one or both [the mother or the child] must necessarily die." 40 The crucial question for medical historians of the period is thus: how did such a radical change take place so quickly? How did the male practitioners gain access to the birthing chamber, and to the trust (and custom) of deeply suspicious--even fearful--women who had previously avoided them at all costs? There are of course many overlapping causes of this revolution in

midwives concerned for their livelihoods as well as commentators concerned with the "social role" of the man-midwife, centered around two major issues: the violation of female modesty by male obstetricians, and the continued public distrust of interventionist instruments in the birthing chamber. 43 This second question is the most important for my purposes, for it demonstrates the strength of the association between masculine medical practice and the invasion of women's bodies.


consigns



ELH 66.2 (1999) 461-487
Railway Novels: Sensation Fiction and the Modernization of the Senses
Nicholas Daly*
---------------
For Wilde, the railway/sensation phase of modernity is over. With Gwendolen's terse anatomy of the technique of sensation fiction--"This suspense is terrible. I hope it will last" (I, 343)--the play consigns the sensation novel to the past, and with it the problem that it responded to, the accommodation of the self and mechanized modernity. Wilde, following Pater, sees no need for any such reconciliation, and accordingly the sensation novel has become a piece of old rolling stock, interesting to take apart, but


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
assemblage of objects and so on, is that Wilde does not attempt to imbue them with an overarching sameness; he does not attempt to equate them in any way, but instead enjoys their multiplicity and variety and unlocks them from the homogeneity to which their existence as mere objects of exchange consigns them. Another very important point, and something that is very Wildean and perhaps one of his more utopian moments, is that need becomes indistinguishable from taste ("You've just got to have that Queen Anne


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
type. By examining these multiple intersections, I will demonstrate that, on one level, the play performs a rejection of the suffocating nationalist constructions that consign the woman to a domestic space that is both devoid of access to power and predicated upon her commodification, while on a second level it immediately consigns her to a separate, equally disempowered identity. While Nora performs a transgression against her gendered role within Irish nationalism, she is immediately recuperated as Synge's exotic other, a tragic figure who is denied further political agency. She becomes what Rey


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
kindly attending to Willie's senile grandfather, or Willie taking care of the financial needs of his mother, or True offering Gerty a home. Becoming her guardian's guardian signifies both Gerty's moral fiber and her equal status within the family. It is not the case, moreover, that not having an "other name" consigns oneself to a less powerful position in the world of The Lamplighter; rather, being in the perennial place of "almost" this and not quite that produces Gerty's most admirable quality--her ability to act upon a sympathy that excludes no one because "[the world] has been a good foster-mother to its orphan child, and now


engendering



American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
feelings of fear, anxiety, and identification in many readers. Thus, when news of victories at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma finally reached the US, nationalist celebrations erupted throughout the country. According to Lippard, as QUOTE (12). As Lippard represents it, war reports convulse and purify American hearts, engendering a unified, univocal, national body. Benedict Anderson suggests that representations of national simultaneity indicate a radically changed form of consciousness

legacy of eighteenth-century republicanism, for instance, continued to powerfully shape ideas about empire in the 1840s. According to republican beliefs, the pursuit of empire always threatened a republic with corruption and decline through overextension and by engendering luxury, bringing in foreign populations, and encouraging the establishment of professional armies (Pocock 510). This republican QUOTE as Angela Miller calls it (33), is staged in Thomas Cole's famous series of paintings entitled The Course of Empire (1833-36). Cole depicts what he and many of his contemporaries


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
affiliations, and we risk overlooking the specific cultural and ideological work their writers performed if we recruit them solely as precursors of a future epoch's internationalism. Nearly 20 years ago, the Anglo-Guyanese writer Wilson Harris conceived of taking such a longer historical view as a means of engendering what he termed QUOTE a critical orientation that opposes QUOTE for inter-American as well as worldwide literary relations. When QUOTE Harris argued, such homogeneity QUOTE In a brilliant exploration of the US novel within its hemispheric arena, he traced this oppositional QUOTE exploring what he viewed as QUOTE (xviii).


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
In severing the moral from the psychological, Tauber makes Thoreau available for exemplary "use," but at the price of blurring the boundaries between the public "Thoreau," the private Thoreau, and what I would call the engendering Thoreau, the man enacting *[End Page 584]* and resolving his life conflicts _through_ the work. There seems tome an extraordinary naiveté (or is it the philosopher's penchant for the propositional above the experiential?) to Tauber's idea of the autonomy of the "moral," as


ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
to contain her "very hideous . . . idea" (1831; F, 360) in narrative frame after frame, the Creature himself will not be restrained by his textual "skin," but instead breaks forth as one of the most enduring figures of the Romantic period. He takes on a life of his own, proliferating wildly and engendering an ever-increasing number of dramatic and cinematic adaptations, "hideous progeny" of the original "hideous progeny" (1831; F, 365). 52 As he slips out of her text, he slips out of her control, and


ELH 68.4 (2001) 831-856

Avoiding the "Cooler Tribunal of the Study": Richard Brinsley Sheridan's Writer's Block and Late Eighteenth-Century Print Culture Frank Donoghue
---------------
Sheridan's position at this point in his career is directed by two frustrations about publication: first, circulating a printed text of The Rivals prevents him from "knowing" his audience in some personal, unmediated way, engendering in him the fear that his work will be judged coldly and dispassionately by people who do not know him. Second, publication prevents his play from remaining an ongoing process, because it forces him to produce a single, definitive text, one that finalizes a host of decisions that, though predicated on an


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
collapsing of racial and national boundaries through the telegraph did not simply create a disembodied, abstract democratic citizenry of near angels, as Hitchcock envisions, but simultaneously created the possibility of a cross-racial bodily union. Linking humanity in "one thought and one feeling," engendering a "consciousness of the oneness of mankind," conjured up the possibility of linking the bodies containing those thoughts and feelings, an image of sexual union perhaps hinted at in Douglass's idea of "intercourse of nations," of "nationalities. . . being swallowed up." Finally, then,


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
some _sui generis_ phenomenon but as a principle of variation and differentiation,analogous to idiom in language, inflecting the materials treated in literature and prior forms of expression.Moulton wrote that the imagination is neither mimetic of objects nor self-engendering. It "select[s among] conditions of life"; "the creative faculty is . . . a sort of lens, focusing human phenomena for better observation." 43 The imagination focuses phenomena by modifying "elements of nature," wrote Charles Mills Gayley, long-time department chair at the University of California, Berkeley. The artist thereby


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
their cause. The figure of the passive or victimized woman was used not only to signify power relations but also to *[End Page 177]* stabilize them. Her appearance functioned to make the political relations transparent and thus reinforced the binary logic of political debate. In this process of engendering violence, however, the opposition of men's and women's social positions became further reified. The disjunction between women's political and discursive representation thus functions as a means of controlling women (one has only to think of what happened to the activist French


situating



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
It follows, then, that literary critics have also embraced the discursive analyses of conspiracy theory recounted above. And in their writings the framing of conspiratorial rhetoric as the "extreme distrust of representation" (Gustafson 23) does double *[End Page 6]* duty, situating past conflicts in the realm of discourse while pathologizing attempts to seek history "beneath" language. The most sustained study of early conspiratorial rhetoric, Robert Levine's _Conspiracy and Romance: Studies in Brockden Brown, Cooper, Hawthorne, and Melville_ (1989), focuses on "the discursive

often disappointing: arguments about the intrinsic human lust for power receive as much attention as class questions, and inordinate attention is given to the machinations of elites. But a rudimentary institutional analysis is indisputably present, drawing upon, developing, and situating the more individualist arguments. Furthermore, the more effective analyses of conspiracy _envisioned meaningful practical engagements with systems typically reified by social sciences._ Fredric Jameson has argued that conspiracy


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
Philip Gould's important essay "Catharine Sedgwick's 'Recital' of the Pequot War" (1994), which, like my own reading, is centrally concerned with the novel's historiographical discourse. Like a number of other critics, Gould focuses on Sedgwick's revisionary writing of the history of the Pequot War. By "situating the novel in the context of contemporary histories written during the early republic," Gould attempts "to locate the immediate political and cultural stakes in writing revisionary history" (642). Historicizing the novel in this way, Gould finds that Sedgwick's alternative history of the Pequot War functions as a "subversion of the masculine ideologies promoted by


ELH 66.1 (1999) 87-110
"Monumental Inscriptions": Language, Rights, the Nation in Coleridge and Horne Tooke
Andrew R. Cooper
---------------
language proposed by Harris and Lord Monboddo. It soon displaced their works, and held ascendancy until well into the third decade of the nineteenth century. And yet, in many ways, it is this aspect of Diversions--what might be called its textual after-life--which is most indicative of the problems involved in situating Horne Tooke's theories in a history of the study of language. Hans Aarsleff reminds us that for many years Diversions was simply dismissed as an oddity that could not be accounted for. 13 In attempting to redress this, Aarsleff almost singlehandedly established the now-accepted view that not only did Diversions act as a buttress against the import of


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
Jacobin novel in times of counter revolution and political repression, and in many ways his novel rather poignantly rehearsed those debates he had conducted with Coleridge, Godwin, and others during the years of his political activity, particularly with regard to his perplexed and pained response to violence and its role in political change. 70 In situating part of his novel at the time of the 1791 slave revolt in French St. Domingue, which led to the emergence of the black republic of Haiti, Thelwall is trying to use this fictionalization as a means of continuing political agitation after Pitt's Two Acts of 1795 and several years of political persecution. 71


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 151-169
Walking on Flowers: the Kantian Aesthetics Of _Hard Times_
Christina Lupton
---------------
that primary Hegelian category of the self-conscious subject, on their heads, making it clear that these abstractions follow from the conditions of the concrete social and economic reality shaping the subject. When Marx proposes a return of the objectified world to the alienated subject, it is by situating both the categories of subjective and objective within a historicized, economic process. In these terms it is quite explicitly wrong to imagine that either Sissy or Stephen could transcend the conditions of the reality in which they live simply by seeing these conditions differently: *[End


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
into the semiotic structure of imagetext, the image identified as feminine, the speaking/seeing subject of the text identified as masculine" (180-81). 16. Recent scholarship situating Shelley's poetry within the cultural and political milieu of early-nineteenth-century England and radical politics has been less concerned with the issue of gender, whereas scholarship focused on the question of gender in Shelley's work has often shied away from the more political poems,


multiplying



_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
before serialization would begin on his fever novel _Arthur Mervyn, orMemoirs of the Year 1793_ (1799-1800), 1 Brown reassures his brother that New York's epidemic season has passed, then expounds on the topic of sensory perception in a way that anticipates the novel's preoccupations: "I can not but admire the exaggerations of rumor, and the multiplying and enlarging efficacy ofdistance," he writes. "Physical objects... vanish altogether as we go farther from them. Not so the yellow fever and the like imaginary spectacles which... grow... in proportion to their actual distance from us" (qtd. in Clark 156). Fear of thefever, like fear of the dark, derives from the


_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
description of the ranches and their environs gives way to a feeling of infinitude that seems to be the antithesis of a local sense of place: "Beyond the fine line of the horizon, over the curve of the globe, the shoulder of the earth, were other ranches, equally vast, and beyond these, still others, the immensities multiplying, lengthening out vaster and vaster" (39). Presley views the ranchos of Quien Sabe, Los Muertos, Broderson, and Osterman not as particular places characterized by local idiosyncrasies, but as metonymic representations of the entire San Joaquin valley, the

particular places characterized by local idiosyncrasies, but as metonymic representations of the entire San Joaquin valley, the "colossal...feeder of an entire world" (39). Metonymy threatens to blur the specificity of this or any other region as the "expanded" imagination pictures an infinite grid of ranches multiplying beyond "the curve of the globe, the shoulder of the earth" (39). _The Octopus_'s most dramatic revision of local color, however, occurs when Norris juxtaposes agricultural scenarios with the


ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
which Freud discourses at length in chapter 4 of "Beyond the Pleasure Principle." In this fashion Anacreontics both seek and fear an end: where no line can be drawn between intoxication and drunkenness, enough is too much, and the strategy of the poems is to be able to say little at length--and generally through multiplying poems rather than through extending individual songs. "Eh! [End Page 385] quel nombre, dis-moi, peut suffire à l'amour" [Oh! tell me, what number may suffice for love], exclaims Claude-Joseph Dorat in "Les Baisers comptés," both hoping and fearing a last one:


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
power. In these poems, in contrast to Cruikshank's cartoon, Shelley takes on the binary opposition of male aggressor/female victim to question its adequacy as a metaphor and to undermine the gendered ground of political conflict and aesthetic desire. In _Mask_, Shelley does this by multiplying the female figure and creating contradictory images that underscore the difficulty of representing oppression. While these multiplications and contradictions show his own ambivalent position, they also unmask the violence of male authority and fracture it. Shelley similarly disrupts patriarchal


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
"fastened afterwards upon my dreams, and brought other Malays with him worse than himself, that ran 'a-muck' at me, and led me into a world of troubles" (_C_, 58). It seems the I does not emerge from the meeting reborn so much as damaged irreparably, altered beyond recognition, condemned to repeated visits from multiplying Malays. Far from acts of transcendence, the I's repeated conjectures suggest a sclerosis has set in. The other greets him as a sort of idol ("He worshipped me in a most devout manner") and the creative speech act by which he seeks transcendence cannot be distinguished from


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
property. From his office in the Old Bailey, he dominated the sector of felony known as redemption or payback: namely, the return of stolen goods to their rightful owners. He justified his business as a public benefaction and himself as an honest broker, although it was plain to everybody that he was multiplying the wages of crime by exploiting both the thieves who stole the goods and the diffidence of *[End Page 949]* the public, which seemed always eager to buy back what was already theirs. He reached this public by means of advertisements in the _Daily Courant_, the _Post-Boy_, the


unfeeling



ELH 66.3 (1999) 739-758
The Invisible Hand: Supernatural Agency in Political Economy and the Gothic Novel
Stefan Andriopoulos*
---------------
to Smith of 1759, written shortly after the publication of The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Hume informs Smith that among the persons to whom he had sent copies of Smith's book to "spread its reputation" was a certain Horace Walpole. 42 Thus it appears possible that Walpole consciously cited Smith's passage on the "proud and unfeeling landlord" when he wrote The Castle of Otranto. However, in a letter to Rev. William Cole from March 1765, Walpole himself gives a very different account of the "origin" of his novel: BLOCKQUOTE


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
250). Significantly Coleridge, when developing this point, reverts to the pronoun "we" to include his audience in the joint endeavor: "Where we might proselyte 50 to the disuse of Sugar we could not perhaps make 5 converts to the disuse of all the West India Commodities" (L, 250). His comments on the trade serve as a platform for attacking the unfeeling aristocracy and the supposedly hypocritical personal policy of William Pitt, who refused to make abolition a government measure despite his professed support for it. Coleridge's emphasis here is on the consumers of the trade's products rather than the producers. He demonstrates that the desires satisfied by the trade


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
49. Already on the next page, passion collocates with "fierceness" and refers to Tyrrel's "violent invectives" of envy (27); see also 65, where Miss Melville's harmless "passion" for Mr. Falkland (already mentioned on 45) is contrasted with Tyrrel's "jealousy" and "unfeeling tyranny" which Falkland compares to "the passions of fiends" (65). Nearly all other references to passion in the novel concern either Caleb or Falkland and are unsavoury in quality since they refer to Falkland's anger (118) and Caleb's curiosity (for example, "high tide of boiling passion" [118, 126, 133]; and see 212,


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
is it merely transcendentally spiritualized into an ethereal essence beyond the human, as we find, for example, in Coleridge's "Eolian Harp." Rather, Percy Shelley envisions a powerful sympathy so primal that even in solitude, or (what is perhaps worse) amidst crowds made up of the unfeeling masses, BLOCKQUOTE And it is with this observation that Romanticism and Sensibility converge in Percy Shelley's essay. Its debt to the latter is evident in *[End Page 816]* the idea that even in solitude we are naturally


centralizing



ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
therefore, that in Latter-Day Pamphlets (1850) Carlyle describes "bureaucracy" as a "continental nuisance," assuring his readers that there is "no risk or possibility" of its development in England. 11 John Stuart Mill, who promoted the 1834 New Poor Law's (carefully [End Page 145] modified) variation upon centralizing reform, was, understandably, less sanguine. In his mid-century autobiography, Mill credits Tocqueville for alerting him to the dangers of "centralization." 12 Throughout his works, Mill urged Britons to eschew what he described in 1837 as that "vast net-work of administrative tyranny . . . that system of bureaucracy, which leaves no free agent in all

In these texts the (ambiguous) notion that character both determines and is determined by a nation's institutions is implicit. This formulation becomes explicit in polemics that self-consciously critique the manifest un-Englishness of centralizing legislative reforms (most notably the New Poor Law and the Public Health Act of 1848). For Herbert Spencer, whose ardently individualist and evolutionary theories of character remained influential throughout the nineteenth century, society is founded upon a "beautiful self-adjusting principle" that naturally rectifies evils and "keep[s] all . .

seventeenth century through the end of the Victorian period and beyond" ("Writing Nationalist History: England, The Conversion of the Jews, and Ivanhoe," ELH 60 [1993]: 196). For an example of the deployment of the "Yoke" reading of history in arguments for the un-Englishness and un-Constitutionality of centralizing reforms see Joshua Toulmin Smith's Local Self-Government and Centralization (London: Longman, 1851). 9. The perceived singularity of British imperialism is neatly epitomized by the opening line of Keith's 1937 history of colonial India: "It was the aim


ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
the currency of numerous small banks, many of which simply shut their doors for good, leaving their worthless notes in the hands of customers. According to Peel and his followers, the instability of all share and commodity prices could be corrected by gradually centralizing note-issues at a single state bank, the Bank of England, and by limiting the Bank's issues strictly in proportion to its gold reserves and securities. This would stabilize the value of paper currency, insuring public confidence in the guaranteed convertibility of bank notes to gold. The Bank of England was


enervating



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan
---------------
bookseller and in the parlors of literate Catholics. Because of the difficulties in persuading the young to read serious theological tracts and the systematic catechism of which Brownson was so enamored, the impressionable American reading public became open to the debasements and idolatry of enervating sentimentality: *[End Page 462]* "The staple literature of our times, the staple reading of our youth of both sexes, is sentimental novels and love-tales, and the effect is manifest in the diseased state of the public mind, and in the growing effeminacy of character and depravation of morals" ("Religious" 145). The effect of this


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
distinction is possible between social perceptions and actual circumstances. For Burke and the emergent culture, the supposed feminization of society is both a threat to masculine self-perception and a rhetorical strategy for denigrating the entrenched order. Burke's sublime as a sociopolitical counterformation to the enervating threat of a matriarchy takes its place with similar defenses of the male social order of whatever political stripe such as, for example, Pope's Dunciad, that other great attack on the mother imago; [End Page 425] and sometimes in identical terms. Burke's similitude between


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
III. Habit ---------- Such medicine could be habit forming, as indeed it was for Coleridge. He complains throughout his letters of the enervating effects of taking opium, as in the following confession, directed to his friend J. J. Morgan in 1814: "By the long Habit of the accursed Poison my Volition (by which I mean the faculty instrumental to the Will, and by which alone the Will can realize itself--it's [sic]


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
extranarrative pause that frames the interventionist commentary of the narrator in chapter 17. We can sketch a taxonomy of pauses in the novel by returning to look more closely at our interrupted hero standing rapt before a beech tree. (Elsewhere in the novel the narrator tells us that "there was something enervating in the very sight of" beech trees [138]--they induce pauses!) The reason this pause is so significant is that it occurs immediately before Adam sees Hetty and Arthur embracing in the Grove; this moment, this pause, is to form the boundary between a blissfully ignorant hero and


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
So the mystery is double. Not only are we waiting to see whether Lady Delacour's wit will be housebroken by Belinda's influence, but, in the opening chapters, we are only given hints about the effects of this wit. While appearing to prolong Lady Delacour's standing within society, wit is also enervating: "she seemed like a spoiled actress off the stage . . . overstimulated by applause, and exhausted by the exertions of supporting a fictitious character" _(_7). And even in its description of the supposedly private, trueLady Delacour, the novel hedges, indicating that she "seemed"


preexisting



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
American Protestant point of view, interpellate subjects through emotion. The confusion of word and image seems paradoxically related to the French Republic's excessive textual iconoclasm, to the need to replace the organizing meanings of all preexisting imagery with new meanings, as well as to secularize religious iconography. These inscriptions threaten to sever republicanism from any transcendent realm of meaning. As she observes, Paris is a city of "unsound principles... and not even Catholic religion. It was a city without homes--without a Sabbath, and yet aiming to be republican" (1:


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
---------------
distinguished between marriages that were "void" and "voidable." Both terms referred to marriages entered into under one or more of four legal impediments, but whereas voidable marriages could find remedy within the nuptial state, void marriages could not. The first two impediments, a preexisting marriage and consanguinity, constituted a class that immediately invalidated a marriage from its point of origin. The second class of impediments--insanity and fraud--entered into the legal gray area of "voidable." These latter two impediments enjoyed a long tradition of common law intervention that, by providing for a greater legal maneuvering, afforded


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
Cannadine, status acquisition was a particularly fraught enterprise in nineteenth-century Britain because of the "exceptional social complexity" of a society in which "changes in social identity brought about by the Industrial Revolution were imposed onto an elaborate and preexisting hierarchy of ranks and orders." 7 Despite what Walter Bagehot approvingly called England's "system of removable inequalities," the Table of Precedence still held sway. 8 Tocqueville ascribed what he termed "the unspoken warfare between all English citizens" to the continued existence of ranks in a society for which "social worth is not


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
one's attachment to those conventions in the first place. On account of its explicit or implied emphasis on self-reflection, however, the experimental lyric invites charges of solipsism precisely where it seeks to get beyond it. Thus, the problem that such texts bring to the fore is the difficulty of invoking a "common sense," or normative basis of assent, as the preexisting foundation for aesthetic, ethical, or political relations. While much recent historicist work has gone no farther than to identify inwardness with political escapism _tout court_, or else more charitably

will be able to make meaning of the incident. Romantic experiments such as these demand that the reader turn inward and thus reproduce the condition of inwardness that is so often their implied subject. Implicitly or explicitly, they refuse the self-evidence of the _sensus communis_, complicating the notion that one may invoke a preexisting community of taste, sympathy, or doctrine as the ground for aesthetic, ethical, or political relations. In so insisting on the priority of inwardness, however, such experiments expose the limitations of the very category of individuality that supposedly underwrites them. Thus, one apprehends the conditions of possibility for a common sense,


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
_Sentimental Excursions to Windsor and Other Places_ and a self-confessed imitator of Sterne who was brazen (or foolish) enough to attempt to adapt _Tristram Shandy_ for the stage, Sterne's writing has a mixed effect "like a _conjunction of love and wine_," sweetening the already preexisting "portion of acidity, Nature, Misfortune, and Disappointment have mixed in my composition." A bastard hybrid is born from this instruction in Sternean sentiment: the "pleasing blossoms" of "good fruit" that have been "produced by ingrafting upon a _crab_." Less monstrously, the anonymous piece,


positing



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
consolidation of _e pluribus unum_, Indian reform novels such as _Ramona_ highlight the critical need to join two areas of literary investigation—domesticity and imperialism—which have typically been theorized separately.2 *[End Page 437]* Far from positing an unbridgeable chasm among the domestic, national, and foreign spheres, these novels articulate their synergy in US imperial endeavors. The discourse of separate spheres, as has often been pointed out, obscures the complex and conflicted ways middle- and upper-class white women experienced the patriarchal operation of


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
climate. Clarkson adopts Samuel Stanhope Smith's hypothesis that color might "be justly considered as an universal freckle." 35 In adopting Smith's hypothesis of the "universal freckle" (E, 134-38, 144-45), Clarkson is attempting to efface the sign of difference between white and black, unsettling such binary oppositions by positing a dark olive as the primary color, so removing the grounds for the workings of any manichean allegory based on such an opposition. Although he does not explicitly state them, Clarkson must have realized the implications of his discussion in decentring Western assumptions of white as privileged and primary.


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
Reginald Horsman, _Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of Racial Anglo-Saxonism_ (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1981), 139-57, on the diffusion of racial science at mid-century. Whether in explicitly biological and scientific terms or not, the kind of racial thinking underlying the American school (the positing of essential, eternal, biological racial difference) was diffused throughout American culture and society, in mass cultural artifacts such as "O Susanna," technological tracts like Moore's, and considerations of the self like _Walden_.


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
Falkland's illegitimate power, as I argued above, but does so in a narrative which, like the contents of the trunk, is known only to himself (and to the reader), as if his tale is outside social discourse in exactly the same way as Falkland's secret remained untold in Collins's tale. The parallel between the contents of the trunk and Caleb's narrative suggests that positing a prior truth inevitably makes it wholly alien to the social order, even if it also renders the entire social order into a symptom of this absent intention, a discourse permeated with its possible inadvertent revelation. Falkland's paranoia in Caleb's presence *[End Page 862]* exactly matches Caleb's


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
55. Jehlen, in one the most compelling accounts of the Romance, argues that _The Marble Faun_ "pushes the dilemma of American individualism to . . . a final paralyzing extremity" and culminates the dominate American aesthetic and ideological tradition of positing an "inextricable connection between creation and destruction"; in the Romance, "[i]t does not seem possible to be a good artist and also good" (159, 160, 153). According to Jehlen, the version of "liberal individualism" that develops in the United States is a "remarkable creed" which names all "authentic" creation


problematizing



_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 1-35
"A Mania for Composition": Poe's Annus Mirabilis and the Violence of Nation-building
J. Gerald Kennedy
---------------
origins"—to focus on "frontiers" as points of intercultural contact, rejecting the notion of an "overarching" *[End Page 1]* exceptionalist story ("Letting Go" 13). Subsequent transnational studies by Paul Gilroy, Paul Giles, and Kirsten Silva Gruesz have indeed redefined "American" literary studies by problematizing itsboundaries. But we neglect national myths and foundational narratives at the risk of exempting nationalism itself from certain forms of interrogation. As John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith insisted a decade ago: "It is difficult to foresee any transcendence


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
writers wrote against the slave trade; their work inevitably engages in representing African peoples and cultures, often in terms of those peoples' perceived alterity. In this essay I shall explore several representations of African slaves in a variety of writings of the period with a view to problematizing some of the insights of recent post-colonial theory, although I shall also argue that this body of theory is not simply of negative relevance to the Romantic period but is of use in providing languages and methodologies which aid in explicating its writings. The main focus of this essay is on three authors perceived to be influential in their discussions of

his audience of the horrors of the slave trade in a way that no other writer had done so far. He also attempts to demolish the main arguments concerning black inferiority. Clarkson's more-than-apologia for African industry and culture makes him into a writer who pushes Eurocentric views of Africans to their limits, problematizing the reader's assumptions about European superiority. Clarkson argues that the Africans in their own country "exercise the same arts, as the ancestors of those very Europeans, who boast their great


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
internal limit" ("The Limits of Sympathy: Louisa May Alcott and the Sentimental Novel," American Literary History 8 [1996]: 688). Both Goshgarian and Hendler argue that the possibility of incest ultimately functions to arrest the chosen affections of the heroine, limiting her choices, problematizing her sympathy, and, as Hendler argues, producing "a kind of agency predicated on selflessness" (690). The limitations installed by incest, though significant, don't convincingly account for Gerty's agency in the novel, which if anything is predicated on an increasing capacity for self-possession rather than selflessness. The


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
see, for example, Hunter, 184-85; and Brown, "_Tom Jones_: The Bastard of History," 209-11. 58. The more extended perspective on literary uses of the bastard offered in this essay should go some way towards problematizing John Allen Stevenson's linkage between Tom and the pretender Bonnie Prince Charlie, which he constructs, among other things, by capitalizing on the seeming disjunction between the bastard motif and the Whig succession ("_Tom Jones_ and the Stuarts," _ELH_ 61 [1994]: esp. 579-84).


Linking



ELH 66.2 (1999) 461-487
Railway Novels: Sensation Fiction and the Modernization of the Senses
Nicholas Daly*
---------------
Capitalism (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1991), 14, and 11-16. He suggests that The Scream is "a virtually programmatic emblem of what used to be called the age of anxiety" (11). 16. Linking Walter Benjamin's notion of shock and Heidegger's term Stoss, Gianni Vattimo argues that shock describes the "essential oscillation and disorientation constitutive of the experience of art" in the twentieth century, thus constituting a radical break with older, more "harmonious," modes of experience of art. See The


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
"to seek security in meaning," emerges as an exemplary figure for Poirier precisely because the rhetorical "densities" of his prose generate "a productive multiplication, a thickening of possibilities" which thwart "morally stabilizing moments or summary." 16 Linking the indeterminacy of meaning with a sense of possibility, Poirier links readerly freedom with the ultimate irrelevance of authorship, whose very conception Emerson "brings into question." The connection (or rather disconnection) is important, for it's not just the case that the sheer "effort of


_ELH_ 69.3 (2002) 805-833
The Telegraph in Black and White
Paul Gilmore
---------------
bodily, in fact sexual, nature of telegraphic commerce, the collapsing of racial and national boundaries through the telegraph did not simply create a disembodied, abstract democratic citizenry of near angels, as Hitchcock envisions, but simultaneously created the possibility of a cross-racial bodily union. Linking humanity in "one thought and one feeling," engendering a "consciousness of the oneness of mankind," conjured up the possibility of linking the bodies containing those thoughts and feelings, an image of sexual union perhaps hinted at in Douglass's idea of "intercourse of


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
necessarily perform this function--they instance the ideological relation to the real conditions of human existence which Althusser has claimed is a permanent feature of human society" (_Imaginary Relations_, 264). Linking allegory and narrative, language and history, deconstruction and materialism suggests finally, following Sprinker's (materialist-influenced) discussion of de Man, the "materiality of signs, their random and irresistible disruption of the phenomenal and semiotic systems of controlled meaning" (247). See also de Man's "Hypogram and Inscription: Michael


Masks



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 814-822
New Origins of American Literature
Grantland S. Rice
---------------
2. See Robert Crawford, Devolving English Literature (1990); Franklin E. Court, Institutionalizing English Literature: The Culture and Politics of Literary Study, 1750-1900 (1992); and Gauri Viswanathan, Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India (1989). 3. See Miyoshi’s "Borderless World? From Colonialism to Transnationalism and the Decline of the Nation State" (1993).


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
Doyle, Mary Ellen. "Slave Narratives as Rhetorical Art." _The Art of the Slave Narrative: Original Essays in Criticism and Theory._ Ed. John Sekora and Darwin Turner. Macomb: Western Illinois UP, 1982. 83-95. Fanon, Franz. _Black Skin, White Masks._ New York: Grove Press, 1967. Foreman, P. Gabrielle. "Manifest in Signs: The Politics of Sex and Representation in _Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl._" _Harriet Jacobs and Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: New Critical Essays._ Ed.


ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460
Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue
W. David Shaw
---------------
ELH 66.2 (1999) 439-460 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Masks of the Unconscious: Bad Faith and Casuistry in the Dramatic Monologue =========================================================================== W. David Shaw -------------


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
1819, © The British Museum. --------------------------------------------------------------------- III. "Something Must Be Done": Shelley's Female Masks ----------------------------------------------------- Exiled in Italy at the time of the Peterloo Massacre, Shelley responded in outrage, writing to Charles Ollier: "The torrent of my


delineating



_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 709-731
Martin Delany's _Blake_ and the Transnational Politics of Property
Jeffory A. Clymer
---------------
that of the colored people of *[End Page 720]* theUnited States" (_Condition_ 12-13). While Delany's tract specifically addresses free blacks, his larger point is that all African Americans in America are, by dint of custom, subject to either de facto or de jure slavery. Consequently, his 1850s novel delineating an escape from slavery, as well as his political nonfiction, hinges on these same images of racialized nations, borders, and the movement across such boundaries toward freedom that are drawn together in the metaphoric passport providing safe passage through the white gap.


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
compete successfully. In his account of the entrepreneurial capitalists of the 1830s and 1840s, Theodore Koditschek describes the persistent forbearance of wealthy and successful self-made men from enjoying the fruits of their labor, even to the end of their lives. 34 The sentimental plot I am delineating not only presents such forbearance as high pathos but also exemplifies the pyrrhic nature of the achievements it affords. The triumph that the rival-double derives from his renunciation is almost always posthumous.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
It is the extended argument against William Warburton that carries perhaps the greatest burden in The Friend's polemic against religious uniformity as it is practiced in the established church. The Friend, to be sure, does battle with religious and political extremists by delineating the "PRINCIPLES implanted by GOD in the universal REASON of Man" in essays like "On the Errors of Party Spirit" (CW, 4.1:206). But it also deliberately sets itself apart from the way that Warburton's defense of Anglican orthodoxy defends its principles and claims to universality. Warburton's Divine


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE Here the confusion of faces and views is consistent with Wollstonecraft's representational melding of her experiential claims, but it also marks her persistent interest in delineating national and native character by merging the physiognomies of the land and its people. 40 With each new geographic location Wollstonecraft stresses the correspondence between figure and ground, often ascertaining the progressive degrees of "cultivation" by measuring the divergence between the two, so that along the rocky coast of


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 209-227
Hannah More and the Invention of Narrative Authority
Emily Rena-Dozier _University of Chicago _
---------------
woman, rather than from the poor to whom she ministers. It is a cure for Mrs. Jones's melancholy, not that of the poor. This tract and its sequels, "The Sunday School" and "The History of Hester Wilmot," provide a blueprint for other women who might care to set up a Sunday school, delineating the requirements for a suitable schoolmistress and providing arguments against the teaching of writing: "I do not in general approve of teaching charity children to write. . . . I confine within very strict limits my plan of educating the poor. A thorough knowledge of religion, and some of


whitening



American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
between US soldiers and elite Mexican criollas were often represented in the popular literature as a benign form of imperial conquest or as an alternative to it: the romance plots of much cheap war fiction were echoed by contemporary calls to conquer Mexico by whitening it through transnational heterosexual unions. In November 1847, a writer for the Democratic Review even suggested that a postwar US army of occupation in Mexico could result in the QUOTE which QUOTE (388-90). While this writer ostensibly hopes to see an independent Mexico, he reinforces stereotypes of Mexican men as


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
(191). 27. McClintock's Imperial Leather argues that the nineteenth century saw a shift from scientific racism to commodity racism whereupon domestic cleanliness was heavily imbued with metaphors of national "whitening" and purification. See esp. chap. five, "Soft-soaping Empire" (208-31). 28. Anderson, 64.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
The wanderer's reversion to whiteness transpires as follows: BLOCKQUOTE Despite the wanderer's insistent, already whitening, blush, this revelation of "dazzling fairness" is staged to overwhelm. Does this triumph mark Burney's extroversion of the wanderer's schizoid embodiment to the level of dress? The most significant question excited [End Page 970] here, however, concerns not the substance of

(asserted by her blushes) and spectacularly revelatory (blindingly revealed by the opened shutters). The snobby Mrs. Ireton takes on the dispossessed, dusky wanderer because the wanderer's manners are an incontrovertible guarantee of quality; yet Mrs. Ireton is also audience to the drama of the wanderer's whitening, which restages the wanderer's irresistible appeal in a single instance of dazzling exposure. This scene illuminates a structural and an ideological impasse that becomes more and more persistent as the novel progresses: the wanderer irresistibly and consistently evinces

BLOCKQUOTE The central question here is not the identity of the performer: this is, like the whitening scene, a drama of redundant discovery. Its more deeply indicative conundrum concerns the relation of "feelings" and "art." Insofar as this might figure a relation of content to form, it engages the central mystery of Burney's novel: might not music, the scene of her private performance, reveal who the wanderer


inverting



ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
accomplish for himself. He remains stuck, striving for subjective completion in the fermenting crack of the ugly. Unable to affirm himself as a subject, the Creature thus commences his own autobiographical narrative by inverting Victor's declarative "I am" into the pathetically interrogative "Who was I? What was I?" 46 He despairs of "brother, sister, and all the various relationships which bind one human being to another in mutual bonds," and then demands: "where were my friends and relations? No


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
speaker performs the kind of resistance which allows him to be a traitor to the authority enshrined in sentient subjectivity. He does this by illustrating to his reader a "style" of decomposing and reformulating those terms so as to lend them new self-authored meanings, much as the poet does with the discourse of nineteenth-century capitalism, symbolically inverting the wasted seed that sexual ideology prophesied would cause the ruin of the nation by turning it into fecundating ejaculatory rain. Section 29 has been read as troping a specific non-procreative sexual practice, anal penetration. Christopher Newfield argues that homoeroticism appealed to Whitman not merely


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
De Man's second key move in "Rhetoric of Temporality" addresses the rhetorical terms predominant in Coleridge and in the Romantic critical tradition: symbol and allegory. In line with the tradition, he juxtaposes symbol and allegory, and then (invoking Coleridge but inverting his terms) contextualizes them in terms of space-time relations: in the world of symbol, image is seen to coincide with substance, producing a relationship of "simultaneity" which is "_spatial_ in kind"; the world of allegory, on the other hand, "must refer to another sign that precedes it and with which it


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
the female victim, like Beatrice Cenci, signified abusive patriarchal authority, but that signification also masked her power, and it was that power he wanted to reclaim. To use the victim to reclaim her power, however, created the dangerous possibility of either reinforcing the oppressed's victim status or inverting the opposition and turning the oppressed into violent oppressors. The political dilemma also entailed a complicated aesthetic one: how to identify with, without speaking for, the oppressed; how to represent without appropriating the other. Read in light of the fixed gender


reclaims



ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
Ricks, and Marjorie Levinson to reclaim his dictional gush as somehow personal, it must also be acknowledged to be not just conventional (as has never been ignored), but pointedly historical in its conventionality. The struggle to awaken, to realize himself, to be, reclaims for the psyche a set of feelings that had been social and interpersonal. The odes are poems of encounter that conceal the derivation of the objects of their desire. As the clash of one poetic kind with another, the absorption of Moore's diction has a generalizing resonance and hence a class function, claiming


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
is able to conjure a social practice firmly rooted in the experiential possibilities of the present. Wilde's imaginings of a new body and new pleasures look within the present for utopian ways of relating to objects and the world which are not reducible to commodification. His assault on the present reclaims the utopian from within, and in so doing proffers glimpses of a new modernity in which individual pleasures would no longer come at the expense of the collective. Paradoxically, Wilde sees in socialism the full realization of Individualism.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
sealed by the discovery of Tom's birth and his sudden eligibility to marry Sophia and to unite the Western and Allworthy properties, that concludes the survey and resolves narrative conflict. Absorption and inconclusiveness enable the bastard's function of social description, but that function is framed by the narrative of familial origins which eventually reclaims Tom and reintegrates him into the logic of social place. Tom is in the end revealed as an emissary of the landed order who gathers in the social complexities of *[End Page 149]* eighteenth-century England and brings them home, creating an expanded and consolidated Paradise Hall.


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 493-540
"Study to Be Quiet": Hannah More and the Invention of Conservative Culture in Britain
Kevin Gilmartin
---------------
The nominal hero of the tract series increasingly yields the foreground to his wife and Dr. Shepherd, and in the final episodes he *[End Page 495]* must literally "beg leave to say a word to the men" (5:278) in order to advance community reform. Ironically, his address to the men neither reaffirms the centrality of his experience nor reclaims his patriarchal authority, but instead provides clear evidence of the way that feminized controls upon household management, the central issue in the tract's denouement, will dissolve the moral risks of his own masculine domain: "If you abstain from the ale-house," he tells the assembled men, "you may, many of you, get a


Quoting



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
This tendency to read the Puritan past teleologically is a product of the antebellum period. For instance, in his multivolume History of the United States, which found its way into nearly a third of New England homes (Nye, George 102), George Bancroft attributed the QUOTE of people in Connecticut QUOTE Quoting this passage, an anonymous reviewer for the American Jurist and Law Magazine enthusiastically adds that in colonial New England's QUOTE (230). Clearly, the QUOTE and QUOTE laws of Bancroft's Puritans are not


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
---------- For the great French physician and psychiatrist Philippe Pinel, the humane reformer of the asylum, the treatment of mental illness was primarily a moral matter. Quoting the Encyclopaedia Britannica, he describes his approach as follows: "'In the moral treatment of insanity, lunatics are not to be considered as absolutely devoid of reason, i.e. as inaccessible by motives of fear and hope, and sentiments of honour. . . . In the first instance it is proper to


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
similarity of minds discernible in the whole human race" (W, 7:50), a version of the sympathetic politic she would subsequently deploy in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to negotiate the paradoxes of Enlightenment femininity. Quoting liberally from Smith's treatise (and the review is one of the longest she wrote for Johnson's periodical), Wollstonecraft reveals her partiality for physiognomic reading and concomitant historical speculation. Smith's claims are often posited as "the verdict of common sense," so much so that a long passage on the constrictive effects of cold weather on the face is


absent



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
in the broad sense. And on this latter plane, subtle changes have occurred. Having familiarized himself with the QUOTE political jargon of the 1790s, Rip returns to the Union Hotel, where, as at the QUOTE of the 1770s, he and his cronies tell tales of a colonial America from which such divisiveness was absent (10). The difference is that Rip is now an elderly widower liberated from the economic and conjugal QUOTE of Dame Van Winkle's QUOTE (14). Irving's point is that this form of liberation is not a political event, strictly speaking. Change has occurred in Rip's world, but it has followed


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
scholarly annotation that embraces legal judgments, governmental lettres, the code noir, abolitionist biographies, as well as ancient and contemporaneous literary texts, including a compilation of his own QUOTE --belies the self-described transparency of his project, lending the play a wide variety of overlapping historical resonances absent from its original performance as a celebration of Ogé's participation in the early phase of the Haitian revolution. As Trouillot has pointed out, QUOTE and nurturing QUOTE was a primary recourse of the mulâtre elite in securing their hegemony while disavowing the very color prejudice that sustained their insularity--


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
writing from the grave." The much-quoted preface reads: "In this Autobiography I shall keep in mind the fact that I am speaking from the grave. I am literally speaking from the grave, because I shall be dead when the book issues from the press" (Paine, MTA 1: xv). Both claims strive to link the posthumous text to the absent body of the author, the preface through emphasizing the text as a transcript of his spoken words, and the frontispiece through emphasizing the material trace of his own hand.

an agency whose unity inhered in the problematic property known as Mark Twain. The exigencies of the melodrama can be effectively traced in a trail of signatures--both absent and present--on a series of key legal forms during these years. On 7 May 1907, Clemens apparently signed a form granting full Power of Attorney over all of his affairs to Isabel Lyon. On 14 November 1908--one month before the formation of the Mark Twain Company--this form was amended to include Ashcroft.


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
its most effective, abolitionist writing makes a virtue out of necessity by transforming the condition of geographical dislocation into an epistemological challenge: how can one feel for strangers over great distances? Or, to put it [End Page 644] another way, how can one feel the pain of a suffering body when the body itself is absent? In keeping with her inability to deliver up the body of the suffering slave, Stowe renders Tom’s death without graphic detail. His death blow is delivered in one sentence: "Legree, foaming with rage, smote his victim to the ground." In the next, Stowe tells us that "[s]cenes of blood and cruelty are shocking to our ear and heart. What man has nerve to do, man

view. The vast space between scaffold and spectator allows for the abstraction of the body that is the essence of martyrdom. Melville’s poem "The Portent" (1859) anatomizes the process through which the absent body acquires meaning. Nowhere is the elision of Brown’s corpse expressed with more formal precision and linked more explicitly to the breadth of its political meaning. Melville begins with a lurid evocation of Brown’s body,


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
text). The Italian section of _Holidays Abroad_ moves back and forth, however, between rapt visions that displace national issues onto aesthetic harmonies and comic moments that collapse their structures. Because Rome most concentrates her visual engagement and pleasure, in these chapters iconoclastic impulses are almost absent. She sees the city's sights--churches, galleries, ruins--in part through the textual guides of *[End Page 70]* Lord Byron's _Childe Harold's Pilgrimage_ (1812-18), one of the most frequent touchstones for tourists (Buzard 115-18), and Fanny Kemble's _A Year of Consolation_ (1847). Both connect sight-seeing to an

*[End Page 70]* Lord Byron's _Childe Harold's Pilgrimage_ (1812-18), one of the most frequent touchstones for tourists (Buzard 115-18), and Fanny Kemble's _A Year of Consolation_ (1847). Both connect sight-seeing to an experience of exile, personal anguish, and a search for healing--elements absent in Kirkland's account but that similarly tied touring to affective management. Her description of the approach to Rome resembles Cole's image in its extent, structure, and detail. She sees an illuminated "panorama," framed by "the Alban hills" on the left and shot through with "brilliant" color; the wide "plain of the Tiber" combines pastoral elements with the familiar


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
influential study of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry James famously wrote about early America's "thinly-composed society" (36): BLOCKQUOTE "Some such list as that," he concludes, "might be drawn up of the absent things in American life" (34-35). In fact, something very much the reverse informs early national culture: the tremendous and explosive appearance and growth of cultural, political, and economic institutions in the colonial and early national period. This is what Michael Mann calls a moment of extensive "interstitial emergence"


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
material vitality, its very shimmer dulled by being subjected to an archeological epistemology where its role, within this too harmonious scene we call history, is never to be itself but always, always to represent something else? And if the remaining relic can be thought to suffer such a fate, the fate of _dislocation,_ what of the absent author herself and her _location_ within this materialized scene of writing? Here Jewett is metonymically conjured up by these things that she consciously and unconsciously touched. And here she is incarcerated in the material sediments of her occupation, into the scene of writing.

(137). Comforting as this comment is meant to be, its logic ought to convey little solace; if Aunt Katherine has been so quickly exorcised as the spirit of the house, then one might imagine that, were the narrator to return alone and to settle in for the summer, she would soon "find" there not her absent friend but herself. All but needless to add, Aunt Katherine's worldly goods would have become little more than illegible, meaningless relics. However unwittingly, the narrator's comment proclaims the rapidity with which a prior inhabitant can be displaced, both physically and spiritually.


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
(231)--further strengthens the intercultural trade. French-Canadians who race their canoes on the Hudson River at the start of Astor's enterprise signal Astor's commercial muscle to a crowd of astonished New Yorkers. Irving credits the multiethnic Canadians in the company with a "constitutional vitality" notably absent from Anglo-American principals like Wilson Price Hunt, the St. Louis merchant who rather incompetently leads Astor's overland party (_Astoria_ 30). What Irving doesn't emphasize in _Astoria_ is that the Pacific Fur


_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
More important than this variation as it occurs in the novel, however, is Sedgwick's admission of it in the preface. It signals _Hope Leslie_'s thematic concerns with authority—those who claim it, abuse it, grant it, or resist it—by omitting the agent of that authority, even constructing authority as passive, if not altogether absent. (Who, after all, has "allowed" this chronological variation—this anachronism? Sedgwick herself? Or the unnamed keepers of "official history"?) Admitting to this self-conscious manipulation of the _facts_ of history, and in particular their sequential ordering, Sedgwick preempts criticism from those who affirm


ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
Nuptiall Verse to Mistresse Elizabeth Lee"), Herrick was not given to the Petrarchan love-war analogy, and his combination of royalism with discretion about the causes of discord is not naive, but a principled strategy for survival in a hostile polity. Masochism is not absent, but when he dreams of suicide in "Upon Love" it is with a "dainty" thread of precious metal (PW, 272.8), and when he seeks love's martyrdom in "An Hymne to Love" it is--as he pre-emptively "confesse[s] / With Cheerfulnesse"--to be struck "With Flowers and Wine, / And Cakes Divine" (PW, 289.1-2,19-20). While poems against

following, lovely two-stanza lyric: BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE Immediately suspicious is the denial by so stylish a poet of "art" and of "design." Prior means, of course, artifice and designing. But can he really mean that these are absent? Interior rhyme and echo ("kind"/"design"; "part"/"heart") in the first stanza, close rhyme ("ways"/"chains") and etymological pun ("oblig'd," suggesting that the chained heart is tied) in the second make a showier surface than such a pretense of courtly pastoral should allow. How can we

enterprise, his history of ideas consists of alternations, denials, revivals, and repetitions. The life of the [End Page 396] concepts is ignored, with no space for their working-through (in the Freudian sense) or for the dialectic in which they feed off of one another. Such dynamics are by no means absent from discursive texts, read with the requisite type of attention. But we confront the life of the mind, like the life of the emotions, most directly in their poetic embodiment. The combat of the passions and the interests is a long but static moment, whereas the history of Anacreontic poetry is


ELH 66.3 (1999) 707-737
Historical Space in the "History of": Between Public and Private in Tom Jones
George A. Drake
---------------
While Fielding left no formal theory of history, we can make inferences about the understanding of social structure, mechanisms of change, and historical directionality that inform his narratives. 37 In some ways, Tom Jones resembles what Mikhail Bakhtin calls adventure chronotope, in which social structure, change, and directionality are almost entirely absent. 38 In the adventure novel, Bakhtin notes, the plot begins with the moment that two young people meet and instantaneously fall in love, and ends with their marriage. Various conventional obstacles intervene, such as opposition of parents, attempts on their chastity, a different bride or bridegroom


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
usable meaning" in Our Mutual Friend. 20 Arac argues that in Dombey, Bleak House, and even Little Dorrit Dickens had managed to project a vision "of English society as intimately connected, in genealogical and historical relation, across the gulfs that separate classes." But in Our Mutual Friend this effort is absent. The "various portions of society in Our Mutual Friend do not connect into a totality" and the novel fails to provide any "social retribution" large enough to justify its image of gradually diminished dust mounds. 21

having him speak the truth with a perverse tongue. For a joint labor of love is the transcendent condition that the figure of partnership always distantly descries. Venus is named in honor of that ideal, and has only taken up with the preposterous Wegg because the ache of absent love has darkened his heart. Yet Venus is already in revolt against his darkness. He immediately replies to Wegg: "'I could have wished you had ever asked me as your partner what we were to do, before you thought you were dividing a responsibility'" (494; 3.7). Their relationship is agonistic from the beginning (they actually


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
Endowed with abundant fertility, the Kailyard's ever baby-bearing woman is held up as ideally fulfilling the natural function of her sex. Not surprising to this formulation, a father, husband, or any male figure is conspicuously absent from the spaces where child-rearing occurs. The domestic space of the household is purely the territory of women, although they clearly never own it. Noticing the arrangement of women as extensions of the home--both as part of men's property and the keepers of it--reveals the two hands that for centuries women have been expected to play. The Kailyard female is delicate,


ELH 66.4 (1999) 831-861
Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott, and the Gothic Drama
Michael Gamer
---------------
epitomizes the nervous energy with which Lewis's reviewers attempted to come to grips with Castle Spectre's effects, and the degree to which those effects forced them to rethink their assumptions about authorship and originality. If in the text of Castle Spectre reviewers found the author absent, then in the play's stage triumph they found it had returned spectrally as author "effect." II. The Author of Drama and the Producer of Pantomime -----------------------------------------------------


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
efforts to revise and implement institutional discipline; to the mid-twentieth-century establishment--as well as the recent Thatcherite disestablishment--of the welfare state. 80 What is absent from this formulation is, of course, a detailed account of the modernizing transformations--or epistemological shifts--that are implicit in such developments. This important object is undertaken by Poovey's Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-1864 (1995), which elucidates the "nineteenth-century conditions that laid the groundwork for mass culture"


ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
husband," "him," or "the doctor" (B, 934-35), and she continues to be called by all her "old lady" nicknames: "Dame Trot, Dame Durden, Little Woman!--all just the same as ever" (B, 934). The family name, the logic the text offers to unite the economic and the domestic, is still absent. Bleak House attempts to settle the unsettled question of value that pervades the economic discourse of the 1840s and 1850s. All the texts I have treated here work in some way to domesticate the


ELH 67.2 (2000) 565-587
Facing The Ugly: The Case Of Frankenstein
Denise Gigante *
---------------
pursuing his Creature on a homicidal chase to the ends of the earth, the very landscapes identified with the Burkean sublime. However the principal factor of sublime experience--being elevated from terror to a comprehension of greatness--is absent from Victor's experience. Instead, he becomes psychologically debased after every encounter with the Creature: a "miserable wretch" (F, 227) like the Creature himself. Instead of attaining an awareness of his subjective capacity, he grows feverish and weak, descending into the


ELH 67.2 (2000) 617-653
Fiction as Vivisection: G. H. Lewes and George Eliot
Richard Menke *
---------------
A few pages after Lewes makes his analogy between Micawber and the vivisected frog, the unspoken literary touchstone for his assessment of Dickens becomes clearer. Dickens, claims Lewes, represented "perceptions" with brilliance and with an intensity that approached the hallucinatory, but "[t]hought is strangely absent from his work"; Lewes doubts that "a single thoughtful remark on life or character could be found throughout the twenty volumes" (D, 151). Not altogether surprisingly, the implicit counterpoint to Dickens's phantasmagorical rendering of sensation and supposedly inflexible,


ELH 67.3 (2000) 801-818
Dangerous Acquaintances: The Correspondence of Margaret Fuller and James Freeman Clarke
Barbara Packer
---------------
Iliad as if it were a bog, Fuller had been educated by a series of tutors. 3 Her first tutor was her father Timothy, a lawyer who in Margaret's youth had been a congressman from Cambridge. He started her out when she was six with lessons in Latin and English grammar. He continued to direct her progress by letter when he was absent in Washington during congressional sessions. Her first letter to him there, written when she was seven-and-a-half, suggests the ambitiousness of the program he expected her to follow. She dutifully reports: "I have been reviewing Valpy's Chronology. We have not been able to procure any books on either Charles 12th of Sweden or Philip IId of Spain but


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
BLOCKQUOTE What cannot be tolerated in Griffith's brand of Irish nationalism is any physical transgression against the domestic space--love can be absent but, above all else, the peasant woman must "not go away with the Tramp." Read in light of imperial narratives of the British family, Griffith's attack on Nora's departure is understandable, for the act of stepping outside the house reinscribes the Irish home as Britain's [End Page 1015] other--the corrupt kingdom that is corrupt


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
the cause of ethical individualism. 3 Accepting or rejecting the one kind of individualism has no necessary connection to accepting or rejecting the other. We may of course [End Page 993] imagine further examples where both principles converge (Mill, for instance) or where both are absent altogether (Comte, Durkheim), but the existence of a logical link in either direction is more apparent than real. On the other hand, it seems disingenuous to suppose that affirming


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
parties. On the one hand, is the legal right of the only parent, and on the other, the feelings of the child, and the feelings and rights, such as those rights may be, of the grandparents." It is interesting to note that the feelings of the only parent, as well as the rights of the child, are missing in Shaw's formulation. These absent terms, however, are crucial to his decision because it is precisely the absent feelings of the parent which enable Shaw to deduce the best interests of the child, or the child's rights. Knowing that his decision will produce pain produces a kind of anxiety on his part ("it is to be regretted that

the other, the feelings of the child, and the feelings and rights, such as those rights may be, of the grandparents." It is interesting to note that the feelings of the only parent, as well as the rights of the child, are missing in Shaw's formulation. These absent terms, however, are crucial to his decision because it is precisely the absent feelings of the parent which enable Shaw to deduce the best interests of the child, or the child's rights. Knowing that his decision will produce pain produces a kind of anxiety on his part ("it is to be regretted that the law leaves cases of this description with so few rules for the


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
while Richard Brome's play _A Jovial Crew_ (1641), revived with great success as an opera in the eighteenth century, is a seventeenth-century example of the bastard as positive figure. 5. This structural function is also absent from one of the very few essays we have on the question of bastardy and eighteenth-century narrative, Homer Obed Brown's wonderfully suggestive "_Tom Jones_: The Bastard of History," _Boundary 2_ 7 (1979): 201-33.


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
wherein the subject refuses to recognize the reality of a traumatic perception. Jaffe draws upon Freud's concept of "negation" in speaking of the "denegation" we find in Esther's narrative, the means whereby, as Jaffe puts it, Esther has it both ways: "to be present and yet absent, letting herself in even as she insists on her desire to keep herself out" (137). I think "disavowal" reflects more accurately than "negation" the kind of dynamics I am trying to describe, but the two terms seem rather similar in that both enable the unconscious to disclose itself without being recognized as such.


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
of literary criticism by making explicit the implicit relation of the literary to the historical. As useful as such accounts have been in establishing a context for a number of lyric texts of the period, a new formalism, or new pragmatism, has argued even more recently in this context that it is not necessary to absent lyric texts to discover historical meaning. 1 Inspired by the new formalist approach, my account addresses the way in which key Romantic critics of the past decades have figured the trope allegory in their accounts; in particular, I am interested in deconstructive materialist accounts which would contrast allegory to historical narrative

_Wordsworth's Historical Imagination: The Poetry of Displacement_ [New York: Metheun, 1987]), instances his influence by the Jamesonian, Althusserian insistence on the denial, or negation, of history at work in (the idea of) the literary text. Liu envisions a history, following Jameson, which is "_not_ a text, not a narrative, master or otherwise, but that as an absent cause, it is inaccessible to us except in textual form, and that our approach to it and to the Real itself necessarily passes through its prior textualization, its narrativization in the political unconscious" (Jameson, _The Political Unconscious: Narrrative as a Socially Symbolic Act_ [Ithaca:


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 197-221
_Ruth_'s Perverse Economies: Women, Hoarding, and Expenditure
Natalka Freeland
---------------
heroine becomes self-conscious, her transfer to a husband and her story come to a simultaneous end. Thus, after spending the novel reviling the marriage market, Jemima is saved from spinsterhood by an eleventh-hour husband _ex machina_ and immediately becomes an almost insignificant, and conspicuously absent, footnote to _Ruth_'s main narrative. The potential value which accrues to Jemima's purity is realized when she marries, but the peculiar proposition that female chastity


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
dramatize the conditions that must obtain in order to apprehend a common sense in the first place. As in "Tintern Abbey," a poem whose indebtedness to "Frost at Midnight" is well known, Coleridge's conversation lyrics often culminate in a moment of virtual conversation or address to an otherwise absent audience. Yet the critical view that the speaker of these poems turns to another, out of a need of the imperial consciousness at once to extend and secure its domain--a reading to which "Frost at Midnight," like "Tintern Abbey," would appear particularly vulnerable--seems to me fundamentally mistaken. 58 For these conversation poems imagine conversation itself neither


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 171-195
The Clerks' Tale: Liberalism, Accountability, and Mimesis in _David Copperfield_
Matthew Titolo
---------------
scene of household accounting into a sublime encounter with the professional's homelessness. Perhaps only second to the child, the father holds the most vexed social role in Dickens; the absent (and conversely, all too present) *[End Page 177]* father provides a powerful source of agon in his novels. Often fatherhood is associated either with violence, egoism, and greed (Dombey, David's father, Mr. Murdstone) or with ineffectuality (Micawber, John Dickens); morally sound fatherhood is rare in Dickens. More often a healthy domesticity seems to


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 847-874
The Romance of the Impossible: William Godwin in the Empty Place of Reason
David Collings
---------------
reader), as if his tale is outside social discourse in exactly the same way as Falkland's secret remained untold in Collins's tale. The parallel between the contents of the trunk and Caleb's narrative suggests that positing a prior truth inevitably makes it wholly alien to the social order, even if it also renders the entire social order into a symptom of this absent intention, a discourse permeated with its possible inadvertent revelation. Falkland's paranoia in Caleb's presence *[End Page 862]* exactly matches Caleb's paranoia in the third volume; both are under the sway of the illusion that their essential selfhood might become visible to the eyes of another. The

While his theory of property does not otherwise conform to liberal economic doctrine, such a passage reveals the basic homology between the development of the individual subject, the general transformation in public opinion, and economic growth. All three rely on a progressive model that draws upon the notion of lack, of something which, while remaining absent, will inspire an endless effort to achieve it. The possibility of such a productive lack is foreclosed from this novel, precisely because St Leon himself embodies what should be missing. In effect,

prefers what he demonstrates to be impossible. In effect, then, he renounces the fantasy of immutable reason not to abandon it but to retain his loyalty to it, even after its loss. St Leon occupies the place of the lack not because Godwin wishes to have similar access to immutable truth but because, knowing that this place is empty, he prefers what is absent there to the world of progressive Enlightenment this absence brings into being. It is as if his sole remaining form of protest is to identify with what he reveals is a traumatic loss that culture must undergo as it enters modernity. But since the terms of his protest are consistent with modern culture's myth of its own

Ethics of Psychoanalysis_, vol. 7 of _The Seminar of Jacques Lacan_, ed. Jacques-Alain Miller, trans. Dennis Porter (New York: Norton, 1992), 210-17. 23. In Lacan, one works through the fantasy by recognizing that the _jouissance_ absent from the subject is barred from the Other--from the field of signification--as well. On the lack in the Other, see Lacan, _Écrits: A Selection_ (New York: Norton, *[End Page 872]* 1977), 316-17; and Slavoj Zizek, _The Sublime Object of Ideology_ (London: Verso, 1989), 121-24.


_ELH_ 70.3 (2003) 813-845
Sterne, Shelley, and Sensibility's Pleasures of Proximity
Christopher Nagle
---------------
Here, I would argue, we can see evidence of what was persistent in Romantic texts like Percy Shelley's: the influence of a significant Sternean development in the tradition of Sensibility, a vision of sympathetic connection with people, animals, nature, inanimate objects, even images of things absent from one's direct perception. In fact, though human beings generally seek out "a frame, whose nerves, like the chords of two exquisite lyres, strung to the accompaniment of one delightful voice, vibrate with the vibrations of our own," this "frame"("O," 474) is not necessarily human. 8 Nor

and the threat of sexual violence in the tribulations of Clarissa Harlowe. In cases like these, however, even as libidinal energy serves as the motor of the novel for the influential persecution narratives of _Pamela_ and _Clarissa_, this energy is employed ultimately in the service of a powerful didacticism clearly absent in Sterne's work. The famous "ambiguity" for which Sterne came to be known applies both to his generation of suggestive double-entendres, in the midst of titillating situational comedy, as well as the impossibility of clear and direct moralizing. 16


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
the work of a canonical postmodernist writer. For in a footnote to his essay on "Kafka and His Precursors" (1951), Jorge Luis Borges declares that readers of Franz Kafka are likely to find Kafkaesque elements, _pre_posterously, in Robert Browning's poem about an absent presence in someone's life, "Fears and Scruples" (1876).30 Borges attributes this kind of retroactive influence to authors rather than readers in his _pre_posterous claim that "every writer _creates_ his own precursors."31


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
myself, nor yet to be regarded, in that boney light'" (89, 90). Even though Pleasant first appears to the reader in this disembodied and ventriloquized way, her statement exemplifies a particularly strong account of agency, insofar as it both expresses her intention to absent herself and enacts that intention. Her written wish not to be regarded removes her from Venus's view, thus qualifying it as a performative utterance. In J. L. Austin's terms, such statements are conceived as bringing about what is said, as in a christening or a wedding vow. Performatives *[End Page 724]* allegedly instantiate a


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
thou never meddle with men's affairs more!"48 Melville, however, represses the possibility of female economic and cultural agency altogether by utterly excluding women characters from his novel. But although _women_ may be all but absent from the novel, _femininity_ is not. On the contrary, _Moby-Dick_ exemplifies a historically specific modification of gender codes, effected through complex transfers between nature and culture. Mid-nineteenth-century human masculinity and femininity, and the


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
from moneylenders; to do so, he obtains money from a family friend so as to be able to go to solicit a letter of attestation from a noble friend, finding sustenance for his journey in the love of Ann and on the shoulder of a stranger. The friend turns out to be absent, but another provides him the needed letter instead. All of this effort comes to naught in literal terms—the money is not forthcoming from this quarter, and comes instead unexpectedly from another. However, the gathering of support works to fuel the narrative with a good deal of lively incident. *[End Page 870]*

His youth is spent at school or as a runaway living precariously in the houses of others. Even where his actual circumstances were of a rich family life, the narrative deliberately seizes him apart from them (in London while they are in Grasmere); or, where he is himself at home, his family is most often absent—evoked at most by a tea-table laid for two, or by an interior scene peopled by servants and strangers. When his children do briefly haunt his bedside it is to sharpen the contrast between his nightmares and the peaceful life from which he has been exiled. His wife is mentioned as an


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
The ladies' collective misreading of the Brunoni/robbery connection and the various hauntings that attend the text (Miss Matty has a recurring dream of a phantom child, the ladies tell gruesome ghost stories in the heat of the entirely imagined "panic") all seem to derive from an absent and longed-for external stimulation that Peter's *[End Page 1014]* homecoming puts to rest. Just as Peter the boy tries to excite gossip and create events that will encourage conversation (Miss Matty remarks: "He used to say, the old ladies in the town wanted something to talk about" [51]), so does the grown


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
Shoulders, with a Mark on each Hand in the Shape of a Spur, done with Gun-Powder, has an uncommon Gait in his Walk, and speaks a little thickish, of a middle Stature, thin visaged, wearing a light Cloth-colour'd Druggit Suit, or a dark Cloth Suit, did on Sunday last absent himself from his Master's Service."19 Remember that in the realist account of the language of advertisements, description is supposed (to return to Watt's phrase) to bring an "object home to us in all its concrete particularity."

Advertisements for lost property filled with close descriptions of things cannot be considered models of empirical observation or of nascent realism; they are expressions of desire directed with varying *[End Page 959]* degrees of intensity at what ought to be one's own. The law's guarantee that the absent item still belongs to the owner is of no use and no consolation and is neglected. So the rhetoric of such an appeal is intended to materialize an abstraction and restore it to the owner. In this respect the advertisements I have been talking about are really an early form of the personal ad,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
Underlying the poet's myriad attempts to articulate a theory of language is the sense of an ineluctable evolutionary progression that repeats the influx and efflux of the writer/reader engagement. Whitman's linguistic writings develop a theory of absent centers and deferred origins, mirroring the creative enterprise of his poetics. We see this most clearly in the early notebook attempts to write race into the 1855 _Leaves of Grass_. The early drafts that would lead to "The Sleepers" reveal the poet's struggle to empty out his

deferred origins, mirroring the creative enterprise of his poetics. We see this most clearly in the early notebook attempts to write race into the 1855 _Leaves of Grass_. The early drafts that would lead to "The Sleepers" reveal the poet's struggle to empty out his poetic persona in an effort to create an absent space for the Lucifer figure to occupy. In these early notebooks, the scene of writing emerges as a site of racial crossings and poetic disembodiment. The emptying of the poetic persona allows Whitman to develop absence and passivity as the central tenets of his poetic

desires. In order to show how the poet's racial crossings prove to be a testing site for a more radical crossing between poet and reader, this essay will conclude with a reading of "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" as an exemplary instance of Whitman's efforts to absent himself from the text by creating textual gaps that clear a space for the reader to fill. As possession reciprocates the act of absenting, the scene of writing and the scene of reading converge, and the subjective space the reader occupies becomes the site of the poem's construction and the effective origin of the poem itself.

there is an essential passivity to Whitman's persona that creates these gaps and absences—interpretive space—for the empowerment of the reader. The scene of writing leaves itself open to this readerly *[End Page 922]* possession of the text. Writing becomes a process of creating absent centers, and the scene of writing emerges in the poetry as a site to be filled and possessed by the subjectivity of the reader.5 That is to say, at the scene of writing, Whitman's mind is full of absences—not only the absence of words yet lacking from the language, but the absences or

or ensemble of poetic creation is simultaneously displaced to the future reader who will complete, reciprocate, and reinitiate the exchange as an "eternal, yet ever-new" circuity between writer and reader. The yet unwritten origin at the scene of writing—the absent presence that informs the text—is constructed between the scene of writing and the scene of reading. What develops then as a foundational element in Whitman's linguistic writings, and what serves as the most telling connection between

in the "adhesiveness" between writer and reader. This tie between origin and wholeness depends upon the creative act of writing that includes a fundamental lack or absence, the supplement of which is the reader's response that creates the desired wholeness between poet and reader. In other words, the absent center provides the necessary point of entry for the reader into the poem which will in turn allow that reader to complete the reciprocal demands of the poetic text. In the interchange between writing/absence and origin/wholeness *[End Page 925]* the most radical concept to emerge

remembering an original wholeness—an act of creating origins. But this too is deferred, even by the language itself that relegates the temporal past to the anticipatory future. At the moment of writing _Democratic Vistas_, this historical origin remains unwritten, leaving an absent wholeness at the center to be filled by an American literature that will go about "wording the future with undissuadable words." Yet, because Whitman is moving towards a concept of deferred origin, this absence is not a source of anxiety, but the requisite center of the text:

does. (1016-17) The apostolic text sent as envoy in place of the author transports the absent center that must be filled-in by the reader, thus existing for the first time as an originating force only in its reception. Whitman contemplates origin as a source deferred until the scene of writing and the scene of reading converge.

feminist, abolitionist, and literary concerns coalesce around the problem of embodiment: "Political representation enacts the fiction of a bodiless body politic. Literary representation depends, of course, on a similar though not identical system of proxies: words stand in for an absent physical world" (_TL_, 6). Problems of embodiment arise, however, in relation to female and slave bodies precisely because women and slaves cannot relinquish their corporeality. The physical properties of the body that mark their subordination in nineteenth-century political culture preclude their

Page 935]* abstracted fit" will provide a clearer representation of this absenting process. One of the meanings of "abstracted" that Whitman would have known is "absent in mind" (_OED_). While on one level the passage denotes the black person's predilection for absent-minded paroxysms, the multivalence of that peculiar phrase "the abstracted fit" suggests a more complicated reading. Though it logically follows the train of thought developed by "passiveness" and "sudden fits," the phrase

this absenting process. One of the meanings of "abstracted" that Whitman would have known is "absent in mind" (_OED_). While on one level the passage denotes the black person's predilection for absent-minded paroxysms, the multivalence of that peculiar phrase "the abstracted fit" suggests a more complicated reading. Though it logically follows the train of thought developed by "passiveness" and "sudden fits," the phrase also offers a theoretical retrospection on what has

reading, and the scene of reading now embodies the original and originating creative impulse traditionally associated with the scene of writing. This transfer of poetic power evinces itself in two key moments in the poem where Whitman suspends the poetic text: first, to invoke the absence of writing and, second, to absent himself from the poem. Whitman initiates this absenting process in section 4—the short, five-line passage that serves as both coda _in medias res_

Whitman's textual habitation simultaneously locates the scene of writing at the scene of reading and initiates a process that will depend upon the absence involved by the practice of writing: the gradual emptying of the writing subject that clears a space—the absent center that Whitman continually implies in the deferred construction of the poem by the reader—for the reader's subjectivity. The repeated assurance that neither time nor distance avails in

space that precedes this seemingly forced complicity changes the dynamics of the passage.47 The literal blank of the textual gap serves a dual purpose: it places absence into the text, actually referencing absence through blank space, and it serves as a tangible locus for the passage's absent referent, namely what in fact has been "accomplish'd." Rather than a smarmy, backhanded attempt to bring us over to his perspective, Whitman creates an absent center around which the whole poem now revolves. In other words, at the scene of writing, Whitman creates a blank or absent space, here

serves a dual purpose: it places absence into the text, actually referencing absence through blank space, and it serves as a tangible locus for the passage's absent referent, namely what in fact has been "accomplish'd." Rather than a smarmy, backhanded attempt to bring us over to his perspective, Whitman creates an absent center around which the whole poem now revolves. In other words, at the scene of writing, Whitman creates a blank or absent space, here literally, for the reader to enter and complete the poem in a reciprocal act of conception. The lack of answers to the culminating

locus for the passage's absent referent, namely what in fact has been "accomplish'd." Rather than a smarmy, backhanded attempt to bring us over to his perspective, Whitman creates an absent center around which the whole poem now revolves. In other words, at the scene of writing, Whitman creates a blank or absent space, here literally, for the reader to enter and complete the poem in a reciprocal act of conception. The lack of answers to the culminating questions of section 8 constitutes a further absence, a direct deferral of fulfillment to the reader which simultaneously belies

the possibility of fulfillment in the esoteric riddling that guarantees the continuation of interplay among poet, text, and reader. It is a moment in which active aggression yields to passivity and possession. The reference to absence (the blank space) and the absent referent invite the reader into the text; Whitman absents himself from the poem in a passive gesture that defers understanding and meaning to the reader's subjective presence. The transition from the interplay of absence in the previous section

rearticulate the entire poem as a convergence of the scenes of writing and reading. The penning of the poem itself evolves out of this convergence, and this convergence is reenacted in cyclical eternity through the act of reading. Whitman creates what amounts to an aesthetics of absence: a writing that revolves around an absent center that the poet sends out in the *[End Page 943]* absolute faith of an ever-revisable interplay between the reader and the deferred origin of the poem's unwritten meaning.

uncertainties in which Whitman cohabits as passive recipient with his Fierce Wrestler. 13. Davis, 14. Elsewhere, Davis claims that Whitman's sexual and democratic doubts "circle the same absent center. . . . Both are written indirectly. Both thrive in a space of creative doubt at odds with the reality of postwar America" (39). 14. Karen Sánchez-Eppler, _Touching Liberty: Abolition,


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
it is framed. "The Complaint of the Forsaken Indian Woman" presents another dry-eyed, tragic speaker. Abandoned on the forest track, the Indian Woman tells her absent child "do not weep and grieve for me" (43). The austere form of her speech implicitly carries with it the same injunction. Instead of exclamations and other extravagant lyric indices of weeping, the Indian woman's "complaint" consists of sing-song lines, balladic stanzas, and the barest, monosyllabic


summarize



_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 248-275
Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright
Martin T. Buinicki
---------------
worked to transform the copyright page of _Leaves of Grass_ from simply a legal necessity to an integral part of his poetic project. 5 It is impossible to summarize briefly the debate surrounding international copyright, but there are three major lines of argument that persist throughout the controversy and require particular attention when considering Whitman's views on the matter. These lines--often converging and intersecting with one another--offer an


ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
against Griffith's ideal peasant female, the woman who validates patriarchal nationalism by her silence and apparent commitment to the domestic sphere. Such a reading, however, will not be the end of our reading. Rey Chow's remarks on one aspect of postcolonial theory nicely summarize and complicate Synge's seemingly anti-nationalist, anti-patriarchal project: BLOCKQUOTE


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
unbreachable hymen precisely because miscegenation breached the color line throughout the prewar South. 37 Plainly much of the iconic resiliency of the lily-white figure derived from that which it stood to negate. "She" was only as beautiful, white, and impermeable as he was ugly, black, and permeating. I summarize a cultural narrative to demonstrate how an ideal of beauty, constituted by racial fear, may require the presence of that which it denies. That Poe's "beautiful woman" must also be dead and therefore available for melancholy ("the most legitimate of all the poetical tones") is a measure of his need to preserve her intact as his own strength;


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 439-472
Erewhon and the End of Utopian Humanism
Sue Zemka
---------------
Given the subtle nature of Erewhon as a literary device, it would seem that the otherness which it harbors would never pose a threat to this design--that it would never be a true Other in the sense of presenting an unassimilable difference. And indeed, this fact may be said to summarize the ordering intentions of the text: _Erewhon_ appropriates the historical fact of colonial cultural difference for the purpose of domestic cultural critique. That it does so connects it not only to Victorian ethnography but more pointedly to a trend on the part of nineteenth-century political writers to rhetorically


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 89-115
William Cowper and the "Taste of Critic Appetite"
Priscilla Gilman
---------------
And yet it would be inaccurate to imply that frozenness defines the living experience of Cowper's authorship rather than its inevitable end in death, or its perpetually imagined, but then dispelled, moments of diffidence. If Southey's grim reflections summarize the dark aspects of Cowper's authorial flexibility--the possible futility of it all, of which Cowper was himself all too aware--then Cowper's often *[End Page 112]* genial acceptance of the sometimes comical contortions flexibility invites indicates the lighter


transports



ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
Yet the accounts of the sublime offered by Burke and many subsequent writers retreat into a mental abstraction that never has to take account of the image in its desire to subordinate it to logical and syntactical systems. Burke's sublime, rather than freeing the subject, transports the subject from a partial position to a totalizing position. But while Addison hastened to subordinate his mediated image to the requirements of cultural training, the mediation he evoked could look in a different direction towards situatedness rather than subordination. In Simians, Cyborgs and Women, Donna Haraway returns to


ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
77. Burke, Philosophical Enquiry, 29. 78. The quotation in full is: "the sublime does not so properly persuade us, as it ravishes and transports us, and produces in us a certain admiration, mingled with astonishment and surprise, which is quite another thing than the barely pleasing, or the barely persuading; that it gives a noble vigour to a discourse, an invincible force, which commits a pleasing rape upon the very soul of


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
needs so much to be the complete thing, but the reader of the book does. (1016-17) The apostolic text sent as envoy in place of the author transports the absent center that must be filled-in by the reader, thus existing for the first time as an originating force only in its reception. Whitman contemplates origin as a source deferred until the scene of writing and the scene of reading converge.


legitimizing



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 814-822
New Origins of American Literature
Grantland S. Rice
---------------
seen refute Gardner’s thesis.7 But more to the point, by adopting the intellectually slippery notion of "the cultural work of fiction" Gardner passes up the opportunity to examine in detail how various cultural and institutional forces of political reentrenchment following the American Revolution created a legitimizing [End Page 818] and authorizing literary tradition. No doubt novelists like Tyler and Brown participated in the creation of this tradition, an institution clearly bound up with the vexing issue of race. But the cultural centrality Gardner ascribes to these four novelists is


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
offer a reproduction that "flatters," that situates Louisa once again as the commodified object of a sexual gaze (xl). Carla Peterson contends that as the object of the white male gaze "the mulatta renders female sexuality available," legitimizing the act of seduction and rape (_Doers_ 155). In literary representations "the libidinal surplus . . . is doubled by an economic surplus, *[End Page 515]* and her story results from the convergence of two plots that produces the narrative crisis" (155). Mattison's story mirrors Louisa's mother's, among


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
vulgar commercialism of the tradesman or manufacturer--has a complicated (and decidedly British) history of its own. 33 But one need only recall the works of Matthew Arnold, mid-Victorian England's premier professional polemicist, to see how middle-class professionals were able to capitalize upon their genteel credentials, legitimizing their interests while denigrating those of their philistine counterparts in trade and industry. Indeed, in Culture and Anarchy (1869) Arnold omits educated middle-class professionals from his blueprint of a Britain composed of [End Page 151]


ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
impersonations, panics, and the doggedly earnest Bank of England clerks who struggle to keep things orderly. Closure for each of these anecdotes is reached when incorruptible bank officials uncover fraud and locate its perpetrators. Closure for the two volume History as a whole involves legitimizing the Bank as the nationwide controller of the money supply. 42. Bagehot, Lombard Street, 118; "Investments," 273; and "Monetary Schemes," in Collected Works, 9:300. On Bagehot's derivation of this


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
squarely within the larger discursive terrain I have charted above. What Scott describes in his _Letters_ as "the imperfect organs of humanity," and which so often "pervert the external form of objects" that they can hardly be deemed trustworthy, function here as both an ineffectual surrogate for the inner senses and a means of legitimizing and verifying the theological argument for spiritual existence. Browne's vision of the ghost assumes the nature of what Scott describes as "revelation"--the revelation of the existence and omnipresence of things unseen and unseeable--but a revelation that requires the intervention and mediating presence of what can, after all


interiorizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
that these theories, in many ways complementary to their more racist counterparts, have had a longer shelf life in American racial thought. To hasten that analysis, I want to examine the rhetorics of interiorization in the abolition writings of William Lloyd Garrison. I choose Garrison not because he invented the interiorizing tendency of nineteenth-century reform or even because he was its most determined progenitor. Rather, I choose Garrison because the discrepancy between structural and interiorized reform is so pronounced in his work: since his ambitions were genuinely revolutionary, the tensions generated within those ambitions by

strove to define citizenship by placing blacks outside the borders of the nation and therefore to define the national interior as white, the Anti-Slavery Society defined citizenship in relation to the individual characters of citizens. With this new strategy came a move to define racial injustice and to argue for national citizenship on the basis of interiorizing logics--the correct affective states for sympathetic whites and the deserving civic characters of black Americans--that correspond to, and in many cases supplant, more explicitly social arguments about economic opportunity, education, and class structure.


ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
intuition springs from the whole structure of feeling that nurtured their original bond. Restored to one another, in their play as Cinderella and fairy godmother they perform an aesthetics of solidarity that integrates their vulnerable dependence on one another with their buoyant, self-enlarging interiorizing of one another. 39 The figure of partnership foregrounds the turning of the dialogical self, simultaneously, toward the generalized socioeconomic universe,


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
form, it engages the central mystery of Burney's novel: might not music, the scene of her private performance, reveal who the wanderer is? Might her rendition of this Arpeggio and air draw upon an anterior fund of "pathos," "imagination," and "feeling" in which lie the details of her divestiture? Yet Burney rejects the interiorizing premise that would make the wanderer's performance this kind of revelation; instead, the wanderer's feelings "second, or rather meet the soul-pervading refinements of skilful art." If the first verb undoes the anteriority of feeling to art apparently solicited by

Instead of evoking the pathetic singularity of her trials, music establishes the wanderer's claim upon the generic category of "gentlewoman." The revelation of this claim is "stupi[fying]" precisely because music provides no interiorizing rationale for her "apparel, poverty, and subjection." Rather than vindicating interior fortitude, then, this scene vindicates the fortitude of rank, which, almost of its own volition, pervades even the most inauspicious embodiment. That rank's tenacity can, paradoxically, only aggravate


parroting



ELH 67.4 (2000) 1011-1034
In the Shadow of the Glen: Gender, Nationalism, and "A Woman Only"
Rob Doggett
---------------
culture is dying, reproduction has not occurred, and what remains is the native woman, the tragic woman forever yearning for fertility, a nation forever longing for its fertile past. In short, the peasant female again functions as a type of static cultural and aesthetic symbol, an art object parroting male desire for a vibrant national culture that, in Synge's case, cannot be actualized in the present. Read in light of Synge's own patriarchal nationalism, Nora's role in the play becomes further complicated. Though she represents, as a


ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
captures the ideology of polygenesis: conceived as a biological mandate, racial inferiority is irremediable, and the best a non-European can hope for is a denatured form of mimicry. Hume's African is delimited by his conspicuously dark skin, his one artless signifier (e.g. "no arts, no sciences"), and as the critique of parroting reveals, this emphasis on a transparent and reliable sign assures the enlightened European observer that inauthentic racial behavior is easily detectable. As Gates notes, here race has emerged as a resolute and "ineffaceable quantity, which irresistibly determined the shape and contour of thought and feeling as surely as it did


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
wiser and more liberal plans; do some good; be less selfish: _now,_ Caroline, I can have a house--a home which I can truly call mine--and _now_-- . . . And _now,_" he resumed--"now I can think of marriage; _now_ I can seek a wife" (594, emphases in original). 14 Although Moore seems almost to be parroting social expectations here, the novel's interest in hatred clashes conceptually and rhetorically with his plans. With its great stress on reform, _Shirley_ superficially echoes


Reward



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 949-967
The Crying of Lost Things
Jonathan Lamb
---------------
Lost (whether by Negligence in the Owner, or Vigilance and Dexterity in the Thief) away we went to Jonathan Wild. Nay, Advertisements were Publish'd, directing the Finder of almost every Thing, to bring it to Jonathan Wild, who was eminently impower'd to take it, and give the Reward."1 Soon the owners of missing things would themselves be placing advertisements in the hope that a deal with the thief might be brokered. But they had to make sure that their messages ended with the promise of a substantial reward and the magic words, no questions asked; otherwise the process of redemption

"Lost the 1st Instant, a Snuff Box about the Bigness and Shape of a Mango, with a Stalk on the Lid, it being a West-India Bean of a reddish Colour, and like Shagreen; the End of the Stalk tipped with Silver, opens with a Hinge, and the Inside lined with Lead. Whoever brings it to Toms Coffee-House Cornhill, shall have a guinea Reward, and no questions asked; it being three times the Worth of the Silver."25 The writer of this notice in the _Daily Courant_ is so absorbed in representing the fashion of the thing that the narrative (how it was first acquired, how *[End Page 957]* it was lost, why it

with Drops of the first Water, and 1 odd Night Ear-Ring, with 3 Brilliant Diamonds; three large Bars for the Breast, set with Rose Diamonds. If offered to be sold, pawn'd or valu'd, pray stop 'em and the *PARTY, and give Notice to Mr. Drummond, Goldsmith at Charing Cross, and you shall receive 200 Guineas Reward for the same. *Especially if it be a young Lady29 How lost? How mislaid? If the diamonds could speak they would tell a tale perhaps of disgraceful weakness, of a goldsmith so fascinated


broadens



_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
historiographical partisanship, it frankly draws attention to the inevitable (often willful) blindnesses that always attend historical investigations, including the present one ("exclud[ing] every thing decidedly inconsistent with them"). The passive voice in these predicates, moreover, lends these statements an ambiguity that broadens them beyond the particular case of the novel: the second sentence may refer equally to "the materials" and "the present writer." Thus, the implication is not simply that Sedgwick avoided attempting "a full delineation" and "exclud[ed]" every thing deemed "inconsistent" with her "design," but that the authors of "all the materials


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
The effect of literary discipline is to "liberalize us," as Lowell put it in his president's address to the MLA. By sensitizing readers to the "diversity" of experience and men's minds,it effects an "enlargement of ourselves," with literary study a kind of "foreign travel" that broadens sympathy. 58 "The ability to assume others' point of view is the most valuable equipment that an education can give you," declared Benjamin Ide Wheeler, president of the University of California at Berkeley, in his 1907 commencement address. 59 The sheer content of literature accustoms readers to the experience of

race," or "race affinities." 82 Even the ecumenical Moulton, who criticized the study of national literatures (which inclines students to jingoism), made his case in racialist terms. Study of "World Literature" would best "secur[e] the aims of literary culture," "broadening human sympathies, as travel broadens them by bringing us into contact with racial ideas different from our own." 83 Though hereditarians, these scholars were not generally nativist, as we understand the term from John Higham's seminal work. 84 Far from


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
offered "a fitting medium for eruptions of female libidinal energy, of thwarted ambitions, of cramped egos" (7, 8). 2. Briggs, 7. Briggs thus opts for avoiding definitions altogether and broadens the category of ghost story to include narratives dealing with "possession and demonic bargains, spirits other than those of the dead, including ghouls, vampires, werewolves, the 'swarths' of living men and the 'ghost-soul' or _Doppelgänger_" (12). While for Briggs, as for many other critics, the term "ghost story" is interchangeable and synonymous with


labouring



ELH 66.3 (1999) 759-799
The Partners' Tale: Dickens and Our Mutual Friend
John P. Farrell
---------------
mill." Trying to avow himself to Lizzie he is done in by his pathological aposiopesis: "'I--I leave it all incomplete'" (345-46; 2.11). His interior utterance is displaced into the furies of his body: blood vessels break within him, stones are crushed to powder in his hands. His face "always [wears] its slowly labouring expression" (709; 4.7). But even Headstone's hollow utterance is dialogized. It echoes in the stiff formalities that John Harmon feels compelled to adopt with Bella as well as in the freezing ironies and exhausted tones with which Eugene Wrayburn adorns even


ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
are the traits of a good business man; they are also the traits, it turns out, which must be cultivated throughout the English public, for the English and Irish working classes are also represented by Bagehot through this particular trope of femininity: "The most important matters for the labouring classes, as for all others, are restraining discipline over their passions and an effectual culture of their consciences. In recent times these wants are more pressing than ever. Great towns are depots of temptation, and unless care be taken, corrupters of all deep moral feeling." 47


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 209-227
Hannah More and the Invention of Narrative Authority
Emily Rena-Dozier _University of Chicago _
---------------
. . . is always watching for fear it should be too hot, or too cold, or too wet for me; and she brings me my dose of bark herself into this tool-house, that she may be sure I take it. . . . Then she watches that I don't throw my coat on the wet grass, which, she says, gives labouring men so much rheumatism" (_C_, 147). The poor are to be closely watched for their own good, be it spiritual or temporal. In this regard they are much like children. More explained in her _Strictures_ that children should be closely observed not only to keep them safe but also to ascertain their character flaws:


troping



_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
honors my style" by "learn[ing] under it to destroy the teacher" (1:76). In these lines, the speaker imagines his poetry as affecting readers most profoundly through his dematerialization, a notion complemented by the trope of his literary manifestation as contentless, a mere "style." The speaker then removes himself from the text, troping himself as definitively departing the volume, as if his words were a space of physical encounter with the reader from which he absents himself. And yet, what seems to be at issue in these gestures of disappearance and retreat is not the abandonment but the empowering of the reader. The speaker says that he "invite[s] defiance, and

represent a crisis within the embodied experience of the lyric persona, who is in the grip of a conflict between erotic feelings and impulses and the ethical categories furnished by culture through which subjects inescapably understand themselves. They are also passages which exhibit a lyric persona whose troping of his own thought, affect, and activity displays modes of self-relation which are offered to the reader for the kind of subjective reinscription that I argue is central to Whitman's theory of performative embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_.

terms so as to lend them new self-authored meanings, much as the poet does with the discourse of nineteenth-century capitalism, symbolically inverting the wasted seed that sexual ideology prophesied would cause the ruin of the nation by turning it into fecundating ejaculatory rain. Section 29 has been read as troping a specific non-procreative sexual practice, anal penetration. Christopher Newfield argues that homoeroticism appealed to Whitman not merely as a metaphor of democratic political relations but as a "democratic" form of subjectivity, a way of enacting political principles erotically within concrete social life. For Newfield, the speaker of section 29 "is not


lisping



ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
unconscious, no progression in what is sung from the bird's-eye perspective of "now," and hence his confusion exceeds Lucia's. 34 The choice of the childish Lucia as love object evidently derives from what in his case too is a still primitive libido. Hence the regressive envy of the stroking, nestling, and lisping gestures; as Freud says, "The ego must be developed. The autoerotic drives, however, are there from the earliest beginning [uranfänglich]." 35 What complicates the picture still further, however, is that the speaker knows his rival is dead, and was indeed never a real rival.

Transformations of Drives, Particularly in Anal Eroticism"). But it shies from the light, in this case darkening even one named Lucia. The discretion of the Anacreontic is [End Page 384] a key to its always furtive discovery. "The Sparrow and Diamond" is a hush-hush, "tongue-ty'd" world of lisping, moaning, and enforced silence. Pre-linguistic, it is therefore also not capable of being brought to consciousness. 36 Whereas, according to an old truism, romantic lyric expresses feelings in their immediacy, this poem elides the speech that intervenes between the traumatic seeing and the already


ELH 67.3 (2000) 819-842
Playing at Class
Karen Sánchez-Eppler
---------------
"cherishes," a word that seems deeply descriptive of Child's own imaginative procedures, and unsettlingly perceptive of the ways in which society may foster crime. To be cherished is just what the nineteenth-century middle class had understood as the child's ideal but necessary role. The lisping, child voice, with its awkward grammar that proclaims the pile of newspapers "more big as he could carry," is not, of course, the newsboy's. It speaks in the third-person, and besides, among the first things that Child notices about this newsboy is that he lacks "the sweet voice of childhood."


purging



_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 377-406
Reading and Writing Terror: The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741
Andy Doolen
---------------
burnt at the stake, and 70 deported to West Indian slave markets and plantations. If the spectacles of torture in 1712 and 1741 were primarily directed toward the local slave population, the ledger also attempts to secure the allegiance of white colonists. Nevertheless, this ritualistic purging of the scapegoat has only secured the colony temporarily, since Horsmanden guarantees that the threat of an international conspiracy still remains. The ledger creates a fleeting symbolic space, where English authority seemingly protects the city from foreign threats, but the list both supports


ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
of the race, serves the private interests of seduction. Lucia may be foolish, but the speaker is fond, and he too is exposed and mocked; neither the "oily art" of rhetoric nor the allegorical [End Page 382] moralization engineered from "behind" the scenes quite works for him. Like the bird, and like the woman, he too needs purging. The poem, then, has a concealed subject, which is not the anecdote but the speaker, not the frivolous portrayal of emotion but the revelation that knowledge itself is inextricably entangled in desire. "Itching curiosity," as "Jove and Semele" more bluntly says,


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
sentimentalism, she has misread the novel. In its conclusion, we learn that Gerty's father didn't die but rather "after an almost interminable illness . . . made [his] way, destitute, ragged, and emaciated, back to Rio" (384) and eventually back into Gerty's life, at which point she learns and embraces her past. Far from purging her origins, Gerty must confront them. Indeed, the debate being staged in the novel between the claims of biological as opposed to contractual families necessitates his return.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
undo the ultimate result of Evelina's reintegration. And it doesn't undo the novel's problematic suggestion that, by naturalizing Lord Orville's rank-specific manners, by chastening the fop and the rake, and by exposing the manners of the middle ranks, it accomplishes some kind of escape from, or at least a purging of, the system *[End Page 155]* of ranks. But while _Evelina_ remains divided between undercutting and preserving the distinction of ranks, it successfully escapes the dialectic of place and placelessness by which the bastard in Fielding remained locked into the patriarchal hierarchy. Occupying several positions at once, the female bastard is not the negative


referencing



American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
1. The career designations are Kaplan’s; the statistics are based on my own count. For a discussion of this and other bibliographies of American autobiography, see Sayre. 2. For a useful online project cross-referencing and comparing the various versions of the autobiography, see Hal L. Waller, "Charting the Autobiographies of Mark Twain," .


ELH 67.3 (2000) 743-771
The Literary Museum and the Unsettling of the Early American Novel
Jared Gardner *
---------------
"dangerous reading"; redefining the "novel" as "museum," the author is set up as something like curator--like Bowen, featuring "principal figures, large as life," "historical, theatrical, and fancy subjects," and "universally allowed to merit the patronage . . . of the publick." 31 In referencing Bowen's museum Foster surely also has in mind the most famous curator of the day, Charles Willson Peale, who sought to present the "world in miniature." Peale had great ambitions for his museum, long seeking to transform it from a private to a national institution. At the time in which Foster


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
complementary audience for her tale: it is masculine, city-dwelling, and modern—and because its members comprehend the ostensibly more sophisticated systems of meaning that obtain in London, they can chuckle in unison at Cranford's misreading Brunoni or the Captain. Actually, Gaskell begins referencing her model listener even earlier *[End Page 1006]* in the novel and with the identical gesture. On page 2, Mary Smith relates a typically Cranfordian anecdote in which a woman continues using a red silk umbrella long after cotton umbrellas became the fashion for Londoners. In the


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 921-948
His Mind Was Full of Absences: Whitman at the Scene of Writing
Keith Wilhite
---------------
reader's complicity in this non-consensual climax. Yet, the blank space that precedes this seemingly forced complicity changes the dynamics of the passage.47 The literal blank of the textual gap serves a dual purpose: it places absence into the text, actually referencing absence through blank space, and it serves as a tangible locus for the passage's absent referent, namely what in fact has been "accomplish'd." Rather than a smarmy, backhanded attempt to bring us over to his perspective, Whitman creates an absent center around which the whole poem now revolves. In other words, at the


valorizing



_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
of scientific positivism on one side and "the seductions of a crippling solipsism" on the other (7). This, of course, is one of the chief problems Thoreau grappled with publicly and privately, especially in the years after _Walden_ and with considerably less success than Tauber's valorizing account credits him. Even Tauber concedes that Thoreau never overcame his drive to know "the world ultimately in relationship to himself" (114). John Burroughs remarked that Thoreau was no guide to ornithology because "he was more intent on the natural history of his own thought than on that


_American Literary History_ 15.4 (2003) 683-708
Trading Stories: Washington Irving and the Global West
Stephanie LeMenager
---------------
settlement of the Northwest boundary dispute with Britain at the 49th parallel in 1846. By the early 1880s the buffalo would be virtually extinct, as Catlin predicted. Just as Beckwourth imagined, the Plains nations would be cruelly starved out. But Astor's failure in the Far West, and the difficulty of valorizing his adventure, allowed Irving to express a more conflicted and a more real US-American character than he might otherwise have done. Itwas in the Far West of the 1830s, source of totemic buffalo robes and beaver hats, imaginary region of national character long before


ELH 67.1 (2000) 179-204
Utopia, Use, and the Everyday: Oscar Wilde and a New Economy of Pleasure
Carolyn Lesjak
---------------
-------------------- Neither a bourgeois individualist (or liberal democratic) nor an anarchist, Wilde is best situated within a particular strand of Marxism, a utopianism whose basis lies not in valorizing labor (as in much Socialist thought) but in a liberation from labor. It is at heart a socialism of pleasure: "socialism was beautiful," "socialism is enjoyment." 39


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
that model. Instead, the Men of England's passive looks disarm the violence of other men: "With folded arms and steady eyes, / And little fear, and less surprise / Look upon them as they slay / Till their rage has died away" (_MA_, 344-47). Finally, the poem affirms that disruption by valorizing women as the final judges of men's actions: when those in power again plow down the passive resisters, "every woman in the land / Will point at them as they stand" (_MA_, 352-53). In a sense returning the women to their active role in the reform movement, Shelley's text does not finally affirm its


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1001-1017
Meaning and Misinterpretation in _Cranford_
Alyson J. Kiesel
---------------
meaning where it might not exist for others seems at the center of Gaskell's undertaking. As _Cranford_ makes plain, material traces (and the manner in which people interpret them) are at once clues to overcoming and emblems of the barriers between individuals, between cultures. Obviously, valorizing surfaces and material objects in this way can occlude certain contents (as in the Captain's joke, Brunoni's nationality, Johnson's prose, or the fact that a boy in his sister's dress is still a boy); but, like the personal economies, Cranford's readings of surfaces also create a breadth of


vindicating



ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
Instead of evoking the pathetic singularity of her trials, music establishes the wanderer's claim upon the generic category of "gentlewoman." The revelation of this claim is "stupi[fying]" precisely because music provides no interiorizing rationale for her "apparel, poverty, and subjection." Rather than vindicating interior fortitude, then, this scene vindicates the fortitude of rank, which, almost of its own volition, pervades even the most inauspicious embodiment. That rank's tenacity can, paradoxically, only aggravate the wanderer's schizoid embodiment is evident in the plot trick


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
For Edmund Burke, the most pressing problems of aesthetic common sense were solved simply by referring to the universality of flesh and blood. As most people share the same senses, Burke argued, so "the whole ground-work of Taste is common to all." 23 I confess that I share with Kant, as well as with those literary critics recently concerned with vindicating him, a sense of the inadequacy of such a conclusion. 24 Yet we are mistaken to assume that Burke's is the only position available to an empiricist aesthetics. An alternative approach to the empirical demonstration of common sense, for instance, is suggested by Thomas Reid, to whom I will turn below. And


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
empirical science degenerates into obscure and imprecise metaphysical speculation. But exposing the ghost as an optical illusion is, for Brewster, ultimately less important than vindicating the suspect notion that seeing is believing. By better understanding the precise physiological causes that produce optical deceptions, Brewster implies, it will become possible to distinguish with greater certainty between subjective and objective perceptions, and hence between subjective interpretations of reality and objective scientific facts.


conflating



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
Tourist paintings of Italy offered a national ownership not of land or economic resources but of interiority, that is, of the scene of the imagined costs of modern identity, the site on which this identity was stabilized and organized. Cole's painting transcends contemporary history and republican nation building by conflating a gaze into a past with a gaze into a far-off future for the American empire, that is, by conflating pre- and postnational images: an Arcadian scene with the end of history. Cole offers a vista into an elite American subjectivity that comprehends the American present in the broader context of images of pre- and postnational identity, in other words,

economic resources but of interiority, that is, of the scene of the imagined costs of modern identity, the site on which this identity was stabilized and organized. Cole's painting transcends contemporary history and republican nation building by conflating a gaze into a past with a gaze into a far-off future for the American empire, that is, by conflating pre- and postnational images: an Arcadian scene with the end of history. Cole offers a vista into an elite American subjectivity that comprehends the American present in the broader context of images of pre- and postnational identity, in other words, which is not overwhelmed by the transformations of history. 20 The tourist


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 248-275
Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright
Martin T. Buinicki
---------------
inventors, in accordance with the mandate of the Constitution "securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries." Not surprisingly, then, copyright was always closely aligned with patents, conflating texts and prototypes into property owned by the inventor/author. This language was taken up in 1837 in the earliest proposed legislation for international copyright: "That authors and Inventors have, according to the practice of civilized nations, a property in the respective productions of their genius, is


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
Coleridge's use of "blasphemy," joined to the framework of allegorical reference that casts the English as Cain and the slaves as Abel, shows how slavery might be considered a distinctively religious offense because the blessing of food that is "polluted" with the blood of slaves is offensive to God. Coleridge, conflating an offense against persons with an offense against God, might seem to make a social problem into a religious problem: slavery exists because of a lack of proper religious faith. While the Watchman appears to be advocating abolition of the slave trade, its liberal


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
it is not, under normal circumstances of vision, present to the mind, for the simple reason that no such doubling appears in the world. To adopt the terms of Reid's important distinction, the experience of doublevision is a sensation, but not a perception, in having for its object only the feeling itself. It is in falsely conflating sensation and perception, Reid argues, and in thus mistaking the chimera of sensation for indications of a chimerical real, that the errors of metaphysics have been perpetuated. Therefore it is only by separating these synthesized components of our perception that we may understand how the very synthetic character of


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 251-287
The Art of Discrimination
Arthur Riss _Salem State College _
---------------
metamorphosis that should not be mistaken for evolution or true progress, but only as a masking of the slave's nature. Hawthorne, thus, has not mistaken a social sign (clothes) for a natural one (skin); rather, by conflating clothes and skin, he has drawn attention to the precariousness of ostensibly natural signs. Indeed, at a moment when many slaves did "look" white, such anxiety over the mutable materiality of racial signifiers would be understandable. However, Hawthorne, as will become clear, is not


subtilizing



_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
("F," 19). As a simple instance of analogical thinking, the speaker's comparison is described as a "toy of Thought" ("F," 23) not unlike that which Reid excoriates in his philosophical contemporaries. In the earliest published version of the poem, Coleridge is even more explicit in calling such analogies "curious toys / Of the self-watching subtilizing mind." 49 Indeed, the peculiar construction of the lines in which Coleridge introduces the comparison between himself and the "stranger"--"_Methinks_, its motion in this hush of nature / Gives it dim sympathies with _me who live_" ("F," 17-18)--at once suggests and linguistically reproduces such a state of

environment that make a common sense possible. It is undeniable that, by the turn to Hartley in the final movement of the poem, Coleridge wishes to indicate the ultimate necessity of socializing these "[a]bstruser musings" ("F," 6). Yet while, on the one hand, "Frost at Midnight" seems to advocate abandoning the preoccupations of the "self-watching subtilizing mind" for the consciousness of a regenerate companionship, on the other, the poem suggests that it is only within and through such self-observation that one may establish those more permanent connections in the first place. 52

Coleridge's lines draw an explicit parallel between these "reliques" of childish thought and the "superstitious wish" of his childhood, but without the opprobrium that critics often believe to be attached to these incidents. 54 Indeed, the motions of the "self-watching subtilizing mind" that first seem inimical to the apprehension of a "companionable form" are instead revealed as crucial to that apprehension. As in *[End Page 135]* those experiments where reading breaks down in order to reveal the conditions that make reading itself possible, Coleridge demonstrates how one violates common


molting



_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
of parenting and self-parenting, of old men dying and, in Eliot's case, a new woman being born, bearing new strength and ardor no less than shame and self-contempt. Eliot's attempt to describe what molting looks like in her species--to provide a language that invites the recognition of such transformations--is only an early effort in a project continued throughout her career. This particular conceit naturalizes and makes vivid the paradoxical perfectionist intuition that, as we are converted into our future selves, we become whom we

that what ought to be is: for the obligation of man is to realize his self; to realize this self he must will it; but in order to will something, the object of his will must exist. Accordingly, man must already be what he ought to be, if obligation is to have any content for him." 12 Bradley's bland manner takes molting as inevitable; others, Nietzsche for instance, are driven to exasperation by recognizing that we manage, stubbornly, ingeniously, dully, to avoid it. Thus in the opening paragraph of _Schopenhauer as Educator_, written two years before Bradley's _Ethical Studies_, he urged, "The man who does not wish to belong to the *[End Page

and teaching. It is as if, among its attractions, education allows us to legitimate a desire we had anyway to haunt rather than inhabit the world. Present then from the start, Theophrastus's anxiety that he is not human dilates into full-blown skepticism at the moment of molting itself, the point of his conversion into a new self. Noticing that his friends are far less interested in what he has to say about himself than they are in reporting on their own lives, Theophrastus schools himself in taking impressions: BLOCKQUOTE BLOCKQUOTE

I take it as the strongest sign of Theophrastus's failure as a dancer that he did not know of it, that his arduous scrupulosity made him inattentive to his audience's amusement. Because dancing professes our body's movements as natural--as natural, say, as molting--it *[End Page 308]* exposes our solemn self-absorption with special cruelty. But suffering exposure appears the fate of each of us, pupils of whatever sort. As if to acknowledge the inescapability of such unanticipated exposures, and our inability to gauge their effects, Theophrastus then asks, remarkably, "What sort of hornpipe am


democratizing



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
Poe those forces are not wholly identified with the African American, and his enslavement does to little neutralize those forces, which persist in the world (81). The fundamental problem (of which slave rebellion and abolition are only instances) lies deeper, manifesting itself more generally in the subversive, democratizing passion of the "'many who want,'" the overzealous "'spirit of liberty' . . . which destroys the 'governmental machinery' of nations by asserting that 'all things be in common'" (qtd. in Bradfield 83-84).


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
---------------
With this brief travelogue, which constructs both whiteness and intellectual legitimacy, Mervyn joins the fellowship of the novel's other scientific observers. 22 Mervyn's acts of classification resist the stage's democratizing space and position him at the top of the moving microcosm's social hierarchy. 23 "I was destined to be_something_ in this scene of existence," he says on his return to Philadelphia, "and might sometime lay claim to the gratitude and homage of my fellow-men" (589). Mervyn's conception of his relation to audience recalls both the _Repository_'s ideal


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1047-1082
"Hinting" and "Reminding": The Rhetoric of Performative Embodiment in _Leaves of Grass_
Vincent J. Bertolini
---------------
numerically singular, those unique individuals whose souls and bodies are at that moment engaged in reading his text. Whitman experimented with this technique in his early journalism at a time when he was writing for more narrowly defined readerships on typical political and reformist topics, and before discovering the broadly democratizing effects of abstract address. 36 But in _Leaves of Grass_, this placing of generalized/specific readers serves to coordinate Whitman's historical determinism with his emphasis on what Raymond Williams calls "creative [practise] in the emergent sense," and forms the rhetorical context for the collaborative enterprise of his lyric. 37

48. See Parker and Sedwick's introduction, "Performativity and Performance," to _Performativity and Performance_, 8-11. This is not to say, however, that Whitman _never_ apostrophizes specific subjects in his lyric, as poems like "To a Common Prostitute" or "To Rich Givers" (2:412-13) show. It is only to say that when he is working in his most broadly democratizing lyric mode, he is resisting the ideologico-cultural "disimpaction of the scene, as well as the act, of utterance" (Parker and Sedwick, 8) that Parker and Sedgwick perform on Austin. Whitman prefers instead to leave the scene of interlocution in its most "fluid" (to use Moon's term) possible state, open

56. Erkkila makes a related point when she argues that it is the interreferentiality of Whitman's languages--political, social, religious, scientific, sexual--our inability to take one as the expressive system of another, that characterizes _Leaves of Grass_ as a democratizing social and political project: "The words Whitman did use to articulate and name his erotic feeling for men were the words of democracy--of comradeship, brotherhood, equality, social union, and the glories of the laborer and the common people. But Whitman also used other languages. And thus, against those


hastening



ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
countercurrents in political and aesthetic thought, gender politics provide a recurrent case of plus ça change. With the gradual relocation of power the always available misogynistic libel collects on the neoclassic image, and iconoclasm comes to be gendered as male. Burke's account of the beautiful, then, is a means of hastening political change by feminizing the antagonistic political order, and accusing traditional aesthetic theory of fostering a matriarchy by submitting to idle and unproductive fantasies and illusions.


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 501-523
Sexual Politics and the Aesthetics of Crime: Oscar Wilde in the Nineties
Simon Joyce
---------------
vague) indiscretions, Hallward wonders about the quality of his friend's soul, at which point he is invited to view the picture and see it for himself; but Dorian suddenly feels an intense hatred towards the painter for having set the process in motion and kills him out of resentment, before hastening to cover up his crime. Commenting on this incident, Alan Sinfield concludes that it arises "from sentimental self-indulgence and want of intelligence and self-control, not from aestheticism and amorality. . . . Dorian arrives at disaster not because he abjures conventional moral principles but because he remains under their sway." 18 As we shall see, this


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 167-207

"What a World We Make the Oppressor and the Oppressed": George Cruikshank, Percy Shelley, and the Gendering of Revolution in 1819 Ashley J. Cross _Manhattan College _
---------------
stanza 4, Shelley presents two ways of seeing the victimized woman that he rejects: while the eft, who "peeps idly" ("M," 4.26) from a distance, is completely unaware and without sensitivity, the bat is "bereft / Of sense" ("M," 4.27-28), even "mad" ("M," 4.28), as self-destructively "he comes hastening like a moth that hies / After a taper" ("M," 4.30-31). Whereas the former remains securely aloof from danger, the latter is the hysterical male, threatened by Medusa's image. This might seem to leave the viewer in the position of the reassured patriarchal male, Perseus, who beheads Medusa by


effecting



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
Garrison's repeated denial of his reliance on print reveals an anxiety about his relation to public opinion and, therefore, to the very organizational vogues, distributional markets, and national public-formations--in short, to ideology--he criticized in others. At the same time, however, Garrison's own newspaper, _The Liberator,_ was effecting exactly the manipulation of public opinion. Throughout Garrison's writings, the agency of print was always subsumed on the one hand by providential wisdom and, on the other, by the affective response of readers, who were constructed as embodied consumers, both of the print-commodity and its ideology. That the readership of _The


_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
experiment" of "living at the same time in several different contiguous, but otherwise widely separated, worlds" (126). In a classically voluntarist manner, Park sees the "fortuitous and casual" (125) relationships *[End Page 601]* of the modern city as effecting the "mobilization" of the individual: in the segmented social worlds of the city, every individual can, in principle, find the "moral climate" capable of stimulating his or her "peculiar nature" and bringing it to "full and free expression" (126). But Crane casts a rather more baleful and disenchanted eye on human


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
60). A Dionysian art intervenes to exhaust these feelings of nausea and absurdity, producing plays within plays, poems within poems. But a danger persists that the loss constitutive of such art will receive, out of fear or grief or weariness, a transcendental interpretation. 44 Excess succumbs to intelligibility, effecting a loss of loss. The ecstatic agonies of the Dionysian, those pains of opium's dubious pleasures, can just as easily receive transcendental as lyrical treatment.


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 117-149
Critical Conditions: Coleridge, "Common Sense," And The Literature Of Self-experiment
Noel B. Jackson
---------------
is neither relief from self-consciousness nor an easy way of invoking community, the poem imagines autonomy not as the endowment of the isolated, elevated individual, but rather as the capacity for imagining the conditions of a common sense that is imperceptible but no less integral to subjectivity in the first place. Far from effecting an aestheticized flight from politics, Coleridge's literary experimentation seeks rather to reconceive the aesthetic as a basis for imagining profoundly altered conditions for judgment and for communities based on the same.


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1043-1065
Governing Economic Man: Joanna Baillie's Theatre of Utility
Julie Murray
---------------
the commonplace argument for the triumph of interest over passion, of which Smith is the avowed champion. In short, Smith's dissolution of the distinction between passions and interests signaled the demise of what had been a centuries-old sociopolitical and cultural formation. Smith is not alone in effecting this transformation, but rather is representative of a broader shift, generally understood as the gradual, overlapping movement in the eighteenth century from civic to economic man.


corroborating



ELH 68.4 (2001) 857-896
William Godwin's _Caleb Williams:_ The Tarnishing of the Sublime
Monika Fludernik
---------------
sublime, and [whose] bosom burned with a godlike ambition" (postscript, 325). This echo of Caleb's characterization of Falkland in Godwin's memorial footnote on Burke has of course been read as corroborating a reading of Caleb Williams in which Caleb is led astray by his unwarranted admiration for Falkland (or Burke), and in which at the end of the novel he rises to a superior realization of, and compassion for, Falkland's lapse into depravity. That corruption is


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
After Lady Delacour's invigoratingly debauched behavior at an earlier masked ball, to see her in her decrepitude is contrast indeed. And yet, it is a fitting contrast, making still more explicit the novel's proposed connection between wit and terror, and corroborating the insinuating proximity between these terms that occupies the early sections of the novel. We now learn that Lady Delacour explicitly blames wittiness for her predicament. These finger-pointings range from the more oblique--"my


_ELH_ 71.1 (2004) 209-227
Hannah More and the Invention of Narrative Authority
Emily Rena-Dozier _University of Chicago _
---------------
into the truth, before she condemned any person of good character, though appearances were against them" (_W_, 2:138). And indeed it turns out that Hester couldn't afford a new dress because her drunken father stole her savings. Mrs. Jones's ability to ascertain character and withhold judgment, while corroborating her impressions, renders her a more adequate—or at least accurate—provider of charity than the clergyman. Despite their rather mysterious knowledge of character, More's


masculinizing



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
content, rehearses the gender distinctions of Wordsworth's earlier polemic on poetic diction: just as his "plainer" language will rescue English diction from "the gaudiness and inane phraseology" of the sensibility poets, so meter performs a disciplinary, masculinizing role on improper subjects, specifically, on Wordsworth's female and effeminate voices. Note too that Wordsworth's theory of meter is essentially performative. The "restraining" effect of meter cannot be understood outside the sensual workings of poetry as an oral medium: as words uttered,

For Wordsworth, English is "rugged" and concentrates the manly mind, while Italian is "easy and mellifluous" as a siren song.30 This formulation suggests that Wordsworth considered his translating Metastasio a form of masculinizing transformation, whereby he would subject the insinuating feminine rhymes of the romance language to the "rugged," "meagre," and "harsh" constraints of Anglo-Saxon demonstratives: "'that' 'this' &c."

Wordsworth, to "encourage idleness and unmanly despair" in poets (1802, 336-37). In contrast to Hoole's empty and unmanly poeticisms, the "masculinizing" austerity of Wordsworth's translation from "_Amor Timido_" artfully restrains the operatic gesture at the heart of the lyric, the *[End Page 983]* emotional extravagance of the lovesick speaker and his tearful, effeminate "timidity." As Wordsworth observes in the Preface, the regulatory effect of meter combined


ting



ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
motives and aims of agents to "an old immaculate pedigree"; in looking past individual intentionality, we get beyond the particular, the personal, the time-bound, and the determinant to the general, the impersonal, the timeless, and the [End Page 1013] indeterminant. If "put[ting] ourselves in the place and the state" of others was, for "History," the only way for us to understand action, here it is made clear that the only way for us to elude the "trap" of love and homage is by refusing to rest with such a gesture.


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 199-222
Charlotte Brontë on the Pleasure of Hating
Christopher Lane
---------------
exacerbated, not resolved, by her moments of profound solitude. 47 When over a school vacation Lucy is virtually alone for seven weeks, she likens herself to a hermit who must "swallow his own thoughts . . . during these weeks of inward winter" by "mak[ing] a tidy ball of himself, creep[ing] into a hole of life's wall, and submit[ting] decently to the drift which blows in and soon blocks him up, preserving him in ice for the season" (348). 48 Poignantly, during other holidays Marie Broc (the cretin) is essentially her sole companion.


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 1029-1045
"Back To The Future?": The Narrative of Allegory in Recent Critical Accounts of Romanticism
Karen Hadley
---------------
Although she acknowledges him only in passing, Levinson's Althusserian, Jamesonian-inspired approach in many ways resembles de Man's deconstructive approach, in that both, for example, confront a "greatly idealized corpus" and work to subvert Cartesian dualism by "split[ting] the atom of Romantic symbolism and organicism." 11 Both, too, work to solve the problem of the Romantic symbol by way of recourse to Romantic allegory. And yet de Man introduces allegory, it may be remembered, as a way of forcing the self to confront its own anteriority or alterity, to prevent the self "from an


disengage



ELH 67.3 (2000) 717-741
Franklin and the Revolutionary Body
Betsy Erkkila *
---------------
virtue--especially public virtue and benevolence--that shapes the final sections of Franklin's history. By the early forties, Franklin's business had become sufficiently profitable for him to "disengage" from "private Business" and turn his attention to "public Affairs" and natural philosophy: "I flatter'd myself that, by the sufficient tho' moderate Fortune I had acquir'd, I had secur'd Leisure during the rest of my Life, for Philosophical Studies and Amusements" (A, 100). But, Franklin


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
Emerson aimed to induce in his readers, commentators invite us to experience liberty in the act of pretending away that this is what they are providing. The less sure we are of Emerson's meaning, the more sure we can be of our sanction to mean; the more we can disengage utterance from the "trap" of individuality, the greater the power of utterance to engage our interest. Or again, in the case of more politically minded interpretations of Emerson, the more confident we are of his refusal to "attach meaning to individual consciousness," the more persuaded we will be that his work implies


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 835-860
Eros and Isolation: The AntiSocial George Eliot
Jeff Nunokawa
---------------
shamelessness." 15 Thus the two sides of the story that Goffman and Foucault tell, however far apart in the tone they take to describe the individual's inclination to disengage herself from society, come together in the *[End Page 846]* ubiquitous reflection of its gaze in the mind of the subject so inclined. In either version, she who takes leave from the social unit where she is gathered does so conscious of its gaze. This gaze is always on the mind of those who inhabit the society by


objectifying



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
the "culture and refinement" she has seen "imitated" on the stage (28). According to Seltzer, Maggie "gains an interiority or becomes a person" by "internalizing a desire to imitate" (93). She cultivates an interiority which is only made possible through a self-objectifying process in which she is both warmly human and doll-like, both self-possessed and socially disciplined. At this point, Seltzer refers directly to class division: the melodrama Maggie watches posits both an unbridgeable gulf between upper and lower classes, as well as "a desire to transcend this difference";


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 541-574
Incognito, Intervention, and Dismemberment in _Adam Bede_
Deanna K. Kreisel
---------------
example, these figures are "guides and tutors, demonstrating the quality of perception that the reader must learn to apply to the world within the novel." 17 This would seem to indicate that the horseman is here to train us in appropriate sympathetic response. Yet the horseman's relation to Adam is objectifying and dehumanizing. Even Adam's own "unconscious" response to the stranger's gaze seems to underscore the omniscient and analytical properties of our surrogate narrator rather than his potential sympathetic identification: for his "all-seeing eye surveys" Adam's manly


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
as she, which would mean that Venus would be the same as Pleasant, _or_ his mind was completely possessed by hers, like Trilby's by Svengali's, which would make Venus nothing more than Pleasant's passive pawn.23 In either case, Venus _as other_ would disappear. Escaping the fatally objectifying "boney" regard of Venus would require the reciprocal outcome of objectifying him—depriving him of his alterity and independent perspective altogether. As I read Pleasant's message to Venus, it not only shows this

_or_ his mind was completely possessed by hers, like Trilby's by Svengali's, which would make Venus nothing more than Pleasant's passive pawn.23 In either case, Venus _as other_ would disappear. Escaping the fatally objectifying "boney" regard of Venus would require the reciprocal outcome of objectifying him—depriving him of his alterity and independent perspective altogether. As I read Pleasant's message to Venus, it not only shows this radically individualistic side to performative agency but also its


instilling



ELH 66.4 (1999) 831-861
Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott, and the Gothic Drama
Michael Gamer
---------------
Scott's notion of a properly literary subject for a "legitimate drama"--"the concealment of the Scotch regalia during the troubles"--shows the extent to which his "proper person" constrains his creativity, and the degree to which he imagines that public self participating in the project of instilling institutionalized standards of taste in his literary audiences. 68 While The Doom of Devorgoil raises the same issues of authorship that Lewis faced twenty years previously, it also demonstrates Scott's willingness to live within these parameters and to manipulate his culture's ideas


_ELH_ 69.4 (2002) 835-860
Eros and Isolation: The AntiSocial George Eliot
Jeff Nunokawa
---------------
expectation that we will stay on the right side of the law, proprieties that prescribe as well the most intimate and intricate leanings of body and mind. The "details of dress, bearing, physical and verbal manners" that Pierre Bourdieu assesses as the rudimentary vocabulary of "an implicit pedagogy, capable of instilling a whole cosmology, an ethic, a metaphysic, a political philosophy," are also no more and no less than the stimulation that keeps the eye of society ever wakeful, the sleepless eye which restrains us less by any respect it installs for the particulars of our conduct and


_ELH_ 70.2 (2003) 575-596
The Bosom of the Bourgeoisie: Edgeworth's _Belinda_
Jordana Rosenberg
---------------
would by no means suffer Belinda to follow her into the boudoir" (16). Marriott's province over Lady Delacour's private chambers seems to have been gained through instilling fear in her employer. After she has been dressed by Marriott, Lady Delacour decides that she would rather switch costumes with Belinda, but refuses to do so in her own dressing chambers, where Marriott might see the undoing of her handiwork. She urges Belinda to change outfits at Lady Singleton's,


internalizing



_American Literary History_ 16.4 (2004) 596-618
Class Mimicry in Stephen Crane's City
Andrew Lawson
---------------
dolls really talk, only to be assured by Pete that "'it's some damn fake'" (23). At the theater, Maggie ponders whether she can acquire the "culture and refinement" she has seen "imitated" on the stage (28). According to Seltzer, Maggie "gains an interiority or becomes a person" by "internalizing a desire to imitate" (93). She cultivates an interiority which is only made possible through a self-objectifying process in which she is both warmly human and doll-like, both self-possessed and socially disciplined. At this point, Seltzer refers directly to class division: the melodrama


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
Thomas Weiskel's psychoanalytic terms, the terror of the sublime is the function where "the higher faculty (reason . . . or the superego) strengthens itself through reference to an external threat, the relevant mechanism [being] identification or introjection, which neutralizes oedipal anxiety by internalizing the terrifying image of the father." 5 Burke's rejection of the beautiful, then, is not incidental to his theory, but signals the return to the law of the father and a flight from the feminization of the beautiful. W. J. T. Mitchell sums up the larger implications of the oedipal mechanism when

is to identify with the victim, and, as we shall see, there is ample reason for Burke to do so since Samuels has suggested that he had in mind the execution of the Jacobite rebel, Lord Lovat. 25 This response to the violence of authority is another example of Weiskel's "internalizing the terrifying image of the father," and accounts for male subject-construction through the otherwise unaccountable delight of self-loss "under the arm as it were of almighty power" (E, 68). Sympathy and identification then, belong not with the tragic


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 89-115
William Cowper and the "Taste of Critic Appetite"
Priscilla Gilman
---------------
as though his life could be taken to represent something other than its own course. One source of the variety of faces he shows us is his willingness to follow his changeable nature into its least defended positions. It would be wrong to characterize him exclusively *[End Page 113]* as internalizing a principle of change, or as being finally somehow uncentered in his person. Nonetheless, the overall effect of his letters is to body forth something like instability, whatever is the opposite of being frozen. We are never quite sure of the Cowper we face, maybe least of all in the letters.


designifying



ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
semantics results from such circumstances, a semantics which should not be reduced to the simple absence of that which is being addressed, because the event remains somehow "encrypted" within a language which is wried from the norm by its apparent refusal to refer. Abraham and Torok speak of a process of "designifying" by which words even as they signify normally are felt more importantly to refer to some event which is inadmissible. 13 What is difficult here and what marks the force of the de- or anti- in [End Page 995] "designifying" and "antisemantics" is the fact that the second reference puts a new and troubling angle on the first, while appearing to

norm by its apparent refusal to refer. Abraham and Torok speak of a process of "designifying" by which words even as they signify normally are felt more importantly to refer to some event which is inadmissible. 13 What is difficult here and what marks the force of the de- or anti- in [End Page 995] "designifying" and "antisemantics" is the fact that the second reference puts a new and troubling angle on the first, while appearing to leave it intact. Hence the first or normative reference is made to encrypt the second reference, where "encrypt" means both "to bury" and "to render cryptic."

what?," except that if the "door" to the missing "more" proposed by "or" is simply "Lenore" (dead and buried), and her harbinger comes back to say as much, surely--since this is what the poem overtly announces--there may well be an entirely different and much more disruptive "or" being proposed by the poem's designifying factors? Since the clues, so far, turn on metrical exceptions, I shall consider less systematically exceptional feet. These are few and far between, and I shall work backwards through them because initial instances are liable to seem


surmounting



ELH 66.1 (1999) 157-177
'Tranced Griefs': Melville's Pierre and the Origins of the Gothic
Robert Miles
---------------
individual's infancy, such as unresolved Oedipal anxiety. My immediate concern is with the first form of the [End Page 160] uncanny. We have, says Freud, surmounted our archaic beliefs and fears, but the uncanny comes upon us, overwhelming us with feelings of the fantastic, when this "surmounting" comes under threat, when the animistic, supernatural world once more exerts itself in our imaginations. 14 The American fantastic, however, includes an additional variety. It comes about when the archaic European order that America has surmounted breaks through the quotidian of

------------------- For Melville, the Gothic genre encodes an archaic historical stage America was to have surmounted; and to suspicions of the failure of this surmounting he attaches episodes of the uncanny. I now want to turn to [End Page 161] my first proposition: that Pierre discloses a close knowledge of the ideological origins of the English Gothic. I shall begin by briefly reviewing some of the main features of the myth of the Goth which conditioned much of the political debate of


ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
acts as an antidote to the dissolution produced by the beautiful. All its strainings follow the dictates of the work ethic." And she reminds us of Burke's assertion that "the best remedy for all these evils [produced by the beautiful] is exercise or labour. And labour is a surmounting of difficulties, an exertion of the contracting power of the muscles." 42 An identical ascesis also appears as intellectual labor in Neil Hertz's essay on the numerical sublime where he cites a passage by Tom MacFarland as an example of "the scholar's wish for the moment of blockage, when an indefinite and disarrayed sequence is


revolting



_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
child during the Indian raid on the family's home. Reading this scene, a number of critics have ascribed to Sedgwick the beliefs of Hope, whose "heart die[s] within her" (237) when she and Faith meet again several years later. Upon seeing Faith dressed "in savage attire," Hope is overcome with "a sickening feeling," "an unthought of revolting of nature" (237). Judith Fetterley argues that this scene is the moment where _Hope Leslie_ becomes "Hope-lessly"; it marks the limits of any radical politics one might find in the novel because "Sedgwick's narrative voice doubles Hope's" in this scene ("My Sister!" 504). Similarly Stephen Carl Arch asserts that "Hope's

"difference of character among the various races of the earth, arises mainly from difference of condition" (4). The reunion scene is constructed to test this proposition. The argument there in favor of "conditions" as a marker of racial difference turns on the strangeness of the phrase used to describe Hope's reaction: "an unthought of revolting of nature." The ambiguity of language and syntax in this phrase, as is so often the case in the novel, conveys disparate meanings. On the one hand, the phrase simply means that Hope's "unthought" is of a kind that might be termed _revolting_ (i.e., an unthought revolting of nature), in which case "revolting" is simply an

Hope's reaction: "an unthought of revolting of nature." The ambiguity of language and syntax in this phrase, as is so often the case in the novel, conveys disparate meanings. On the one hand, the phrase simply means that Hope's "unthought" is of a kind that might be termed _revolting_ (i.e., an unthought revolting of nature), in which case " adjective that describes the "nature" or type of unthought that Hope feels: Hope finds the sight of her sister repulsive. On the other hand, the grounds for that revulsion are indicated by the term _nature_, which refers not only to Hope's unthought, but to Faith's decidedly _unnatural_ (according to Hope)

Hope finds the sight of her sister repulsive. On the other hand, the grounds for that revulsion are indicated by the term _nature_, which refers not only to Hope's unthought, but to Faith's decidedly _unnatural_ (according to Hope) appropriation of Indian clothing, manners, and speech (i.e., an unthought of revolting _against_ nature). In this case, " verb: Hope is revulsed because Faith seems to be revolting against nature. Which is only to say that what so sickens Hope is that her sister is disguised as an Indian; she is, in Hope's view, _passing_, hiding what Hope

for that revulsion are indicated by the term _nature_, which refers not only to Hope's unthought, but to Faith's decidedly _unnatural_ (according to Hope) appropriation of Indian clothing, manners, and speech (i.e., an unthought of revolting _against_ nature). In this case, "revolting" also functions as a verb: Hope is revulsed because Faith seems to be revolting against nature. Which is only to say that what so sickens Hope is that her sister is disguised as an Indian; she is, in Hope's view, _passing_, hiding what Hope believes is her true nature—whiteness—beneath Indian


ELH 66.2 (1999) 461-487
Railway Novels: Sensation Fiction and the Modernization of the Senses
Nicholas Daly*
---------------
earlier Victorian culture, he is also close kin to the mid-Victorian novel. This is a play in which books can be mistaken for people, and the changeling left by Miss Prism in Jack's perambulator turns out to be none other than "the manuscript of a three-volume novel of more than usually revolting sentimentality" (I, 336). The pram, as far as Wilde is concerned, of course, is the right place for this species of fiction. That the sensation novel as much as, if not more than, the sentimental novel is the target of Wilde's wit is suggested by a comment of Cecily's on the novels she receives from


ELH 66.4 (1999) 939-963
"The Nation Begins to Form": Competing Nationalisms in Morgan's The O'Brien's and the O'Flahertys_
Julia M. Wright
---------------
'other and better worlds'" (O, 424). O'Brien's break with the national past is not only marked by his failure to remember the Irish language, childhood friends, and his aunts' home, but by a disgust that is explicitly ascribed to O'Brien's non-Irish political education, a disgust that transforms even Ireland's "new-born freedom" into something revolting rather than revolutionary. The "other and better worlds" which have initiated O'Brien's break with his Irish past are the United States and France, favorably compared to Ireland


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
in a considerable degree, useful and instructive. In that hope it is, that I have drawn it up: and that must be my apology for breaking through that delicate and honourable reserve, which, for the most part, restrains us from the public exploration of our own errors and infirmities. Nothing, indeed, is more revolting to English feelings, than the spectacle of a human being obtruding on our notice his moral ulcers or scars, and tearing away that "decent drapery," which time, or indulgence to human frailty, may have drawn over them. . . . _All this I feel so forcibly, and so


uncompromising



ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
reversal is meant to say: 'I will bear everything, pain, suffering, humiliation, and disgrace, but I will not renounce my satisfaction.'" 17 "[The masochist's] obedience," concludes Reik, "kills the commands of his aggressors. His shameful and ridiculous acceptance of the authorities makes them impotent and his uncompromising acknowledgment of their power prepares for their overthrow." 18 The flight forward therefore does have one element in common with Burke's beautiful: it is [End Page 411] a form of deceit, deceit that has the power of an ideal. "Phantasy," Reik claims, "has the power to transform the


ELH 67.2 (2000) 515-537
"Bales of Living Anguish": Representations of Race and the Slave in Romantic Writing
Peter J. Kitson
---------------
affairs of the kidnapped slaves; these speculations about the state of the slaves are unspoken, but nevertheless shared, and throughout Clarkson emphatically uses the pronoun "we" to describe their common purpose. The mutuality and shared objectivity of "these and other melancholy reflections" (E, 84) profoundly indicates Clarkson's uncompromising acceptance of his common humanity with his African guide. For Wordsworth and Coleridge, such moments of mutuality arise only in the most intense and sublime experiences, when the sense of an individual being merged with that of another, as in Coleridge's projection of his thoughts onto his son Hartley in "Frost at


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
Emerson's conception of meaning, "the individual does not own, and does not even hold meaning as part of himself, for this can only belong to the world." The labor theory of knowledge is not thereby abandoned but [End Page 1011] it is qualified in a way that makes its expectations seem less uncompromising and its potential contradictions less disabling. The passion for intellectual independence is put in its place. It is to be understood as emerging from a background set of assumptions that take meaning to be "both public and private in that its ownership remains a form of social


purport



ELH 68.4 (2001) 897-927
Countenancing History: Mary Wollstonecraft, Samuel Stanhope Smith, and Enlightenment Racial Science
Scott Juengel
---------------
susceptible to modification. At the end of her opening letter Wollstonecraft recounts a distressing scene that implicitly ascribes causality to the face: "I saw the first countenance in Sweden that displeased me, though the man was better dressed than any one who had as yet fallen in my way. An altercation took place between him and my host, the purport of which I could not guess, excepting I was the occasion of it . . . The sequel was his leaving the house angrily; and I was immediately informed that he was a custom-house officer. The professional had indeed effaced the national character, for living as he did with these frank hospitable people, still only the exciseman


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
scientific theories only to show that these do not suffice to solve the mystery of the spectral. For while Scott recognizes in his _Letters_ that the popular demand for ghost stories, especially those which purport to be veridical, reflects the growing need for empirical verification of things which ought to be perceived and understood intuitively, he privately acknowledges that a kind of ghost story in which the distinction between objective and subjective perception, between optical fact and optical illusion, appears entirely arbitrary may produce a


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
themselves suggest that the opposition between individual autonomy and social determination fails to provide a sufficient basis for an adequate theory of the role of agency in social transformation.10 In this essay I am concerned primarily with two influential contemporary theories which purport to offer an approach to politically relevant agency that does not depend upon individual intentions, proposing instead that political agency should be understood as nonindividualized and nonintentionalized. The first, performative theory made popular by Judith Butler, underwrites


unpretending



ELH 67.3 (2000) 773-799
Irving's Posterity
Michael Warner *
---------------
literary reputation, this is the very period of life most auspicious for it, and I am resolved to devote a few years exclusively to the attempt. Should I succeed, besides the literary property I shall amass in copyright, I trust it will not be difficult to obtain some official situation of a moderate, unpretending kind, in which I may make my bread. But as to reputation I can only look for it through the exertions of my pen." 39. On Irving's industrious cultivation of literary capital, see Ben


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
clusters a vocabulary of appearance, simulation, of looking and looking-like. If the servant, tutelary spirit, wants her master to exorcise him, it is because he brings out the simulated side of that prototypical English home that is Dove Cottage. The cottage, we are told, is "unpretending" (_C_, 55). Modest it may be, but without pretense or show it is not; next to the "ferocious-looking" Malay a number of salient details that denote pretense and seeming appear: the kitchen's paneling is of "dark wood that from age and rubbing _resembled_ oak" and the kitchen itself "_look_(s) more like a

ever before: I read Kant again; and again I understood him, or fancied that I did. Again my feelings of pleasure expanded themselves to all around me: and if any man from Oxford or Cambridge, or from neither had been announced to me in my unpretending cottage, I should have welcomed him with as sumptuous a reception as so poor a man could offer. Whatever else was wanting to a wise man's happiness,—of laudanum I would have given him as much as he wished, and in a golden cup. And, by the way, now that I speak of giving laudanum away, I remember, about this time, a


spurns



ELH 66.1 (1999) 157-177
'Tranced Griefs': Melville's Pierre and the Origins of the Gothic
Robert Miles
---------------
novel, the aesthetic and ideological antithesis of his literary ambition. The irony is stitched deep into the fabric of the book. The disillusioned Pierre spurns what he once was, an aristocratic and literary amateur, in favour of self-creation. After burning his past (literally, by setting fire to the portrait of his "adulterous" father) Pierre declares himself: "untrammeledly his ever-present self! free to do his own self-will and present fancy to whatever


ELH 66.4 (1999) 863-883
Walter Scott and Anti-Gallican Minstrelsy
Richard Cronin
---------------
is defined in opposition to the "Southern land" (L, 39) of England. England may be generous to minstrels, but he scorns it, preferring poverty in the Ettrick hills and the free winds of Scotland even though they "chill [his] wither'd cheek" (L, 39). But the English generosity that the minstrel spurns, Scott reciprocates, for he allows the minstrel's patriotic sentiment to blow south across the border, until it becomes an expression of the passionate nationalism that united all of Britain in its war against Napoleon.


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
Miller, 39-49. 7. De Quincey, _Collected Writings_, 11:54. 8. In contradistinction to Rousseau, whose sensibility he spurns, De Quincey spends his time explaining his lack of pathos: "My thoughts on subjects connected with the chief interests of man daily, nay hourly, descend a thousand fathoms 'too deep for tears' . . . the sternness of my habits of thought present an antagonism to the


neutralizes



ELH 66.2 (1999) 405-437
Edmund Burke, Gilles Deleuze, and the Subversive Masochism of the Image
Peter Cosgrove
---------------
Thomas Weiskel's psychoanalytic terms, the terror of the sublime is the function where "the higher faculty (reason . . . or the superego) strengthens itself through reference to an external threat, the relevant mechanism [being] identification or introjection, which neutralizes oedipal anxiety by internalizing the terrifying image of the father." 5 Burke's rejection of the beautiful, then, is not incidental to his theory, but signals the return to the law of the father and a flight from the feminization of the beautiful. W. J. T. Mitchell sums up the larger implications of the oedipal mechanism when


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1015-1032
"Dismal Pleasure": Victorian Sentimentality and the Pathos of the Parvenu
Miriam Bailin
---------------
seashore. "I hate you, Enoch" (EA, 34), the youthful Philip is permitted tersely to announce. Yet all of this incitement to feeling is forcibly countered by the techniques of sentimentality, which in addition to converting the pressure for retaliatory violence to the repressive energies of denial and renunciation, also neutralizes rivalry by the fatalism that seems to govern the central losses experienced. Enoch's anger toward Philip is shifted away from an agent against whom retaliation might be sanctioned to the purely aleatory nature of loss and decline. The woeful state in which Enoch finds himself, physically


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
mythology conceals. 48 In her fascinating reading of David Copperfield, Poovey demonstrates how the natural selflessness and self-regulation of the English middle-class woman "neutralizes" bourgeois contradictions, thereby stabilizing individual and national identity. 49 Crucial to this representational strategy, however, is both the erasure of aberrant female sexuality and the naturalization of class difference. In David Copperfield, Poovey argues, bourgeois contradictions threaten to "return" in the anti-heroic figure of Uriah Heep. 50 The novel


economizing



ELH 67.2 (2000) 589-615
Market Indicators: Banking and Domesticity in Dickens's Bleak House_
Gordon Bigelow
---------------
successful internalization of the rigors of domestic work. She assumes the keys of John Jarndyce's estate, Bleak House, with seeming gratitude, and she provides motherly care for the orphaned wards of Chancery, the neglected Jellyby children, and for Jo. 30 She combines the orderliness of household economizing "with love," compensating for the emptiness of the various systems of work and value in the novel. The opening of Esther's narration in chapter three provides the possibility of narrative motion, as signification can escape the static, horizontal circulation of chapters one and

magazine as a whole; the title announces that the publication is about national subjects, discussed in familiar, "household" terms. The metaphor [End Page 602] is an economic one, or one at least that plays on the two gendered meanings of the word "economy" in modern usage: (feminine) household scrimping, economizing, preserving, tidying; and (masculine) political economy, market, world of finance. The metaphorical connection between banking and housekeeping that


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 171-195
The Clerks' Tale: Liberalism, Accountability, and Mimesis in _David Copperfield_
Matthew Titolo
---------------
sense, it is important to remember that charismatic authority "is specifically foreign to economic considerations. . . . In the pure type, it disdains and repudiates economic exploitation of the gifts of grace as a source of income . . . .What is despised . . . is traditional or rational everyday economizing." 33 Within class society, though, we might say that charisma has paid the price of economic routinization. So, for example, even Uriah's baleful mesmerism is thoroughly implicated in the routinized calculations of the counting house: BLOCKQUOTE


rationalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
self-regulating practice" (18), one of the key "affective forms of disciplinary control" (8) in early America. Barnes argues that postrevolutionary women were encouraged to form sympathetic relations to sentimental novels in which wayward daughters learn to subject themselves to the authoritative if arbitrary rule of fathers, thereby rationalizing the "consensual" subjection of citizens to the founding fathers of the national family. Demonstrating "early national culture's attempts to reconcile conservative republican values of duty to others with a liberal agenda of self-possession" (12), sentimental fiction is the logical outgrowth of


ELH 67.3 (2000) 717-741
Franklin and the Revolutionary Body
Betsy Erkkila *
---------------
coincidence between Vaughan's didactic letter and Franklin's focus on self-regulation in the second part of his narrative, a close reading reveals a volatile body and an ironic, shape-shifting persona that resist young Franklin's moral idealism and his rationalizing regime. There is in fact an increasing temporal dissonance between the young man who aspires and the old man who narrates--between the working class body of Franklin the shopkeeper and printer in Philadelphia in the 1730s and the cosmopolitan and elite body of Franklin who drank, flirted, and flourished in France


_ELH_ 70.4 (2003) 1107-1135
The Trouble with Ghost-Seeing: Vision, Ideology, and Genre in the Victorian Ghost Story
Srdjan Smajic
---------------
nineteenth-century philosophical skepticism and evidential rules of materialist science than with Carlyle's, Crowe's, and Ruskin's metaphysically and theologically informed arguments for spiritual vision. And yet, what early nineteenth-century physiological science makes amply evident, inadvertently developing a counterdiscourse to its own rationalizing imperatives and ideological agendas, is that the validity of empirical evidence in general, and the evidence of bodily sight especially, demands the same kind of blind and somewhat irrational leap of faith that spiritualists like Crowe demanded for inner vision--faith in what turns out to be little


_ELH_ 71.3 (2004) 719-749
Articulating Social Agency in _Our Mutual Friend_: Problems with Performances, Practices, and Political Efficacy
Molly Anne Rothenberg
---------------
and tactics, see de Certeau, 35-39. 35. When Harmon sizes up Pleasant, we may imagine that he is assessing her moral worth. Yet because her shrewdness, closemouthedness, and rationalizing not only suit Pleasant to her quasi-larcenous business but also correspond to Harmon's need for a particular kind of service, it is only by according an absolute positive moral status to Harmon—one he himself refuses—that Harmon's use of Pleasant seems to be a


essentializing



_American Literary History_ 17.1 (2005) 36-69
Literature and Regional Production
Hsuan L. Hsu
---------------
native to the region in question, Hamlin Garland calls for a "statement of life as indigenous as the plant-growth" (5). (Jewett's idea of entitling her projected collection of "Irish-American" stories _Transplanted Shamrocks_ raises, in the metaphor of transplantation, another objection to the essentializing concept of geographical roots.) But Mrs.Todd's gardening and gathering do not simply symbolize community—they actively produce it. These practices are essential to the food she cooks for her guests, the teas she shares with visitors, and the nostrums she dispenses to


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
documented, the project of de-familiarizing the past, and tracing its duration in mythologies of the present, must continue. This project demands rigorous historicization and methodological critique. With these ends in mind, I look forward to a critical practice that neither capitulates to the teleological and essentializing tendencies identified by recent criticism, nor eludes those dangers by recourse to abstraction. University of Washington


ELH 68.4 (2001) 965-989
How The Wanderer_ Works: Reading Burney and Bourdieu
Helen Thompson
---------------
wearing of ornaments, because Harleigh has caught a glimpse of the wanderer's writing as she copies a part from a play. The wanderer's intellect manifests itself in the strictly mechanical task of handwriting, revealing neither epistolary sentiment nor de-essentializing rationality. Handwriting may, to be sure, claim an attenuated relation to the body; but, instead of a Richardsonian or Wollstonecraftian promise of interiority, the wanderer's copying delimits the exercise of an impersonally interiorized techn¯e, whose appeal lies not in content but in the unmistakable evidence of

with the education of a gentlewoman. 23 Remuneration can only negatively effect essence, through the pain it causes. Pain, then, distinguishes remunerative practices from immediately essentializing ones like manners. In the milliner's shop, the wanderer's companion embodies their pain in a "tragic expression of constant woe" that leaves the wanderer the more "attractive" of the two. Yet even with Gabriella present to animate the pain of the wanderer's remuneration, Burney still has difficulty

narrative insistence, represents the deepest historical threat to the wanderer's imagined transmutation of aristocratic being. In her efforts to support herself, the wanderer is in danger of affirming the bourgeois radical "ethos of the self-made individual," whose de-essentializing promise is, paradoxically, also based in practice. 24 Burney distinguishes practice from (remunerative) practice; but it is hardly a coincidence that she reveals the secret of the

doing and doing. Yet The Wanderer does not end here, for Burney invokes more than the wanderer's lineage to stabilize the difference between essentializing (aristocratic) and de- radical) practice. To stabilize this difference, Burney also relies upon the wanderer's anatomy. The rest of this essay considers how The Wanderer imagines its heroine's animating practice only in variously urgent reference to her "female difficulties."


moping



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
In "The Brothers," a long dramatic poem first published in the 1800 _Lyrical Ballads_, Wordsworth makes strategic use of a masculinist language familiar to his wartime readers. The "Priest of Ennerdale" mistakes Leonard, a returned sailor, for an effeminate Lake tourist, a "moping son of Idleness."3 His "tears," "fancies," and "solitary smiles" represent to the Priest a masculine deficiency, a neglect of industry and martial vigor. This (mistaken) description of Leonard is also strikingly evocative of Wordsworth's own balladeer, and by extension the poet himself:

not the _strength_ of overpowering feelings on learning of his brother's death that struck him dumb, he says, but "the weakness of his heart" (428). The affective meaning is the same, but not its gender significance. Our last image of Leonard echoes our first, that is, of a weak, effeminate man, a "moping son of Idleness." Likewise, Timothy, the father who six months ago lost his last child, is another man whose high emotion, represented by tears, renders him silent. The balladeer, in a tranquil mood himself, must speak for him by ventriloquizing his thoughts:

sentimental content truly effeminate, except in the strategic, rhetorical sense in which Wordsworth employs these terms to "defend" himself and his poems from masculinist critique in a time of war, a time when he himself might have been called an effeminate do-nothing, a "moping son of Idleness." The necessity for that defense was borne out, as I have suggested, by Burney's 1799 critique of the _Ballads_ as _poesie larmoiante_, a crying game. That said, the merely strategic, gender-political interpretation of Wordsworth's "manly" style risks paying too little credit to the


Aims



_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 267-300
Can We Learn to Argue? _Huckleberry Finn_ and Literary Discipline
Howard Horwitz
---------------
37. James Baldwin, _Poetry_, vol. 1 of _An Introduction to the Study of English Literature and Literary Criticism_ (Philadelphia: Potter and Co., 1882), 4. For an argument that literary study can be specifically "systematic," see W. T. Hewett, "The Aims and Methods of Collegiate Instruction in Modern Languages," _PMLA_ 1 (1884-1885): 33. 38. Here is just one of countless examples. Henry S. Pancoast begins his history of English literature with a remark that treats the terms

325. 68. Wheeler, "The Liberal Education," in _The Abundant Life_, 175-78 ("liberal education"; "freemen's training"), 183 ("rescue men"). Wheeler, "What the University Aims to Give the Student," in _The Abundant Life_, 187 ("free [students]"), 187-88 ("American freemen"; "initiate"; "independent"). 69. Wendell, "Stelligeri," 15; MacCalister, "The Study of Modern


_ELH_ 70.1 (2003) 301-318
Bruising, Laceration, and Lifelong Maiming; Or, How We Encourage Research
Andrew H. Miller
---------------
question. 30. Hertz, 149. 31. John Mearshimer, "The Aims of Education," in _Philosophy and Literature_ 22 (1998): 150. 32. Wayne Booth, "Introducing Professor Mearshimer to his Own University," _Philosophy and Literature_ 22 (1998): 176.


ventriloquizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
cultural and psychological dynamics. 10 My concern, rather, is with what these denials of conspiracy dismiss and ignore, for their leveling of the early national period to the circulation of surface discourses methodologically prohibits the explication of certain cultural structures. Levine writes of Carwin, the ventriloquizing conspirator of Brown's _Wieland_ (1798), "the problem of whether to view Carwin as a political conspirator is beside the point, for it becomes increasingly clear that the society at the summerhouse-temple bequeathed by the paranoid elder Wieland is in


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1033-1051
Alive in the Grave: Walter Pater's Renaissance
Jeffrey Wallen
---------------
Pater turns to the life of the artist in each essay in order to provide a subjective medium with which to explore all the thoughts, passions, and tensions of which the work is only "an outward sign," a "semblance" (as Donoghue states, ventriloquizing Pater), and with which to impart to us the powers of influence that it still retains for the receptive critic. Yet for Pater what is influential is precisely what is vampiric: not simply the pleasure, or even the forces, of another era, but these forces as having survived their


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 969-1000
Crying Game: Operatic Strains in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads
Gillen D'arcy Wood
---------------
that is, of a weak, effeminate man, a "moping son of Idleness." Likewise, Timothy, the father who six months ago lost his last child, is another man whose high emotion, represented by tears, renders him silent. The balladeer, in a tranquil mood himself, must speak for him by ventriloquizing his thoughts: Perhaps to himself at that moment he said, "The key I must take for my Ellen is dead" But of this in my ears not a word did he speak,

himself fascinated by the scene of pained departure between little "Barbara Lewthwaite" and her pet lamb. He studies the "workings" of regret in the girl's face, which in turn work on him to fire the machinery of sympathetic identification, and awaken his ventriloquizing powers. The next ten stanzas are not reported speech, but the voice of the balladeer explicitly adopting the sentimental tones of the "little Maid": "If Nature to her tongue could measur'd numbers bring / Thus, thought I, to her Lamb that little Maid might sing" (19-20). The vocal transposition is marked


smouldering



ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
characters' increasing preoccupation over the course of an evening with a disgusting substance permeating the air and slowly settling on windowsills and clothing; this indeterminate but emphatically nauseous matter is variously described as "soot" (B, 398), "a smouldering suffocating vapour," "a dark greasy coating" (B, 402), "a thick, yellow liquor," and "a stagnant, sickening oil" (B, 401). Eventually, two characters, joined with the impersonal narrative voice, make the gruesome discovery that the source of this substance--indeed, the substance itself--is Mr. Krook, the owner of

phenomenon of spontaneous combustion--to the narrative itself, if not to the reader. Almost immediately following this description, the character who had earlier discovered Krook's remains spots Richard and comments: "'there's combustion going on there! It's not a case of Spontaneous, but it's smouldering combustion it is'" (B, 489). The play of embodiment and abstraction in which Richard engages here suggests the process of combustion--or perhaps even enacts it, insofar as Richard's approaching death may be taken to confirm Tony Weevle's diagnosis. Figuration and interpretation here


_ELH_ 69.2 (2002) 473-500
Filth, Liminality, and Abjection in Charles Dickens's _Bleak House_
Robert E. Lougy
---------------
Krook's remains, remains which are, like Nemo's, out of place. The whole thrust of this scene reminds us not only of the initial unknowability of this thick yellow liquor, but of its general displacement and ubiquitousness, for like the fog in the novel's opening pages, it is everywhere, "a smouldering, suffocating substance vapour"(_B_, 511) that slides down walls, clings to windows, and saturates exposed human flesh. We not only have Krook's remains, however, but also his cat, now


normalizing



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 60-82
Gender, Nation, and the Tourist Gaze in the European "Year of Revolutions": Kirkland's _Holidays Abroad_
Brigitte Bailey
---------------
tour. Italy's images were icons in a double sense, both revered objects and places (art, architecture, cities) within Italian religious and aesthetic traditions and objects triggering aesthetic responses that confirmed elite status in the US. Kirkland's responses to Italian sights shed light on tourism as a normalizing visual technique of the period and reveal how the discourse of iconoclasm could reinforce the impulse toward surveillance, as in the cathedral at Genoa, and provide a possible strategy of resistance to them, both possibilities inflected by her cultural position as a woman.


_American Literary History_ 16.1 (2004) 1-28
Letters from Asylumia: The _Opal_ and the Cultural Work of the Lunatic Asylum, 1851-1860
Benjamin Reiss
---------------
writer of the Fourth of July ode above made clear, it was a god of "self-control" rather than the revivalist god to whom the patients were allowed to pray. Also subject to normalizing reform within the asylum were the gender roles associated with middle-class domestic life, for, as Mary Ryan has written of antebellum reform, "the pressure for moral regeneration was exerted within and around families as much as across classes" (13). Entries on patient improvement in the case books commonly include comments that patients are


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
missionary work identified US children as both the objects and the subjects of Christian domestication, thereby ambivalently reinscribing US imperial authority in this equation of *[End Page 456]* (white) children with nonwhite "savages." Wexler theorizes how the normalizing sentimental response of domestic fiction continuously reproduced the imperial binary which constructed that colonial difference as absolute rather than relational and historical. Gillman shows how US domestic fiction's concerns with oppressed racial Others (as in _Uncle Tom's Cabin, Ramona)_ can be


ELH 66.4 (1999) 1053-1073
The Home-Ly Kailyard Nation: Nineteenth-Century Narratives of the Highland and the Myth of Merrie Auld Scotland
Richard Cook
---------------
past rather than a struggle for the present, a neutral memory of a foregone Scotland. The ideological project of the "cabbage patch" enforces a distance between the image of the lost Highland culture and present conditions, normalizing its contemporary political structures. Kailyard's focus on local, individual moral struggles functions in its own world of time, inside of its own history and exempt from the effects of urbanization, modernity, and the realities of the outside world. It is a landscape without social divisions or privilege.


ELH 66.4 (1999) 885-909
Rehabilitating Coleridge: Poetry, Philosophy, Excess
Paul Youngquist
---------------
rehabilitation, not so much to confirm as to comprehend his [End Page 887] otherness. What, one might ask, is the truth of habituation, the wisdom of the junkie? The alternative to confronting such questions is the soporific confidence of conventional, normalizing criticism. II. Fix -------


_ELH_ 72.2 (2004) 345-375
Preposterous Chatterton
K. K. Ruthven
---------------
"retrospective anticipation."7 An expert in these matters, Patricia Parker accordingly begins her book on _Literary Fat Ladies_ (1987) with a "Retrospective Introduction," so-called because "it looks back over and offers some conclusions from what is about to follow."8 By normalizing the preface as a publishing practice we have occluded its _pre_posterousness so successfully that any genuine _prae-fatio_ is treated as a joke. When, for instance, Sir William D'Avenant published his substantial _Preface to_ *[End Page 346]* _Gondibert_ (1650) a year before _Gondibert: An Heroick Poem_


interfusing



_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 1039-1063
"Leviathan is a Skein of Networks": Translations of Nature and Culture in _Moby-Dick_
Philip Armstrong
---------------
Ahab's fathomless personality," citing as evidence the emergence of his madness during a stormy voyage around Cape Horn after the amputation of his leg during his first encounter with Moby Dick: "[T]hen it was, that his torn body and gashed soul bled into one another, and so interfusing made him mad" (_M_, 156).15 But the rhetoric here suggests that Ahab's madness derives not from severance but from commingling, not from _lack_ but from _augmentation_. Rather than the loss of a limb—as Ahab later tells the ship's carpenter, he still feels the phantom leg (_M_,

severance but from commingling, not from _lack_ but from _augmentation_. Rather than the loss of a limb—as Ahab later tells the ship's carpenter, he still feels the phantom leg (_M_, 360)—the prosthetic represents its supplementation. The wound is a site of conjuncture—an "interfusing [that] made him mad"—wherein man and whale are grafted together, bone to bone, leg to jaw. Ahab's madness arises at the point of mediation between animal and human: the incommensurable contradiction produced by the human's material dependence on the body of the animal,

(_M_, 270-73), or in Ahab's demand for their blood to cool his newly forged harpoon (_M_, 371-72). The _Pequod_ belongs to an industry that *[End Page 1050]* consumes some humans as it consumes animals—two processes that the text understands by interfusing them. Naming the ship after an indigenous people decimated and dispossessed by the settler forbears of its white crew,comparing the whalebone included in the vessel's construction to the wearing of ivory trophies by "any barbaric Ethiopian emperor," calling it a "cannibal of a craft, tricking herself forth


permeating



_American Literary History_ 16.2 (2004) 179-207
Anachronistic Imaginings: _Hope Leslie_'s Challenge to Historicism
Jeffrey Insko
---------------
context are preceded by the definite article, as in Pease's well-known "new historicist return of _the_ repressed context" ("New Americanists" 35; emphasis added), or possessive pronouns (its, their), as in Wai-chee Dimock's concise formulation: "the text and its context are in every case inseparable, the latter . . . encompassing [the former] and permeating it as the condition of its textuality" (5). My concerns about this historicist procedure are also intended to echo those of Judith Fetterley, who has questioned its "strategic usefulness for changing the evaluation of nineteenth-century American women writers." Citing Jane Tompkins's important and influential historicist work,


ELH 66.1 (1999) 129-156
"Sublimation strange": Allegory and Authority in Bleak House
Daniel Hack
---------------
political allegory of peculiarly vexed authority. Here, in fact, the allegory in question involves a peculiar way in which authority vexes itself. Chapter 32, "The Appointed Time," describes several characters' increasing preoccupation over the course of an evening with a disgusting substance permeating the air and slowly settling on windowsills and clothing; this indeterminate but emphatically nauseous matter is variously described as "soot" (B, 398), "a smouldering suffocating vapour," "a dark greasy coating" (B, 402), "a thick, yellow liquor," and "a stagnant, sickening oil" (B, 401).


ELH 67.4 (2000) 993-1009
Poe and the Poetics of Opacity: Or, Another Way of Looking at that Black Bird
Richard Godden
---------------
institutions. The cult of Southern womanhood raised the standard of the unbreachable hymen precisely because miscegenation breached the color line throughout the prewar South. 37 Plainly much of the iconic resiliency of the lily-white figure derived from that which it stood to negate. "She" was only as beautiful, white, and impermeable as he was ugly, black, and permeating. I summarize a cultural narrative to demonstrate how an ideal of beauty, constituted by racial fear, may require the presence of that which it denies. That Poe's "beautiful woman" must also be dead and therefore available for melancholy ("the most legitimate of all the poetical tones")


ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
repeated in The Statesman's Manual (CW, 4.1:100; 6:20). Living by faith routinely enables a distinction between mere "prudence"--actions pursued only for their effects rather than their motives--and morality informed by religious faith (CW, 4.1:441). The distinction, permeating arguments throughout this work, corresponds with related discriminations between mere "obedience" and "faith," or between transient "EXPEDIENCY" and those "FEELINGS" that "God has given us" (CW, 4.1:316). The moral conduct of the individual extends, moreover, to the political conduct of the state. Religion,


freethinking



ELH 68.4 (2001) 929-963
Coleridge's Polemic Divinity
Mark Canuel
---------------
"warfare" (CW, 4.1.97) among beliefs--is revealed to be a highly circumscribed form of "liberty," perhaps so highly regulated that it ceases to look like dissent at all. The 1817 Lay Sermon sets out to preserve this version of liberty by attacking a "rank and unweeded press" that "freethinking" writers use to influence their "ignorant and half-learned" readers (CW, 6:152, 193). And the pages of the Lay Sermon proceed to anatomize radical eloquence by enumerating its multiple evils: the "compound poison," concocted from appeals to the "passions" and "vague and commonplace Satyr" (CW, 6:152-54). The

and half-learned" readers (CW, 6:152, 193). And the pages of the Lay Sermon proceed to anatomize radical eloquence by enumerating its multiple evils: the "compound poison," concocted from appeals to the "passions" and "vague and commonplace Satyr" (CW, 6:152-54). The uncontrolled individual expression of freethinking can only lead to a more dangerously pervasive public freethinking, tantamount to utter disorder; and the sermon nervously foretells how writers will "seek notoriety by an eloquence well calculated to set the multitude agape, and excite gratis to overt-acts of sedition or treason" (CW,

Sermon proceed to anatomize radical eloquence by enumerating its multiple evils: the "compound poison," concocted from appeals to the "passions" and "vague and commonplace Satyr" (CW, 6:152-54). The uncontrolled individual expression of freethinking can only lead to a more dangerously pervasive public freethinking, tantamount to utter disorder; and the sermon nervously foretells how writers will "seek notoriety by an eloquence well calculated to set the multitude agape, and excite gratis to overt-acts of sedition or treason" (CW, 6:145). 20 Coleridge's concerns about the unbridled production and


fleecing



ELH 67.4 (2000) 951-971
John Thelwall and Popular Jacobin Allegory, 1793-95
Michael Scrivener
---------------
urban experiences and values. There are twelve eight-line stanzas of alternating iambic tetrameter and trimeter lines, with strong rhymes at the end of the trimeter lines: abcbdefe. Thelwall plays with the ambiguity of fleecing--both sheep and humans. To shear is to fleece, so that shearing and fleecing are used interchangeably. The song's theme, "all the world are sheerers" (S, 4), is developed in a series of vignettes beginning appropriately in the country (S, 1-63), and culminating in

There are twelve eight-line stanzas of alternating iambic tetrameter and trimeter lines, with strong rhymes at the end of the trimeter lines: abcbdefe. Thelwall plays with the ambiguity of fleecing--both sheep and humans. To shear is to fleece, so that shearing and fleecing are used interchangeably. The song's theme, "all the world are sheerers" (S, 4), is developed in a series of vignettes beginning appropriately in the country (S, 1-63), and culminating in the city (S, 64-108). The song's humor comes from the contrast between shearing as harmless cutting of sheep's wool and shearing as

(S, 82-108) At the center of urban and social corruption in general is the political fleecing of both the party in power and the opposition. Dismissing the Whigs as fleecers, Thelwall in the last two stanzas enacts a dramatic reversal of the song's repetitive pattern of passive submission to being fleeced. As the Whigs cannot protect the people, the constitutional system having broken down, the people

middling-class professionals, it acquires some additional interest. The ruling class of landowners who would not widen the franchise for the upper ranks of the middle class, much less for those lower in the social hierarchy, receive symbolically a thoroughly satisfying fleecing in the song's first half, but their moral status as fleecers is never in question, as their parliamentary representatives are cut down in the song's last three stanzas. The song depicts the ruling class, then, as oppressors who are both powerfully evil and helplessly foolish. For inspiring aggressive


exemplifying



American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
final chapter where he focuses on the development of 1 January slave-trade orations. When placed alongside 4 and 5 July denunciations of slavery, these fascinating materials locate one underacknowledged origin of antebellum abolitionism and black nationalism, while also further exemplifying how nationalist rituals could mean different things in different contexts. To respond to such materials by arguing that they instance yet another ritual of national consensus is to miss the ways in which they enabled a form of political participation that was both accessible and influential.


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
will bring to light the abject cowardice of the race" (71). This last pronouncement appears in the original French in the notes to Faubert's text, along with six full pages of citations from L'Autre monde exemplifying QUOTE ( QUOTE [37]). Of course, Faubert might have chosen from any number of examples of nineteenth-century racist thought to illustrate the prejudice that he argues should unite rather than divide Haitians. Yet suturing passages from this particular work around the text of his play, and making special reference to it in his introduction, allows him to position


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
---------------
when dealing with figures of the past, to amputate whatever we find irrelevant from what the past itself considered the body of its teaching" (1). For Hodder this amputation has involved a recent neglect of Thoreau's spiritual life in favor of studies serving some "social, political, or ideological agenda" or exemplifying critical theory (xiii), in either case "using" Thoreau to mirror the concerns of the interpreter and the present age rather than attempting to elucidate Thoreau's own concerns.


ELH 68.4 (2001) 991-1021
Individualism and the Place of Understanding in Emerson's Essays
Kerry Larson
---------------
never look for the personal or laudatory in discourse" (239)--there is a sense in which this disclaimer is somewhat misleading. It is, after all, Plato and a saint who get top billing in the essay's first paragraph, whereas any ordinary figure would, in theory, have done just as well in exemplifying the universality of "one mind common to all." But ordinariness is quite plainly something which already dominates the hearts and minds of Emerson's readership, who need reminding they must not "suffer [themselves] to be bullied by kings and empires" (239) nor allow "facts [to] encumber [and]


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
become her own first colonial subject and purge herself of her origin in a diseased uncivilized terrain." A key piece of evidence is the fact that "she was born in Brazil to the daughter of a ship captain, who was killed by malaria." 6 But in Kaplan's effort to make the case against the text as exemplifying the imperialist logic of antebellum sentimentalism, she has misread the novel. In its conclusion, we learn that Gerty's father didn't die but rather "after an almost interminable illness . . . made [his] way, destitute, ragged, and emaciated, back to Rio" (384) and eventually back into Gerty's life, at which point she

charge" (34), and an "orphan" (36), has the capacity to become True's "childish guardian" (88), as well as a "guardian" (133) to Willie's grandfather when both men become ill and require her care. To be sure, Gerty's guardianship involves taking care of other people and can thus be seen as exemplifying women's limited options in antebellum culture. But in the world of The Lamplighter, all worthy characters, regardless of gender, willingly choose to care for others, whether it's Mr. Miller kindly attending to Willie's senile grandfather, or Willie taking care of the financial needs of his mother, or True offering Gerty a home.


domesticating



_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
new knowledges of the body, natural and social science taking the place of the guards in Bentham's prison). 9. Lott describes the "pale gaze" as "a ferocious investment in demystifying and domesticating black power in white fantasy by projecting vulgar black types as spectacular objects of white men's looking" (153). 10. Garrison wrote, "The retributive justice of God was never more strikingly manifested than in this all-pervading negrophobia, the dreadful consequence


_American Literary History_ 16.3 (2004) 437-465
The Warp of Whiteness: Domesticity and Empire in Helen Hunt Jackson's _Ramona_
John M. Gonzalez
---------------
relation to themselves.11 With few exceptions, these reformist attempts to equalize *[End Page 440]* state functioning among different racial groups advanced the culture of empire to some degree; however progressive for white women, domesticity equated the imperial spread of civilization with the homework of domesticating conquered "foreign" peoples. In this respect, "civilization" or "domestication" offered greater flexibility in implementing the colonial state's regimes of disciplinary power to distinguish colonizer from colonized in that the rule of colonial difference

Indian would become the "intelligently selfish," autonomous, rational actor of classic laissez-faire economics. Only as this economic subject could the Indian then enter into the social contract of the "intelligently unselfish" nation. Instilling the domesticating desire for private property, the invisible influence of domestic interiors and the racial tutelage of wage labor would make the savage Indian vanish, adding in due time the dark- skinned yet civilized US citizen to the nation's fabric.

Southern belle. By having the working-class Southerner Aunt Ri articulate the principles of a racially democratic project of nation building, Jackson seemingly ties the Reconstruction-era project of incorporating the freedmen into the nation as citizens with the post-Reconstruction project of domesticating Indians into US citizenship. Yet the coalescing of Jim Crow discourses of inherent black male bestiality specifically precluded white women from exercising a domesticating influence that would require a close proximity to such imagined dangers. In contrast, the Indian

incorporating the freedmen into the nation as citizens with the post-Reconstruction project of domesticating Indians into US citizenship. Yet the coalescing of Jim Crow discourses of inherent black male bestiality specifically precluded white women from exercising a domesticating influence that would require a close proximity to such imagined dangers. In contrast, the Indian captivity narrative, which emphasized the dangerous potential for the interracial rape of white women by Indian men, had for *[End Page 458]* the most part ceased to invoke a generalized sense of


ELH 67.1 (2000) 143-178
"A Middle Class Cut into Two": Historiography and Victorian National Character
Lauren M. E. Goodlad *
---------------
and genteel essence of a figure such as Herbert Pocket is inextricable from the characteristic inability to amass "Capital." 60 Dickens's ambivalence points both to the appeal and the difficulty of the gentleman--a kind of middle-class male individual whose exemplary character obviates the domesticating process delineated by Poovey (wherein male desire is first produced as "acquisitive drive" and then "domesticated as its economic aggression is rewritten as love"). For, in the gentleman, "acquisitive drive"--should the gentleman in question be so impecunious as to require it at all--is constitutionally separate from and incommensurable with


ELH 67.3 (2000) 819-842
Playing at Class
Karen Sánchez-Eppler
---------------
pity ("poor creatures") insists on casting that bonding hatred as a mark of vulnerability and need, in a sentimental attempt to contain the reality that the family might be a site of animosity, not succor. After all, the entire structure of this charitable enterprise depends upon the presumption that domesticating these children will suture the social wounds of class. Indeed, the Society's favorite project was not these temporary lodging houses but rather its placing-out system, which largely


ELH 68.4 (2001) 1023-1047
"A Sort Of Adopted Daughter": Family Relations In _The Lamplighter_
Cindy Weinstein
---------------
Domestic self-possession has been convincingly linked to the workings of the marketplace by Gillian Brown, who reads the "logic of sympathetic proprietorship [in Uncle Tom's Cabin] . . . as symptomatic of a problem within possessive individualism"; the problem being that such proprietorship, while domesticating the experience of ownership, is nevertheless fundamentally invested in the practice of ownership--and therefore reproduces the structure and ideology of slavery (Domestic Individualism: Imagining Self in Nineteenth-Century America [Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1990], 41). Sympathetic proprietorship


trifling



ELH 66.2 (1999) 373-404
Passion and Love: Anacreontic Song and the Roots of Romantic Lyric
Marshall Brown
---------------
subtlety of the counting words: flowers are plural, sand singular, but then a collective singular is retained for all but the last of the remaining stanzas. Diminutives ("cuánta avecilla" [literally, "how much little bird"] and "cuánto arroyuelo" [how much brooklet]) belong to the Anacreontic trifling, but also to the sense of an innumerable proliferation. Hence when the plural does return, it is almost antithetical to the effect of [End Page 387] Cowley's hoard of curses--a miracle rather than a multiple: "¿Ves cuántas gracias la mano / De las deidades te dió?" [Do you see how many graces the


_ELH_ 69.1 (2002) 133-166
Illegitimacy and Social Observation: The Bastard in the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Wolfram Schmidgen
---------------
doesn't have a place that he departed from and lacks a place to return to, becomes supernaturally aware of the changing environments he moves through. "He had the peculiar felicity," Johnson notes, "that his Attention never deserted him; he was present to every object, and regardful of the most trifling circumstances. He had the Art of escaping from his own reflections, and accommodating himself to every new scene." 49 As Smollett's illegitimate Count Fathom shows, such rapid accommodation to new surroundings and situations belongs to the cultural repertoire by which bastards were constructed in the eighteenth century. 50


_ELH_ 71.4 (2004) 867-897
Hospitality in Autobiography: Levinas Chez De Quincey
E. S. Burt
---------------
reception as so poor a man could offer. Whatever else was wanting to a wise man's happiness,—of laudanum I would have given him as much as he wished, and in a golden cup. And, by the way, now that I speak of giving laudanum away, I remember, about this time, a little incident, which I mention, because, trifling as it was, the reader will soon meet it again in my dreams, which it influenced more fearfully than could be imagined. One day a Malay knocked at my door. What business a Malay could have to transact amongst English mountains, I cannot conjecture: but possibly he was on his road to a


term



American Literary History 12.1&2 (2000) 1-40
Edgar Allan Poe's Eureka and the Poetics of Constitution
W. C. Harris
---------------
2. By describing nineteenth-century America as a QUOTE I refer to the conditions of intellectual and social life under the historically inscribed process of secularization that contributed to shifts in the meaning of oneness, the nature of the transcendental term (whether the One is read as QUOTE or QUOTE ), and thus the conditions for legitimating social and/or theological formations. The crisis to which Poe is responding is one of authority. Although the nation's founding documents had transferred the foundational power wielded by theology, or at least the responsibility of


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 659-684
Free Carpenter, Venture Capitalist: Reading the Lives of the Early Black Atlantic
Philip Gould
---------------
Yet it is just this kind of reading of the creative potential of individual rights discourse for black writers that influential cultural critics resist. Paul Gilroy, for example, understands the QUOTE that emerged in the eighteenth century as the ideological source of modern QUOTE for writers of the black Atlantic. Indeed, Gilroy's use of the term black Atlantic is meant to displace the modern categories of QUOTE and QUOTE that imply QUOTE (220). He likely would read Banneker's letter to Jefferson as an instance of what he calls the QUOTE as opposed to the QUOTE : QUOTE (38). Saidiya Hartman makes a similar, though certainly not identical, argument about the disciplinary

6. Rather than structure my argument within the dichotomy between republicanism and liberalism, shaped by debates among Wood, J. G. A. Pocock, Appleby, Isaac Kramnick, and John P. Diggins, I understand liberalism itself to be an ambiguous, inchoate ideology during this formative period. My use of the term liberalism recognizes throughout the important connections between rights and duties in early modern philosophy and culture. Haakonssen's summary of the conceptual problem of the traditional republican and liberal traditions is useful: "[The syncresis between the two] still assumes that it makes sense to talk of liberalism in this context, and that . . . it was . .


American Literary History 12.4 (2000) 685-712
Misgivings: Melville, Race, and the Ambiguities of Benevolence
Susan M. Ryan
---------------
Chambers Dictionary of Quotations (1996), Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (1992, 16th ed.), and The Home Book of American Quotations (1967). Not surprisingly, these attributions have been disputed. In an appendix titled QUOTE A. H. Saxon asserts that, while the term sucker could be taken to mean an innocent or dupe as early as the 1830s, this specific quip was probably QUOTE (336). Saxon's source is a manuscript by Joseph McCaddon, brother-in-law of James A. Bailey, Barnum's circus partner. R. J. Brown's article QUOTE attributes the quotation instead to David Hannum, who

initiated a lawsuit against Barnum in the wake of the 1869 Cardiff Giant craze. Whatever the true origins of the quotation, Barnum's fame as a deceiver makes him an appropriate figure to invoke here. Short-term fellowships from the American Antiquarian Society and the Library Company of Philadelphia made possible much of the research for this article. My thanks to those who read and commented on its earlier incarnations.


American Literary History 13.1 (2001) 1-40
American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War
Shelley Streeby
---------------
Schroeder). While most Democrats favored the acquisition of at least some territory, however, many who supported Polk and the war still argued, like the Whigs, against the annexation of densely populated Mexican areas (Horsman 237). The New York-based Democratic Review, for instance, where John O'Sullivan famously coined the term manifest destiny, defended Polk and welcomed the acquisition of California and New Mexico, but argued in August 1847 that the QUOTE (101; Stephanson 46-47). 7 The war and national expansion, in other words, brought to the fore contradictions in the concept of manifest

QUOTE (Duganne 231), and his anti-imperialism derived from nativist beliefs about the importance of keeping foreigners and Catholics out of the republic as well as from radical republican and antislavery convictions. After moving to New York around 1850, he was elected to one term as a representative of the nativist Know-Nothing party in the state assembly, and later served as lieutenant colonel of a company of New York Volunteers during the Civil War (Johnson and Malone 492).


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 317-328
American Nationalism--R.I.P.
Bruce Burgett
---------------
caps, badges, patriotic songs, partisan toasts, feasts, coins, [End Page 319] titles, and other artifacts that informed the immediate political lives of the new citizens of the republic. The study's major drawback is that it organizes those details into a narrative that is, to use Newman's own oft-repeated term, unsurprising. The contours of his analysis are not fundamentally different from those of canonical studies of the period ranging from Richard Hofstadter's The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840 (1969) to Gordon Wood's The Creation of the

contained in his opening sentences: QUOTE (1). While this insight has become something of a commonplace in the wake of Anderson's Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1991), Looby's first chapter on the concept of logocracy (a term he culls from Irving) nuances it two ways: first, he agrees with Waldstreicher and Newman that nationality in the early republic involved more dissent and dissonance than histories focused on consent and harmony tend to reveal; second, he argues that writers who uncritically repeat Anderson's thesis concerning


American Literary History 13.2 (2001) 181-211
Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth
Brook Thomas
---------------
book's action unfolds over the seven years in which the relation between the people and their sovereign was in doubt, the years generally acknowledged as the time when QUOTE (Pocock 335); [End Page 181] that is, as a citizen as those in the nineteenth century would have understood the term. 1 Even so, it was not until after the French and American Revolutions that good citizenship came into common use. When Hawthorne inserts the nineteenth-century term good citizenship

would have understood the term. 1 Even so, it was not until after the French and American Revolutions that good citizenship came into common use. When Hawthorne inserts the nineteenth-century term good citizenship into a seventeenth-century setting he subtly participates in a persistent national myth that sees US citizenship as an outgrowth of citizenship developed in colonial New England. Hawthorne's participation in this myth is important to note because much of his

In different ways some of Hawthorne's best historically minded critics have noted his challenge to the standard version of the Puritan origins of US citizenship. But for all of their brilliance, none have noted Hawthorne's anachronistic use of the term citizen. On the contrary, like Hawthorne, some of these same critics refer to Puritans in seventeenth-century Boston as citizens in the political sense of the term (Berlant; Colacurcio, QUOTE ; and Pease), just as does the allegedly ahistorical Frederick Crews (149). In doing so

Puritan origins of US citizenship. But for all of their brilliance, none have noted Hawthorne's anachronistic use of the term citizen. On the contrary, like Hawthorne, some of these same critics refer to Puritans in seventeenth-century Boston as citizens in the political sense of the term (Berlant; Colacurcio, QUOTE ; and Pease), just as does the allegedly ahistorical Frederick Crews (149). In doing so they unconsciously participate in the very myth they think they are demystifying, a participation that makes it impossible for them to recognize Hawthorne's important contribution to it. 4

1. Working on/with Myth ----------------------- But what is a civic myth? The term comes from Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in US History (1997), Rogers Smith's exhaustive study of how the law both reflects and helps to produce attitudes toward citizenship in the US. In Smith's complex account, US citizenship has been determined not only by liberal

Leviathan (1651) Hobbes uses citizen more in the sense of a city dweller. For instance, he writes of a man: QUOTE (186-87). QUOTE are clearly those QUOTE who dwell in close proximity to the man. 2. Morgan also uses the term good citizen when he acknowledges that the Puritans' phrase would have been a QUOTE (Puritan Family 1). 3. For an excellent summary of speeches by people like Daniel Webster, Joseph Story, and Edward Everett that share Bancroft's view


American Literary History 13.3 (2001) 407-444
The Writing of Haiti: Pierre Faubert, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Beyond
Anna Brickhouse
---------------
française et le problème colonial (1961), his historical essay on the emergence of Haiti as an independent state, Ogé wrote to the colonial Assemblée du Nord attesting in no uncertain terms that his demands for equality under the law extended not to QUOTE but only to those QUOTE (90). (Ogé's use of the term American here reflects his argument that Haiti's mulâtres had a QUOTE to rule the state, as they were true products of the New World, descended exclusively from neither Europe nor Africa [Trouillot, Haiti 126].)

Notes ===== 1. For overviews of recent scholarship in comparative American studies, see essays by Porter, Jay, Patell, and Wald. The term New World studies has been promoted by Dash, who calls it QUOTE in avoiding the exclusionary frame of reference inherent in the terms American studies and American literature; focusing on the Caribbean, Dash outlines a QUOTE --a field of study that he hopes will QUOTE (Other America 1-3). See also Greene, who defines New World

Orleans-set novel based on QUOTE A Romance of the Republic (1867)--a work replete with Franco-Africanist figures--within the historical development of interracial literature (Sollors, Neither 202-11, 293-94). 22. On the term amalgamation and the vocabulary of nineteenth-century literature of race more generally, see James Kinney. See also James's compelling reading of Isabel as both a literary descendant of Tashtego and the product of a mixture, QUOTE and thus QUOTE -- QUOTE (Mariners 97-112).


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 671-693
Trademark Twain
Loren Glass
---------------
strike the dense region of eternal drudgery and starvation wages--there you will find them by the million. The man that gets that market, his fortune is made, his bread and butter are safe, for those people will never go back on him" (Paine, MTA 1: 249). Stevenson and Twain coin a new term for Davis’s literary reputation: submerged renown. In this depth metaphor, the literary marketplace acquires a heavy ballast of readers in the rapidly expanding and increasingly literate working classes, but the names and needs of this audience, and the authors who address them, never rise to the

Company (and, now, the editors of the Mark Twain Project). Twain had earlier considered another closely related, and equally novel, avenue to establishing perpetual property in literary works, one that clarifies the significant ambiguity around the term Shakespeare in his comments above. Is the name an object of or an appositive to the "inventor-tribe"? In other words, does it refer to an invention or an inventor? In the legal logic that undergirds patent and copyright law, a name like Shakespeare would indicate the


American Literary History 13.4 (2001) 639-670
"The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community
Franny Nudelman
---------------
In lieu of the actual body of the suffering slave, the body of the witness, who imitates the slave’s pain in the process of identifying with her, often becomes the object of scrutiny in abolitionist texts. Anatomizing the process of readerly identification, Elizabeth Margaret Chandler coined the term mental metempsychosis. Metempsychosis, a word that derives from spiritualist practice, describes the soul’s migration, after death, into another body. Chandler applies the concept to the imaginative migrations of the abolitionist reader. If her audience could "imagine themselves for a few moments in his

Northerners and Southerners feared that violence was inevitable. Southerners imagined that Brown and his men were backed by a Northern mob willing to take the law into its own hands. Antislavery Northerners obliged this fear by celebrating Brown’s transgressions and pledging their dedication to a "higher law." The status of sympathy--a key term in this conflict--was called into question time and again: was it a transformative power associated with individual and collective renewal, or was it a byword for partisan aggression that stood in opposition to the law?


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 32-59
Abolition's Racial Interiors and the Making of White Civic Depth
Christopher Castiglia
---------------
the ethical imperatives that would come from historical conflict, a displacement that here merges the romantic pathos of _Titanic_ with the ironic humor of _All in the Family._ That such films should emerge during the term of a president who, during his first campaign, told suffering black citizens "I feel your pain" is perhaps not surprising. The resurgence of a liberal politics of feeling seems to have necessitated as well the return of sympathetic incorporation, which has in turn accompanied (and, *[End Page 53]* in its liberalizing cast, made more


_American Literary History_ 14.1 (2002) 1-31
The Value of Conspiracy Theory
Ed White
---------------
of "Americans" who BLOCKQUOTE In sum, republicanism denoted an ideological consensus combining virtues of moderation with a whiggish political theory in an all-encompassing "form of life" (Wood's term: _Radicalism_ 96) to which institutions and events were secondary. Like the poststructuralist construct of "discourse" taking shape at roughly the same moment, republicanist "ideology" would encompass subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and materiality--in short the

combinations provided the infrastructure for coordinated economic actions (the concerted raising of prices, refusal to work without higher wages), and when such actions challenged ordinances, authorities could counter with conspiracy charges. Moral valences aside, the term is descriptively illuminating. 14 These examples suggest, if not the "conspiracy of the bosses," a range of conspiracies of producers, grounded in everyday praxis. It might be objected that such small- or medium-scale economic

which was printed in _Harper's Magazine_ in 1964. An expanded version commences _The Paranoid Style in American Politics, and Other Essays_ (1964). 3. The term originates with Robert Shalhope's 1972 review essay, "Toward a Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography" (1972), which usefully, if tendentiously, chronicles the intellectual history upon which Bailyn and Wood draw.


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 195-226
Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett)
Bill Brown
---------------
collection of such a fine thing or to rob you of your pleasant associations with it. A collector has a peculiar affection for such treasures, as I very well know" (108). Yet this knowledge hardly quelled her own attraction to the quartz. She resolved the ambivalence by considering the "robbery" a long-term loan: "This shall live on my desk as long as my conscience will let it and perhaps a little longer, and I shall never see it without remembering the kind thought that sent it there" (108). The successive dislocations of the quartz--wrested from the ground and into the international exhibition site, into


_American Literary History_ 14.2 (2002) 348-357
Perpetual Emotion Machine
Michelle Burnham
---------------
of bureaucratization--the creation of a standardized form, for instance--designed, at least in part, to reduce the application's affective (and expensive) effects. Resch's central category of emotion is "gratitude," a term he borrows from Adam Smith and uses to describe Americans' feelings toward the soldiers who sacrificed their health, wealth, and comfort for national freedom. In the course of his study, however, one begins to wonder about the relationship between gratitude and those

have informed research on and debates about the early American republic for decades. 1 The transnational contours of her study no doubt contribute to this complication, but the larger meaning of that complication is also left frustratingly imprecise. Even as she disassociates the term _republicanism_ from its traditional definition, she never quite elucidates a new understanding of it or of its relationship to _liberalism,_ another term that appears in multiple guises in her volume. As a result, the shifting and historically nuanced meanings of both categories often get blurred,

doubt contribute to this complication, but the larger meaning of that complication is also left frustratingly imprecise. Even as she disassociates the term _republicanism_ from its traditional definition, she never quite elucidates a new understanding of it or of its relationship to _liberalism,_ another term that appears in multiple guises in her volume. As a result, the shifting and historically nuanced meanings of both categories often get blurred, leaving undiagnosed the differences between, say, market liberalism, liberal individualism, liberal guilt, welfare state liberalism, and

intrusion of liberalism with republicanism, one wonders whether feeling can be sentimental if it is not also liberal. One sometimes has the sense that Burgett's revitalized public sphere might host other, nonliberal forms of democratic feeling that are only called "sentimental" for lack of another, better term. Habermas's public sphere has recently been described as "an institution that never existed in the first place and then came, over time, to exist even less" (Thorne 542), and the political vision of _Sentimental Bodies_ is finally as hampered as it is enlivened by this dilemma. Even if


_American Literary History_ 14.3 (2002) 505-539

Who's Your Mama? "White" Mulatta Genealogies, Early Photography, and Anti-Passing Narratives of Slavery and Freedom P. Gabrielle Foreman
---------------
expressive black female will and agency circulate both in the nineteenth century and in current *[End Page 505]* literary criticism. Mulatto/a-ness as a representational trope often designates a discursive mobility and simultaneity that can raise questions of racial epistemology, while it also functions as a juridical term that constrains citizenship by ante- and postbellum law and force. The women I examine in this essay use their own bodies to challenge such constraints by expressing a desire, not for whiteness, but for familial and juridical relations in which _partus sequitur ventrem_ produces freedom rather than enslavement for African

sequitur ventrem_ produces freedom rather than enslavement for African Americans, light and dark. Many contemporary scholars, however, deploy "white mulatto/a genealogies," a term I use _not_ to describe the lighter shades of a politically determined African-American racial classification but to highlight an overemphasis on patrilineal descent and an identification with and projection of white desire that continually revisits the paternal and the patriarchal, the phallic and juridical Law of the (white) Father. Russ

the year by _American Literature,_ Berlant's "The Queen of America" smartly articulates some of the very issues of law, sexual vulnerability, and racial-sexual-national codings and representations to which critics like Castronovo refer, issues that are central to some of the best work in the field. Yet as she introduces the term "mulatto genealogy," she so destabilizes race that she facilitates the creation of a bodily category into which any Other can fit. Writing of the postbellum period in another essay, she contends that "the mulatta figure is the most abstract and artificial of embodied citizens. She *[End Page 509]* gives lie to the

Mulatta genealogies are the subject of this inquiry not only because "mulattas" are the African-American women we've inherited as protagonists in much of nineteenth-century "race" literature and literary historiography but also because the term seems to be enjoying a vernacular and critical currency that, I fear, both expresses a current racial anxiety and reproduces the politics of exceptionalism. 31 Today, people ask their peers and professors, clients and customers, "are you a mulatto?" with little sense of meaning or manners, while publishers clamor for novels,

reproduces the politics of exceptionalism. 31 Today, people ask their peers and professors, clients and customers, "are you a mulatto?" with little sense of meaning or manners, while publishers clamor for novels, autobiographies, and anthologies about living on the color line. Although the term "mulatto" etymologically hauls on its back the well-known nineteenth-century ethnological concepts that this crossbred, "weak" species would be unable--in the long term-- *[End Page 531]* to reproduce, the fascination with this line (of inquiry) has anything but died off. 32 The present currency of mixed-race subjects, as well meaning and seemingly

sense of meaning or manners, while publishers clamor for novels, autobiographies, and anthologies about living on the color line. Although the term "mulatto" etymologically hauls on its back the well-known nineteenth-century ethnological concepts that this crossbred, "weak" species would be unable--in the long term-- *[End Page 531]* to reproduce, the fascination with this line (of inquiry) has anything but died off. 32 The present currency of mixed-race subjects, as well meaning and seemingly innocuous as it may be, is _not_ an acknowledgment that, as Albert Murray once put it, "American culture was, and continues to be, 'incontestably

27. Robinson argues that identity politics can be figured "as a skill of reading by African American and/or gay and lesbian spectators of the cultural performance of passing. . . . Disrupting the conventional dyad of passer and dupe with a third term--the _in-group clairvoyant_--the pass can be regarded as a triangular theater of identity" (716). 28. Spirit rapping became popular in the 1850s and 60s and was practiced by abolitionists like Jacobs's good friend Amy Post and by Adah Isaacs Menken

Thomas Jefferson fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings, and the generalized amazement that followed its confirmation, is just one example of this legacy of anxiety and the continued denial of black testimony. 34. I find this term particularly inadequate because while attempting to recognize African-American multiraciality, it undermines that very concept. The history of racial violence, intermixture, and race-based law assures that almost all people of black ancestry are multiracial. The term _biracial_ separates those with immediate nonblack ancestry from those with

34. I find this term particularly inadequate because while attempting to recognize African-American multiraciality, it undermines that very concept. The history of racial violence, intermixture, and race-based law assures that almost all people of black ancestry are multiracial. The term _biracial_ separates those with immediate nonblack ancestry from those with equally complex racial inheritances. It so affirms individual claims of difference over a collective history of racial admixture. Moreover, by claiming "blackness" for one immediate ancestor, a parent, the term

that almost all people of black ancestry are multiracial. The term _biracial_ separates those with immediate nonblack ancestry from those with equally complex racial inheritances. It so affirms individual claims of difference over a collective history of racial admixture. Moreover, by claiming "blackness" for one immediate ancestor, a parent, the term _biracial_ only defers by one generation the projection of absolute racial classification onto the black parent, thus replicating the very categorization the term is supposed to challenge.

difference over a collective history of racial admixture. Moreover, by claiming "blackness" for one immediate ancestor, a parent, the term _biracial_ only defers by one generation the projection of absolute racial classification onto the black parent, thus replicating the very categorization the term is supposed to challenge. 35. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have declared that racial disparities in imprisonment and racial profiling in the US have reached scandalous proportions. See The Justice Policy Institute,


_American Literary History_ 15.1 (2003) 14-21
The Claims of Rhetoric: Toward a Historical Poetics (1820-1900)
Shira Wolosky
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immigrants, children--other activities were not. These included direct political activism in abolition, Indian removal, urban planning, sanitation, and suffrage. Indeed, throughout the century, most social services (as we would call them) were performed by women. Calling this _private_ while reserving the term _public_ for the activities of men--who were overwhelmingly engaged in economic pursuits that, while taking place outside the home, ultimately served personal interests and private economic ends--is a use of the terms _public_ and _private_ in ways that are already gendered. That


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 248-275
Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright
Martin T. Buinicki
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experience of that specific social group to which Whitman belonged, both by origin and by conscious allegiance--an experience of being subject to social, economic, and political processes beyond their control, which eventually revolutionized every aspect of their lives, and to which the victims affixed the emotive term 'monopoly'" (27). On the other hand, Whitman was well aware of the new opportunities and advancements being provided by economic development, and this development included increased trade with *[End Page 255]* international markets. Whitman's method of bringing

and fair correspondence between writers and their readers is tied to his fervent belief that his poetry served as a medium for that correspondence. Greenspan has explored this question thoroughly, arguing that "Whitman's need for 'contact' with his readers--to use a term which habitually gets his poetic accentuation--was an obsession" (109). In pursuit of this obsession, Whitman struggles desperately to construct a poetic language that will allow him to move beyond the text. In the first edition of _Leaves of Grass_, Whitman writes, "I was chilled with the cold types and cylinders and

to, the embodiment that he proclaims. A similar epigraph appears at the front of the 1876 edition: "Ever with pleas'd smile I may keep on, / Ever and ever yet the verses owning--as, first, I here and now, / Signing for Soul and Body, set them to my name, [Whitman's signature]" (_WW_ 147). Here, the term "owning" is quite ambiguous. Although Whitman signs for "Soul and Body," the ownership of that body remains in play. Even as the reader purchases the book once owned by Whitman, the verses continue to "own" Whitman. Rather than fixing possession or certifying a transaction, Whitman's signature


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 276-310
"A Dowry of Suffering": Consent, Contract, and Political Coverture in John W. De Forest's Reconstruction Romance
Gregory S. Jackson
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even at the altar, Virginia informs her family of her sacrificial intent: "I shall say I consent" (98). Anxious that the marriage be absolutely legal in form, she frames her consent in precise legal language so that it both becomes the trigger for contract and allows for each party's "free" volition. Virginia's aunt, for her part, seizes on the precise term of Virginia's rhetorical equivocation: "Yes, say _consent_--that is the very word." The casuistical inference in the repetition of "say" before "consent" underscores the vexing problem with a postbellum model of political obligation predicated upon an individual's free consent. After all, what chance did a reconstructed

Hobbesian compulsions of fear and cruel necessity. It had, in other words, to encode the affective mechanism of civil union in the nineteenth-century language of domestic sentiment rather than the seventeenth-century language of martial passions. How could a reunion based in fear and self-interest foster a meaningful national "conversion," the term De Forest repeatedly invoked to convey the depth of transformation required for true reconciliation? Consent without conviction guarantees the citizen's obligation only as long as the fear required to motivate it remains in place. For later in _Leviathan,_ even Hobbes acknowledged the difference between

Caught between accepting marriage to a Northern officer or relegating her family to poverty, Virginia agrees to the arranged marriage. Alive to the nuptial contract's legal formalities, both Virginia and her aunt emphasize the term _consent,_ despite Virginia's view that she is a hostage to fortune. The repeated use of the term emphasizes the legal form of nuptial voluntarism, even as it points up a contradicting heart. But what of coercion? And what of the spirit of the law in a sentimental age that equated marriage with romance? If free volition framed as legal consent did not

Caught between accepting marriage to a Northern officer or relegating her family to poverty, Virginia agrees to the arranged marriage. Alive to the nuptial contract's legal formalities, both Virginia and her aunt emphasize the term _consent,_ despite Virginia's view that she is a hostage to fortune. The repeated use of the term emphasizes the legal form of nuptial voluntarism, even as it points up a contradicting heart. But what of coercion? And what of the spirit of the law in a sentimental age that equated marriage with romance? If free volition framed as legal consent did not connote romantic love, then the marriage compact differed little from a


_American Literary History_ 15.2 (2003) 213-247
_Arthur Mervyn_'s Medical Repository and the Early Republic's Knowledge Industries
Bryan Waterman
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built on exemplary writing that explores in minute detail the unmapped terrains--cultural, geographical, geological--that confirm their distinction in novelty. Its creation of a national audience of medical readers depended, the editors believed, on a balance between imaginative form and informational content that Elihu Smith captured in the striking term "medical eloquence" (_Diary_ 191). The concern for the poetics of medical discussion perhaps came naturally to Smith and his coeditor Samuel Latham Mitchill, both of whom composed poetry on medical and nonmedical subjects, but Smith's diary entries frame "medical eloquence" as a deliberate strategy for creating a general,

left to die by other fearful contagionists. His body rots above ground, "suffered to decay by piecemeal," furthering disease (48). In selecting decomposition as a principal trope, Brown plays vividly on the term itself: in their "theatre[s] of disaster" (355), his fever novels stage decomposition as the body's unwriting, a Gothic play on the notion of body language. In _Ormond,_ the black vomit "testifie[s]" to Mary Whiston's "corroded and gangrenous stomach" (52). The "lineaments" written on Wallace's face in _Arthur Mervyn_ become "shadowy and death-like" (380). Bodies lose


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 471-503
Hello, Dude: Philology, Performance, and Technology in Mark Twain's _Connecticut Yankee_
Seth Lerer
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neutral word was needed. Phone greetings, culturally, are arbitrary. German _bitte,_ Italian _pronto,_ Spanish _bueno_--each culture confronts the problem differently, in these cases by adopting other words of politesse to telephonic social interaction. American English, by contrast, adopted the interjection _hello,_ etymologically, from _hallo_ or _halloa,_ a term of address among sailors between ships. This maritime metaphorics inflected more directly Alexander Graham Bell's own usage, and until the end of his life (in 1922) Bell is said to have answered the phone with a loud, "Ahoy," while Edison favored "hello." 14

fool?), the word's origin had to be placed in the realm of some indefinable Other, some landscape far away and foreign. 20 When the _Oxford English Dictionary_ volume for the letter D appeared in 1897 (under the title, as all the original volumes appeared, of the _New English Dictionary_), _dude_ was defined as: "A factious slang term which came into vogue in New York about the beginning of 1883, in connection with the 'aesthetic' craze of that day. Actual origin not recorded." The lexicography *[End Page 482]* practically drips with condescension here, and the citations in this first edition of the _Dictionary_ are recorded in such detail that they bear reproducing in full

themselves from the frippery of popular affect. Twain's uses of _dude_ in _Connecticut Yankee_ resonate with these philological debates, and they center on the qualities of costume, affectation, and questionable origin of the term. His dudes and dudesses are themselves performers on a stage of aristocratic pretension, people like those described in the _American_ of 1883 "who affect English dress and the English drawl." They are the kinds of people like the "dudes and dudesses of Vegas [who] are rehearsing for the opera," as the 1885 _Weekly New Mexican

a heavy blow. The phrase _love-tap_ shows up, for the first time, in _Connecticut Yankee.Head,_ meaning a "head of steam," appears, as do such other idiomatic terms as _nub_ (meaning the gist of a story), _put_ (as in the idiom "put in the time"), _pipe_ (to connote a way of speaking, as in "pipe up"), _scantling_ (a technical term for a piece of wood), _shadow_ (in the reference to the "shadow of Death"), and many others (see appendix for complete citations). Twain's use of these terms adds to the contemporary flavor of the novel, and


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 575-591
On Creating an Unusable Past
Robert Milder
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larger life of consciousness, of a _human_ nature, that even a skilled, empathetic biographer like Hodder cannot compartmentalize without distortion and loss. William James has a term, _over-belief,_ for the accretions of doctrine with which the religious seer subsequently clothes his vision to explain it to himself and others. To one degree or another each of the books discussed here suffers from excessive over-belief with the exception of Smith's, which needs more of it. This is a


_American Literary History_ 15.3 (2003) 443-470
Orestes Brownson in Young America: Popular Books and the Fate of Catholic Criticism
James Emmett Ryan <